ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES OF THE PLATTE RIVER

Committee on Endangered and Threatened Species in the Platte River Basin

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Water Science and Technology Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES OF THE PLATTE RIVER Committee on Endangered and Threatened Species in the Platte River Basin Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, DC www.nap.edu

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Grant 98210-3-G-483 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Fish and Wildlife Service and Bureau of Reclamation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Library of Congress Control Number 2004116614 International Standard Book Number 0-309-09230-2 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-53263-9 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River COMMITTEE ON ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES IN THE PLATTE RIVER BASIN WILLIAM L. GRAF (Chair), University of South Carolina, Columbia JOHN A. BARZEN, International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, WI FRANCESCA CUTHBERT, University of Minnesota, St. Paul HOLLY DOREMUS, University of California, Davis LISA M. BUTLER HARRINGTON, Kansas State University, Manhattan EDWIN E. HERRICKS, University of Illinois, Urbana KATHARINE L. JACOBS, University of Arizona, Tucson W. CARTER JOHNSON, South Dakota State University, Brookings FRANK LUPI, Michigan State University, East Lansing DENNIS D. MURPHY, University of Nevada, Reno RICHARD N. PALMER, University of Washington, Seattle EDWARD J. PETERS, University of Nebraska, Lincoln HSIEH W. SHEN, University of California, Berkeley JAMES ANTHONY THOMPSON, Willow Lake Farm, Windom, MN Staff SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Project Director LAUREN ALEXANDER, Program Officer NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor KELLY CLARK, Assistant Editor MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Research Associate BRYAN P. SHIPLEY, Research Associate LIZA R. HAMILTON, Program Assistant SAMMY BARDLEY, Library Assistant Sponsors U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BUREAU OF RECLAMATION FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Members JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD RAMON ALVAREZ, Environmental Defense, Austin, TX THOMAS BURKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD JUDITH C. CHOW, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV RORY B. CONOLLY, CIIT Center for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, NC COSTEL D. DENSON, University of Delaware, Newark E. DONALD ELLIOTT, Willkie, Farr & Gallagher, LLP, Washington, DC CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, CA WILLIAM H. GLAZE, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton SHERRI W. GOODMAN, Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, VA JUDITH A. GRAHAM, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA DANIEL S. GREENBAUM, Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, MA ROBERT HUGGETT, Michigan State University, East Lansing BARRY L. JOHNSON, Emory University, Atlanta, GA JAMES H. JOHNSON, Howard University, Washington, DC JUDITH L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens PATRICK Y. O’BRIEN, ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Company, Richmond, CA DOROTHY E. PATTON, International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, DC STEWARD T.A. PICKETT, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, Environ Corp., Arlington, VA ARMISTEAD G. RUSSELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta MITCHELL J. SMALL, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY KIMBERLY M. THOMPSON, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA G. DAVID TILMAN, University of Minnesota, St. Paul CHRIS G. WHIPPLE, Environ Incorporated, Emeryville, CA LAUREN A. ZEISE, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology ROBERTA M. WEDGE, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Program Officer EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD MEMBERS RICHARD G. LUTHY (Chair), Stanford University, Stanford, CA JOAN B. ROSE (Vice Chair), Michigan State University, East Lansing RICHELLE M. ALLEN-KING, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY GREGORY B. BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park KENNETH R. BRADBURY, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Madison, WI JAMES CROOK, Water Reuse Consultant, Norwell, MA EFI FOUFOULA-GEORGIOU, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis PETER GLEICK, Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security, Oakland, CA JOHN LETEY, JR., University of California, Riverside, CA CHRISTINE L. MOE, Emory University, Atlanta, GA ROBERT PERCIASEPE, National Audubon Society, Washington, DC JERALD L. SCHNOOR, University of Iowa, Iowa City LEONARD SHABMAN, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg R. RHODES TRUSSELL, Trussell Technologies, Inc., Pasadena, CA KARL K. TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, CT HAME M. WATT, Independent Consultant, Washington, DC JAMES L. WESCOAT, JR., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign SENIOR STAFF STEPHEN D. PARKER, Director LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Program Officer JEFFREY W. JACOBS, Senior Program Officer WILLIAM S. LOGAN, Senior Program Officer

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Air Quality Management in the United States (2004) Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004) Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004) Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003) Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002) Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002) The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (4 volumes, 2000-2004) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (4 volumes, 1998-2004) The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (5 volumes, 1989-1995) Review of EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 volumes, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River OTHER REPORTS OF THE WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD Managing the Columbia River: Instream Flows, Water Withdrawals, and Salmon Survival (2004) Review of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Upper Mississippi-Illinois Waterway Restructured Feasibility Study: Interim Report (2004) Review of the Desalination and Water Purification Technology Roadmap (2004) A Review of the EPA Water Security Research and Technical Support Action Plan (2004) Groundwater Fluxes Across Interfaces (2004) Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management (2003) Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments: Processes, Tools, and Applications (2003) Environmental Cleanup at Navy Facilities: Adaptive Site Management (2003) Review Procedures for Water Resources Planning (2002) Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experiences (2002) Opportunities to Improve the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program (2002) Predictability and Limits-to-Prediction in Hydrologic Systems (2002) Estimating Water Use in the United States: A New Paradigm for the National Water-Use Information Program (2002) Missouri River Ecosystem: Exploring the Prospects for Recovery (2002) Review of USGCRP Plan for a New Science Initiative on the Global Water Cycle (2002) Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management (2001) Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration (2001) Envisioning the Agenda for Water Resources Research in the Twenty-first Century (2001) Inland Navigation System Planning: The Upper Mississippi River-Illinois Waterway (2001) Investigating Groundwater Systems on Regional and National Scales (2000) Risk Analysis and Uncertainty in Flood Damage Reduction Studies (2000) Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution (2000)

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation (2000) Watershed Management for Potable Water Supply: Assessing the New York City Strategy (2000) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River SEDVEG: sediment-vegetation model USBR: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation USFWS: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service USGS: U.S. Geological Survey WBNP: Wood Buffalo National Park WUA: weighted usable area

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River Contents     SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   19 2   REGIONAL CONTEXT FOR WATER AND SPECIES   32      Geography,   33      Human Use of Platte River Basin,   34      Hydrological Changes,   38      Conflicts,   47      Groundwater,   50      Riparian Vegetation Changes,   58      General Species Responses to European Settlement,   63 3   LAW, SCIENCE, AND MANAGEMENT DECISIONS   73      Legal and Institutional Background,   74      Science and Uncertainty,   92      Water Management: Connecting Law and Science,   100      Lessons for the Platte From Other Water Conflicts,   105      Summary and Conclusions,   106 4   SCIENTIFIC DATA FOR THE PLATTE RIVER ECOSYSTEM   108      Science and Management Targets for Species,   109      Basic Connections in the Platte River Ecosystem,   112      A Model for River and Habitat Change,   134      The Platte River as an Ecosystem,   145      Summary and Conclusions,   150

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River 5   WHOOPING CRANE   155      Historical and Ecological Context,   155      Difficulties in Defining Critical Habitat for the Whooping Crane,   160      Current Databases,   162      Characteristics of Critical Habitat,   172      What do Whooping Cranes Gain from Central Platte Habitats?   176      Summary and Conclusions,   183 6   PIPING PLOVER AND INTERIOR LEAST TERN   186      Piping Plover,   187      Interior Least Tern,   209      Summary and Conclusions,   223 7   PALLID STURGEON   225      Species Distribution,   226      Reproduction and Population Trends,   229      Habitat Components Required for Survival,   230      Current Platte River Conditions,   234      Recovery of Pallid Sturgeon,   235      Importance of the Lower Platte River to Pallid Sturgeon,   237      Summary and Conclusions,   238 8   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   240      Committee’s Findings,   243      Summary,   256     REFERENCES   258     APPENDIXES     A:   Biographical Information on Committee Members   277 B:   Bird Species of Conservation Concern in Nebraska   287 C:   Confirmed Whooping Crane Sightings in Central Platte River Study Area, 1942-2003   291 D:   Input Data for Figures 5-6A and 5-6B   298

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River Boxes, Figures, and Tables BOXES S-1.   Statement of Task for the National Research Council,   5 S-2.   Governance Committee’s NAS Review Questions (October 31, 2002),   6 1-1.   Statement of Task,   27 1-2.   Governance Committee’s NAS Review Questions (October 31, 2002),   28 1-3.   Definitions of Terms Used in This Report,   29 2-1.   The Question of Presettlement Woodland Along the Central Platte River,   64 3-1.   Adaptive Management,   96 3-2.   Criteria for Assessing the Degree of Scientific Support for Decisions,   98 4-1.   Restoration for the Future Platte River,   111 FIGURES S-1.   General location and features of Platte River Basin, including its position across 100th meridian,   2 1-1.   South channel of central Platte River at Rowe Sanctuary near Kearney,   20 1-2.   General location and features of the Platte River Basin, including its position across 100th meridian,   21

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River 1-3.   Whooping crane,   23 1-4.   Piping plover,   24 1-5.   Interior least tern,   24 1-6.   Pallid sturgeon,   25 2-1.   General location and places of interest in Platte River Basin, including its position across 100th meridian,   33 2-2.   Landforms of Platte River Basin and nearby regions,   35 2-3.   Channel of Platte River showing its broad, shallow, braided nature,   36 2-4.   Portion of Platte River Basin as shown on Map of the Trans-Mississippi of the United States During the Period of the American Fur Trade as Conducted from St. Louis Between the Years 1807-1843,   37 2-5.   Kingsley Dam on North Platte River, completed in 1941, directly controls flows downstream through central Platte River,   40 2-6.   Cumulative storage in reservoirs, number of canals constructed, and selected stream gage periods in Platte River Basin,   41 2-7.   Schematic diagram showing distribution and connections among Platte River and various parts of its water-control infrastructure,   43 2-8.   Irrigation water from groundwater and surface water in Nebraska,   44 2-9.   Distribution of Nebraska corn harvest of 1996 (a typical year), showing acres harvested for grain, 1996, and importance of agriculture and corn production along Platte River,   44 2-10.   Distribution of irrigated corn production in 1997 (a typical year), showing irrigated corn for grain or silage by county, 1997, and prominence of Nebraska and Platte River,   45 2-11.   Central-pivot irrigation systems along central Platte River,   46 2-12.   Urban areas in Platte River Basin,   48 2-13.   Gothenburg, Nebraska, typical example of small cities along central and lower Platte River that are stable or growing in size and that serve rural agricultural areas,   49 2-14.   Fluctuations of groundwater levels, showing development of mound under region of central Platte River,   54 2-15.   Map of elevation of groundwater table in 1931 shown as contour surface,   55 2-16.   Map of elevation of groundwater table in 1995 shown as contour surface,   56 2-17.   View of Platte River near Cozad, Nebraska, showing conditions in 1866, about 20 years after extensive wood use by immigrants, soldiers, and railroad crews,   59 2-18.   View of riparian and channel woodlands on central Platte River, showing conditions in part of river in 2003,   60 2-19.   View of highly varied habitats on portion of central Platte River,   61

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River 2-20.   Reconstruction of predevelopment vegetation based on GLO plat maps and field notes (source of witness tree data) for two Platte River townships,   62 2-21.   Generalized annual migration from southern to northern latitudes,   72 3-1.   An example reach of the central Platte River with suitable habitat for whooping crane, piping plover, and least terns,   77 3-2.   Keystone Diversion on the North Platte River, upstream from the central Platte River, represents an example of an effectively irreversible feature of the watershed that has enduring effects on flows,   101 4-1.   Periods of stream-flow record from gaging stations in Platte River Basin,   116 4-2.   Daily stream-flow record for Platte River near Duncan, Nebraska, showing length of record and variability of flow,   118 4-3.   Photograph of central Platte River near 100th Meridian in vicinity of Cozad, Nebraska, in 1866,   120 4-4.   Central Platte River with associated water control infrastructure and places of interest mentioned in this report,   123 4-5.   Johnson-2 diversion on central Platte River, a feature that influences local distribution of flows in river and provides valuable irrigation water for,   125 4-6.   Aerial photographs from 1938 (left) and 1998 (right) of Platte River at Johnson-2 irrigation return site,   126 4-7.   Aerial photographs from 1938 (left) and 1998 (right) of Platte River at western edge of Cottonwood Ranch,   127 4-8.   Aerial photographs from 1938 (left) and 1998 (right) of Platte River immediately downstream of Kearney bridge crossing,   127 4-9.   Changes in channel width at various cross sections of Platte River as interpreted by T.R. Eschner on basis of GLO plat maps (1860s) and aerial photographs (1938 and later),   128 4-10.   Changes in channel width at various cross sections of the central Platte River as interpreted by C. Johnson on basis of aerial photography,   129 4-11.   Purple loosestrife, an introduced, nonnative species that aggressively occupies some niches along Platte River,   131 4-12.   Aerial photographs from 1938 (left) and 1998 (right) of Platte River at Audubon Rowe Sanctuary,   132 4-13.   Map of areas of habitat change in cover from 1986 to 1995 for reach of Platte River near Shelton, Nebraska,   133 4-14.   Aerial photographs from 1938 (left) and 1998 (right) of Platte River west of railroad bridge near Gibbon,   134

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River 4-15.   Schematic diagram of basic operations of Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) used by DOI agencies to specify connections among habitat characteristics, habitat preferences, and river discharges,   135 4-16.   Schematic example output of PHABSIM,   136 4-17.   Basic operations of Instream Flow Incremental Method (IFIM) used by DOI agencies to define recommended flow magnitudes, frequency, duration, and timing,   139 4-18.   Cleared area along central Platte River,   148 5-1.   Historical distribution of whooping cranes in North America,   156 5-2.   Distribution of whooping crane sightings in Nebraska,   158 5-3.   Map showing present (2003) home range of migrating whooping cranes and central position of Platte River, Nebraska,   159 5-4.   Available kill record locations in United States,   163 5-5.   Population numbers of the Aransas-Wood Buffalo Population (AWP) of whooping cranes, number of whooping crane sightings on the Platte River, Nebraska, and the number of sighting days (number of birds times number of days seen) on the Platte River, 1950 to 2002,   166 5-6.   (a) Number of whooping cranes sighted at Platte River divided by total number of birds in Aransas-Wood Buffalo population (AWP) of whooping cranes in same year (sightings ratio). (b) Number of whooping crane use-days (number of birds times number of days birds spent on Platte River) divided by AWP in same year (use-days ratio),   169 5-7.   Results of population viability analysis scenario 2,   182 6-1.   Sandy low bars along central Platte River serve as nesting areas for piping plovers and interior least terns,   189 6-2.   Sand mines along margin of central Platte River serve as nesting areas for piping plovers and interior least terns, but not as suitable as sand masses in river,   190 6-3.   Sandy shore of Lake McConaughy provides nesting areas for piping plovers and interior least terns when the reservoir is low enough to expose beaches,   191 6-4.   Piping plovers and interior least terns distribution in Niobrara, Loup, and Platte Rivers, Nebraska,   192 6-5.   Estimated piping plover (PP) and interior least tern (LT) population numbers represented in pairs during 1991, 1996, and 2001 breeding season for Nebraska, excluding Missouri River,   192 6-6.   Area of central Platte River channel near Shelton with many primary constituent elements for the piping plover,   194 6-7.   Portion of central Platte River channel near Shelton,   199 6-8.   Piping plover nesting locations along critical habitat section of central Platte, 1987-2003,   207

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River 7-1.   Map showing where pallid sturgeon had been caught in Missouri and Mississippi Rivers up to 1980,   227 7-2.   Map showing where pallid sturgeon had been caught in Platte River and its tributaries in 1979-2003,   228 7-3.   Locations of priority management areas 1-6 for recovery of pallid sturgeon,   235 TABLES 1-1.   Dates of Federal Listings Under Endangered Species Act for Threatened and Endangered Species in Central Platte River,   25 2-1.   Dams in the Platte River Basin,   39 2-2.   Proportions of Waterfowl Populations That Use Nebraska’s Rainwater Basin Area and Central Platte River Valley,   70 4-1.   Annual Mean Platte River Flows, cubic feet per second,   118 4-2.   Annual Flood Peaks in Platte River Basin (Flows with Return Interval of 1.5 Years), cubic feet per second,   119 4-3.   Species Instream-Flow Recommendations of USFWS for Central Platte River, Nebraska,   140 4-4.   Annual Pulse-Flow Recommendations of USFWS for Central Platte River, Nebraska,   141 4-5.   Peak-Flow Recommendations of USFWS for Central Platte River, Nebraska,   141 5-1.   Results of Scenario 3 Simulations,   182 6-1.   Habitat Characteristics Important to the Piping Plover,   196 6-2.   Summary Input for the Piping Plover PVA Initial Model,   203 6-3.   Migration Rates Among Piping Plover Populations,   203 6-4.   Summary Statistics from PVA Similar to that of Plissner and Haig (2000), with Nebraska Birds Separated into Platte and Loup and Niobrara Populations,   205 6-5.   Habitat Characteristics Important to the Interior Least Tern,   212 6-6.   Summary Input for Interior Least Tern PVA Initial Model,   219 6-7.   Some Parameter Values for California Least Tern PVA and Parameter Values from Platte River Data,   219 6-8.   Results of the Platte and Loup Habitat Removed Scenario PVAs, Varying Nest Failure Rate on Platte and Loup Rivers, and Removing Birds of Platte and Loup Rivers and Carrying Capacity (Fixed Dispersal Rate of Interior United States into Nebraska of 0.0005 and Between Nebraska Populations of 0.01),   221 6-9.   PVA Results for Single Platte and Loup River Population with Different Amounts of Immigration,   222 7-1.   Angler Reports of Pallid Sturgeon Catches from Platte and Elkhorn Rivers, Nebraska,   229

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River 7-2.   Depth Use of Pallid Sturgeon Documented with Telemetry,   231 7-3.   Mean Column Velocities and Bottom Velocities at Pallid Sturgeon Sites in Telemetry Studies,   232

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Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES OF THE PLATTE RIVER

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