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TABLE 4-6 Summary of Daily Water Turnover Studies on Adults

Reference

Subjects

Conditions

Water Turnover (L/d)

Schloerb et al., 1950

17 men

11 women

Not reported

3.4 men

2.3 women

Fusch et al., 1996

11 men, 2 women

Before and after high-altitude trek of 4,900 to 7,600 m

3.3 before (combined)

5.5 after (combined)

Leiper et al., 1996

6 men (sedentary)

6 men (active)

Temperate

3.3 (sedentary < 60 min exercise/d)

4.7 (active)

Lane et al., 1997

13 male astronauts

Ground-based period

3.8

Blanc et al., 1998

8 men

Sedentary

Head-down bed-rest

3.5

3.2

Fusch et al., 1998

11 men

4 women

Temperate

5.7 (combined)

Leiper et al., 2001

6 men (sedentary)

6 men (active)

Temperate

2.3 (sedentary)

3.5 (active)

Ruby et al., 2002

8 men

9 women

Arduous wildfire suppression activity

7.3 men

6.7 women

Raman et al., 2004

66 men (40–49 yr)

58 men (50–59 yr)

56 men (60–69 yr)

49 women (40–49 yr)

48 women (50–59 yr)

Temperate

36 women (60–69 yr)

3.8 (free living)

3.6

3.6

3.3

3.0

2.9

repeated measurements with dilution methods make them impractical for routine assessment of TBW changes. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) has recently gained attention because it is simple to use and allows rapid, inexpensive, and noninvasive estimates of TBW. Absolute values derived from this technique correlate well with TBW values obtained by isotope dilution (Kushner and Schoeller, 1986; Kushner et al., 1992; Van Loan et al., 1995). These valida-



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