the fraction of the population with consistent intakes above the NOAEL or even the LOAEL.
Thus, the significance of the risk of excessive nutrient intake cannot be judged only by reference to Figure 3-4, but requires careful consideration of all of the above factors. Information on these factors is contained in this report’s sections describing the bases for each of the ULs.
Dourson ML, Stara JF. 1983. Regulatory history and experimental support of uncertainty (safety) factors. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 3:224–238.
FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization). 1982. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Twenty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series No. 683. Geneva: WHO.
FAO/WHO. 1995. The Application of Risk Analysis to Food Standard Issues. Recommendations to the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 95/9, Appendix 5). Geneva: WHO.
Health Canada. 1993. Health Risk Determination—The Challenge of Health Protection. Ottawa: Health Canada, Health Protection Branch.
Hill AB. 1971. Principles of Medical Statistics, 9th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J. 1986. Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan.
Mertz W, Abernathy CO, Olin SS. 1994. Risk Assessment of Essential Elements. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1993. Researching Health Risks. Washington, DC: Office of Technology Assessment.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1987. Principles for the Safety Assessment of Food Additives and Contaminants in Food. Environmental Health Criteria 70. Geneva: WHO.
WHO. 1996. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva: WHO.
Zielhuis RL, van der Kreek FW. 1979. The use of a safety factor in setting health-based permissible levels for occupational exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 42:191–201.