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1 Introduction Animal exper~rnentation has been a part of biomedical and be- havioral research for several rn~lennia; experunents with animals were conducted in Greece over 2,0~)0 years ago. Many advances in medicine and in the understanding of how organism function have been the direct result of animal experimentation. Concern over the welfare of laboratory animals is also not new, as reflected in the activities of various animal welfare and antivivisec- tionist groups dating back to the nineteenth century. This concern has led to laws and regulations governing the use of animals in re- search and to various guides ant] statements of principle designed to ensure humane treatment and use of laboratory animals. HISTORICAL BAC1[GROUND Use of Animals m Research Some of the earliest recorded studies involving animals were performed by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), who revealed anatomical differences among animate by dissecting them (Rowan, 1984~. The Greek physician Galen (A.D. 12~199) maintained that experimen- tation led to scientific progress and ~ said to have been the first to conduct demonstrations with live animals~pecifically pigsa prac- tice later extended to other species and termed vivisection (Loew, 12

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INTROD UCTION 13 1982~. However, it was not until the sixteenth century that many exper~rnents on animals began to be recorded. In 1628, William Har- vey published his work on the heart and the movement of blood in animals (French, 1975~. In the 1800s, when France became one of the leading centers of experunental biology and medicine marked by the work of such scientists as Frangois Magendie in experimental physiology, Claude Bernard in experimental medicine, and Louis Pas- teur in microbiology and immunology investigators regularly used animals In biomedical research (McGrew, 1985~. Research in biology progressed at ~ increasing pace starting around 1850, with many of the advances resulting from exper~rnents involving animals. Helmholtz studied the physical and chemical ac- tivities associated with the nerve impulse; V~rchow developed the science of cellular pathology, which led the way to a more rational understanding of disease processes; Pasteur began the studies that led to immunization for anthrax and inoculation for rabies; and Koch started a long series of studies that would firmly establish the germ theory of disease. Lister performed the first antiseptic surgery in 1878, and Metchnikoff discovered the antibacterial activities of white blood cells in 1884. The first hormone was extracted in 1902. Ehrlich developed a chemical treatment for syphilis in 1909, and laboratory tissue culture began in 1910. By 1912, nutritional deficiencies were sufficiently weD understood to allow scientists to coin the word ~vi- tamin.~ ~ 1920, Banting and Best isolated insulin, which led to therapy for diabetes mellitus. After 1920, the results of science- based biological research and their medical applications follower] so rapidly and in such numbers that they cannot be catalogued here. Concerns ogres Anew Use The first widespread opposition to the use of animals in research was expressed in the nineteenth century. Even before this, however, concern had arisen about the treatment of farm animals. The first piece of legislation to forbid cruelty to animals was adopted by the General Court of Massachusetts in 1641 and stated that "No man shall exercise any tyranny or cruelty towards any brute creatures which are usually kept for man's user (Stone, 1977~. ~ England, Martin's Act was enacted in 1822 to provide protection for farm an- imals. ~ 1824, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) was founded to ensure that this act was observed. In 1865, Henry Bergh brought the SPCA idea to America (Turner, 1980~.

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14 USE OF LABORATORY ANIAf4LS He was motivated not by the use of animals in research but by the l-~Le"LllI=llL of norses gnat ne oDservea m czarist Russia. In the second] half of the nineteenth century, concerns for the welfare of farm animals expanded to include animals used in scientific research. The antivivisectionist movement In England, which sought to abolish the use of animals in research, became engaged in larger scale public agitation in 1870, coincident with the development of experimental physiology and the rapid growth of biomedical research. In 1876, a royal commission appointed to investigate vivisection issued a report that led to enactment of the Cruelty to Animab Act. The act did not abolish all anneal experimentation, ~ desired by the antivivisection movement. Rather, it required experimenters to be licensed by the government for ~~rimPnt.c t.h:3t. "r~r"~+r`~^A + cause pain in vertebrates. ;11 ~_A~_~_~ _ L ~ a 1 ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ___< ~ v ~~ Ad ~ ~~USA TV As animal experunentation increased in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century, animal sympathizers in this country also became alarmed. The first American antivivisectionist society was founded in Philadelphia in 1883, followed by the forma- tion of similar societies in New York in 1892 and Boston in 1895. Like their predecessors in England, these groups sought to abolish the use of animals in biomedical research, but they were far led prominent or influential than the major animal-protection societies, such as the American SPCA, the Massachusetts SPCA, and the American Humane Association (Turner, 1980~. Unsuccessful in its efforts toward! the end of the nineteenth cen- tury to abolish the use of laboratory animate (Cohen ~d Loew, 1984), the antivivisectionist movement decided In the early twenti- eth century. However, the animal welfare movement remained active, and in the 1950s and 1960s its increasing strength led to federal reg- ulation of animal experimentation. The Animal Welfare Act was passed In 1966 and amended in 1970, 1976, and 1985. Sirn~lar laws have been enacted in other countries to regulate the treatment of laboratory animals (Hampson, 1985~. Concern over the welfare of animals used in research has made itself felt in other ways. In 1963, the Animal Care Pane! drafted a document that is now known as the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Research Council, 1985a). As dis- cussed in Chapter 5, the Guide is meant to assist institutions in caring for and using laboratory animals in ways judged to be pros fessionally and humanely appropriate. Many professional societies and public and private research institutions have also issued guide-

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INTRODUCTION 15 lines ant! statements on the humane use of animals; for example, the American Physiological Society, the Society for Neuroscience, and the American Psychological Association. PRESENT SITUATION Despite the long history of concern with animal welfare, the treatment and use of experimental animate remain controversial. In recent years a great expansion of biomedical and behavioral research has occurred. Sunultaneously, there has been increased expression of concern over the use of animals in research. Wide publicity of several cases involving the neglect and misuse of exper~rnental anunals has sensitized people to the treatment of laboratory animals. Societal attitudes have also changed, as a spirit of general social concern and a strong belief that humans have sometunes been insensitive to the protection of the environment have contributed to an outlook in which the use of animate is a subject of concern. Of course, any mclifference to the suffering of animals properly gives rme to legitunate objections. From time to tune some few mem- bers of the scientific community have been found to mistreat or inad- equately care for research animals. Such actions are not acceptable. Maltreatment ~d improper care of animals used in research cannot be tolerated by the scientific establishment. Individuals responsible for such behavior must be subject to censure by their peers. Out of this concern that abuse be prevented, organizations have emerged to monitor how laboratory animals are being treated, and govern- ment agencies and private organizations have adopted regulations governing anunal cane and use. Discussions about laboratory animal use have also been influ- enced In recent years by the emergence of groups committed to a concept termed "animal rights. Some of these groups oppose all use of animals for human benefit and any experimentation that is not intended primarily for the benefit of the individual animals involved. Their view recognizes more than the traditional interdependent con- nections between humans and animals: It reflects a belief that an- im~s, like humans, have "inherent rights" (Regan, 1983; Singer, 19753. Their use of the term "rights in connection with animals departs from its customary usage or common meaning. In Western history and culture, frights refers to legal and moral relationships among

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~6 USE OF LABORATORY ANIMALS the members of a community of humans; it has not been applied to other entities (Cohen, 1986~. Our society does, however, acknowlecige that living things have inherent value. In practice, that value imposes an ethical obligation on scientists to minimize pain and distress in laboratory animate. Our society ~ influenced by two major strands of thought: the Jude>Christian heritage and the humanistic tradition rooted in Greek philosophy. The dominance of humans is accepted in both traclitions. The Jude - Christian notion of dominance ~ reflected in the passage in the Bible that states (Genesis I:26~: And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. However, the Jude - Christian heritage also insists that dominance be attended by responsibility. Power used appropriately must be used with the morality of caring. The uniqueness of humans, most philosophers agree, lies in our ability to make moral choices. We have the option to decide to dominate anneals, but we also have a mandate to make choices responsibly to comply with the obligations of stewardship. From tradition and practice it ~ clear that society accepts the idea of a hierarchy of species in its attitudes toward and its regulation of the relationships between humans and the other animal species. For example, animals as different as nonhuman primates, dogs, and cats are given special consideration as being ~closer" to humans ~d are treated differently from rodents, reptiles, and rabbits. Most individuals would agree that not aD species of animals are equal and would reject the contention of animal rights advocates who argue that it is "speciesism" to convey special status to humans. Clearly, humans are different, in that humans are the only species able to make moral judgments, engage in reflective thought, and communicate these thoughts. Because of this special status, humans have felt justified to use annals for food and fiber, for personal use, and in experimentation. As indicated earlier, however, these uses of animals by humane carry with them the responsibility for stewardship of the animals Several recent surveys have examined public opinion about the use of laboratory animals in scientific experimentation (Doyle Dane Bernbach, 1983; Media General, 1985; Research Strategies Corp., 1985~. Most of the people interviewed want to see medical research

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INTRODUCTION 17 continued, even at the expense of animate' lives. Beyond that, pew pie's thoughts about animal use depend on the particular species used and/or on the research problem being addressed. Almost all people support the experimental use of rodents. Support for the use of dogs, cats, and monkeys is less, and people clearly would prefer that rodents be used instead. Most people polled believe that animals used in research are treated humanely. The next two chapters examine the ways in which animals are used ~ the United States and the benefits that have been derived from the use of experunental animate. After a discussion of alter- native methods in the use of laboratory anunab (Chapter 4), the report discuses the regulatory issues surrounding animal use (Chaps ter 5) and the use of animals from pounds add shelters (Chapter 6~. Chapter 7 contains the committee's recommendations.