Furukawa M, Narahara H, Yasuda K, Johnston JM. 1993. Presense of platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase in milk. J Lipid Res 34:1603–1609.


Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman SL, Camargo CA Jr, Berkey CS, Frazier AL, Rockett HR, Field AE, Colditz GA. 2001. Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants. J Am Med Assoc 285:2461–2467.

Goldman AS, Chheda S, Garofalo R, Schmalstieg FC. 1996. Cytokines in human milk: Properties and potential effects upon the mammary gland and the neonate. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 1:251–258.

Grantham-McGregor SM, Fernald LC, Sethuraman K. 1999. Effects of health and nutrition on cognitive and behavioral development in children in the first three years of life. Part 1: Low birthweight, breastfeeding, and protein-energy malnutrition. Food Nutr Bull 20:53–75.


Halliwell B, Chirico S. 1993. Lipid peroxidation: Its mechanism, measurement, and significance. Am J Clin Nutr 57:715S–725S.

Hamosh M. 1988. Fat needs for term and preterm infants. In: Tsang RC, Nichols BL, eds. Nutrition During Infancy. Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus. Pp. 133–159.

Hanson LA, Carlsson B, Jalil F, Hahn-Zoric M, Hermodson S, Karlberg J, Mellander L, Khan SR, Lindblad B, Thiringer K, Zaman S. 1988. Antiviral and antibacterial factors in human milk. In: Hanson LA, ed. Biology of Human Milk. Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Vol. 15. New York: Raven Press. Pp. 141–157.

Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lonnerdal B, Dewey KG. 1993. Energy and protein intakes of breast-fed and formula-fed infants during the first year of life and their association with growth velocity: The DARLING Study. Am J Clin Nutr 58:152–161.

HHS/OWH (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Office on Women’s Health). 2000. HHS Blueprint for Action on Breastfeeding. Washington, DC: DHHS.

Howell RR, Morriss FH, Pickering LK, eds. 1986. Human Milk in Infant Nutrition and Health. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Humphrey J, Iliff P. 2001. Is breast not best? Feeding babies born to HIV-positive mothers: Bringing balance to a complex issue. Nutr Rev 59:119–127.

Hynes MA, Buck LB, Gitt M, Barondes S, Dodd J, Jessell TM. 1989. Carbohydrate recognition in neuronal development: Structure and expression of surface oligosaccharides and beta-galactoside-binding lectins. Ciba Found Symp 145:189–210.


IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1991. Nutrition During Lactation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Kling PJ. 2002. Roles of erythropoietin in human milk. Acta Paediatr Suppl 91:31–35.

Kreiter SR, Schwartz RP, Kirkman HN Jr, Charlton PA, Calikoglu AS, Davenport ML. 2000. Nutritional rickets in African American breast-fed infants. J Pediatr 137:153–157.

Kull I, Wickman M, Lilja G, Nordvall SL, Pershagen G. 2002. Breast feeding and allergic diseases in infants—A prospective birth cohort study. Arch Dis Child 87:478–481.


Lilja G, Dannaeus A, Fälth-Magnusson K, Graff-Lonnevig V, Johansson SGO, Kjellman N-IM, Öman H. 1988. Immune response of the atopic woman and foetus: Effects of high- and low-dose food allergen intake during pregnancy. Clin Allergy 18:131–142.

Lindmark-Mansson H, Akesson B. 2000. Antioxidative factors in milk. Br J Nutr 84:S103–S110.

Lonnerdal B, Hernell O. 1994. Iron, zinc, copper and selenium status of breast-fed infants and infants fed trace element fortified milk-based infant formula. Acta Paediatr 83:367–373.

LSRO (Life Sciences Research Office). 1998. LSRO report: Assessment of nutrient requirements for infant formulas. J Nutr 128:2059S–2293S.

Lucas A, Cole TJ. 1990. Breast milk and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Lancet 336:1519–1523.

Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ, Gore SM. 1994. A randomised multicentre study of human milk versus formula and later development in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child 70:F141–F146.

Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ. 1998. Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies and later intelligence quotient. Br Med J 317:1481–1487.


MacLean WC Jr, Benson JD. 1989. Theory into practice: The incorporation of new knowledge into infant formula. Semin Perinatol 13:104–111.

Maheshwari A, Lu W, Lacson A, Barleycorn AA, Nolan S, Christensen RD, Calhoun DA. 2002. Effects of interleukin-8 on the developing human intestine. Cytokine 20:256–267.

Mbori-Ngacha D, Nduati R, John G, Reilly M, Richardson B, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kreiss J. 2001. Morbidity and mortality in breastfed and formula-fed infants of HIV-1-infected women: A randomized clinical trial. J Am Med Assoc 286:2413–2420.

McCord JM. 1996. Effects of positive iron status at a cellular level. Nutr Rev 54:85–88.

Mestecky J, Blair C, Ogra PL, eds. 1990. Immunology of milk and the neonate. Adv Exp Med Biol 310:1–177.

Morrow-Tlucak M, Haude RH, Ernhart CB. 1988. Breastfeeding and cognitive development in the first 2 years of life. Soc Sci Med 26:635–639.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement