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Space Stud ies Board Annnoll Report Aces NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES The National Academies Press Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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The Space Studies Board is a unit of the National Research Council which serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on scientific and technical questions of national importance. The National Research Council, jointly administered by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, brings the resources of the entire scientific and technical community to bear through its volunteer advisory committees. Support for the work of the Space Studies Board and its committees and task groups was provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract NASW-01001, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Contract 50-DGNA-1-90024 and Purchase Order No. 40-AA-NR-11138, NASA John C. Stennis Space Center Orders NS-7426 and NS-7570, Department of Transportation Order DTRS56-00-P-70077, National Science Foundation Grant ATM-0109283, Office of Naval Research Grant N00014-01-1-0753, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research Purchase Order FQ8671-0101168.

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From the Chair The year 2003 was among the most tumultuous in the history of the space program. It began with the tragic Columbia accident and ended with a new presidential policy for NASA and for human spaceflight in particular. These events greatly reinforce the necessity for the Space Studies Board and its committees and their numerous reports to offer reasoned advice as to how best to pursue the nation's space science program and all its applica- tions. This annual report summarizes the Board's activities and output for 2003. The year 2003 was also a year of transition on the Board, from the superb leadership of John McElroy to my stewardship, in addition to our normal turnover in membership. All those who have completed their service are deeply appreciated, as are all those who continue, for their ongoing commitment. Our expectations for 2004 are no less dramatic than our impressions from 2003. There is a certain excitement that the human spaceflight program will at last be revitalized, but tempered by the need to make this a true exploration program, founded on and pursued for science, with optimum choices for the use of humans and robots. And our excitement will be tempered also by the recognition that space and Earth science from space have flourished in recent years and that those successes should not be allowed to diminish. The Board, together with its committees and special task groups, will endeavor to continue the tradition documented in this annual report of giving wise and independent counsel, to define strategies and identify solutions to problems, and to look far enough ahead so that our future is protected by our actions in the present. We will try to focus on those problems with impacts that are large and will report on our success at this time next year. L.A. Fisk Chair Space Studies Board . . .

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Contents From the Chair 1 Charter and Organization of the Board Activities and Membership Summaries of Major Reports 3.1 Satellite Observations of the Earth's Environment: Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations, 40 Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions, 45 The Sun to the Earth and Beyond: Panel Reports, 51 4 Short Reports 4.1 Assessment of NASA's Draft 2003 Space Science Enterprise Strategy, 73 4.2 Assessment of NASA's Draft 2003 Earth Science Enterprise Strategy, 86 Congressional Testimony 5.1 Exploration of the Solar System in the Coming Decade, 99 5.2 Solar and Space Physics Research: The Coming Decade, 104 6 Cumulative Bibliography v . . . 111 6 40 73 99 108

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Space Supplies Boars! Chains Lloyd V. Berkner, Graduate Research Center, Dallas, Texas, 1958-1962 Harry H. Hess, Princeton University, 1962-1969 Charles H. Townes, University of California at Berkeley, 1970-1973 Richard M. Goody, Harvard University, 1974-1976 A. G. W. Cameron, Harvard College Observatory, 1977- 1981 Thomas M. Donahue, University of Michigan, 1982-1988 Louis J. Lanzerotti, American Telephone & Telegraph Co., Bell Labs, 1989-1994 Claude R. Canizares, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1994-2000 John H. McElroy, University of Texas at Arlington (retired), 2000-2003 Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan, 2003- Vl