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TABLE S-2 Criteria and Dietary Reference Intake Valuesa for Total Waterb

Life Stage Group

Criterion

0 through 6 mo

Average consumption of water from human milk

7 through 12 mo

Average consumption of water from human milk and complementary foods

1 through 3 y

Median total water intake from NHANES III

4 through 8 y

Median total water intake from NHANES III

9 through 13 y

Median total water intake from NHANES III

14 through 18 y

Median total water intake from NHANES III

> 19 y

Median total water intake from NHANES III

Pregnancy

 

14 through 50 y

Same as median intake for nonpregnant women from NHANES III

Lactation

 

14 through 50 y

Same as median intake for nonlactating women from NHANES III

aNo Tolerable Upper Intake Level is established; however, maximal capacity to excrete excess water in individuals with normal kidney function is approximately 0.7 L/ hour.

bTotal water represents drinking water, water in other beverages, and water (moisture) from food. See Table S-1 for the median percent of total water intake from beverages (including drinking water) and from foods reported in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994).

ounces; ≈ 9 cups) per day for 19- through 30-year-old men and women, representing ~ 81 percent of total water intake (Table S-1). Water contained in food provided ~ 19 percent of total water intake. Canadian survey data indicated somewhat lower levels of total water intake (Appendix F).

As with AIs for other nutrients, for a healthy person, daily consumption below the AI may not confer additional risk because wide ranges of intakes are compatible with normal hydration. In this setting, the AI should not be interpreted as a specific requirement. Higher intakes of total water will be required for those who are physically active or who are exposed to hot environments.

While over the course of a few hours body water deficits can occur due to reduced intake or increased water (sweat) losses from physi-



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