Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 187
Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: IV - Continuing Research Progress Terms and Abbreviations AER: air exchange rate Aerosol: a suspension of solid and/or liquid particles in a gas Attenuation factor: fraction of ambient particles to which humans are exposed Black carbon: a general term often used interchangeably with “elemental carbon” or “soot.” CAA: Clean Air Act CAPs: concentrated ambient particles CARB: California Air Resources Board CASAC: Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CEM: continuous emission monitor CFR: Code of Federal Regulations CO: carbon monoxide COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Criteria document: an encyclopedic document prepared by EPA with assistance from the larger scientific community that describes the characteristics and potential human-health and public-welfare effects of criteria pollutants Criteria pollutants: The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for certain pollutants known to be hazardous to human health and the public welfare (for example, damage to forests and degradation of atmospheric visibility). In addition, these pollutants should be ones whose presence in ambient air results from numerous or diverse mobile or stationary sources. EPA has identified and set standards to protect human health and welfare for six pollutants: ozone, carbon monoxide, particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide, lead, and nitrogen oxide. The
OCR for page 188
Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: IV - Continuing Research Progress term criteria pollutants derives from the requirement that EPA must describe the characteristics and potential health and welfare effects of these pollutants. It is on the basis of such criteria that NAAQS are set or revised. EC: elemental carbon EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPRI: Electric Power Research Institute FRM: federal reference method FTP: federal test procedure GAM: generalized additive model GLM: generalized linear model GIS: geographic information system HEI: Health Effects Institute HRV: heart rate variability IMPROVE: Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments MAPP: Multiple Air Pollutant Program Microenvironment: A three-dimensional space with a volume in which contaminant concentration is spatially uniform during some specific interval NAAQS: National Ambient Air Quality Standards NMHC: nonmethane hydrocarbon NH3: ammonia NMMAPS: National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study NO2: nitrogen dioxide NOx: oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2) NRC: National Research Council O3: oxygen OC: organic carbon PM: particulate matter PM0.1: particles less than 0.1 μm in aerodynamic diameter, called ultrafines PM2.5: particles less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, called fine particles PM10: particles less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter PM10-2.5: particles between 2.5 µm and 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, called coarse particles PM10+: particles greater than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (particles not assumed to be respirable) ROFA: residual oil fly ash SAB: EPA’s Science Advisory Board
OCR for page 189
Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: IV - Continuing Research Progress SO2: sulfur dioxide Staff paper: Prepared by EPA, the staff paper translates the scientific advances that are described in the criteria document into potential policy options, including possible revisions to the four elements of the NAAQS: pollutant indicator, averaging time, statistical form, and the level. STAR: Science to Achieve Results STN: speciation trends network Time-series study: epidemiological studies that evaluate associations between changes in health effects and changes in exposure indicators (for example, ambient PM concentrations) preceding or simultaneous with the observed outcome TSP: total suspended particles VOC: volatile organic compound
OCR for page 190
Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: IV - Continuing Research Progress This page intentionally left blank.
Representative terms from entire chapter: