Food additive

“Any substance the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food…, if such substance is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by the scientific training and experience to evaluate its safety, as having been adequately shown through scientific procedures (or, in the case as a substance used in food prior to January 1, 1958, through either scientific procedures or experience based on common use in food) to be safe under the conditions of its intended use” (FD&C Act, Section 201(s))


GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

GMP

Good Manufacturing Practices

GRAS

Generally Recognized as Safe


Harm

The nature of the undesired outcome (usually a health outcome) associated with a hazard; often expressed in terms such as “cost”

Hazard

Some substance or combination of substances (organic or inorganic, or in some cases psychological) that may, under some circumstances and/or for some individuals, produce undesired health-related outcomes.

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HHS

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography


IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM

Immunoglobulin A, E, G, M

Infant formula

A food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk (FD&C Act, Section 201(z))

IOM

Institute of Medicine

IVH

Intraventricular hemorrhage


LC-MS

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

LC-PUFAs

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

LD50

Lethal dose for 50 percent of the animals used in a study

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

LSRO

Life Sciences Research Office


MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging


NHST

Null hypothesis significance test

Novel food

“(a) a substance, including a microorganism, that does not have a history of safe use as a food; (b) a food that has been manufactured, prepared, preserved or packaged by a process that (i) has not been previously applied to that food, and (ii) causes the food to



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