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Index A Abuse/~proper care of animals examples of, 84, 8~87 penalty for, 15 Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), 28-29 Alternatives to animal use agglutination, 4S cell/ti~sue cultures, 28, 32, 40, 4205 computer simulations/ mathematical models, 32, 38, 40, 44 definition, 38 enzyme immunoassay, 45 human tissues, 43 information services to reduce duplication of research, 5, 45-46, 51-52, 72, 87 invertebrates and nonmammalian species, 5, 32, 38, 39, 42, 45, 72 microorganisms, 40, 42, 45 in neuronal development studies, 32 in Nobel Prize-winning research, 39 noninva~ive human studies, 32 plailt5, 39 protocol refinements, 5, 38, 44, 73 radioimmunoassay, 45 98 recommendations on, 5, 72, 87 reduction in numbers of animals, 4-5, 25, 38, 44 unity in diversity principle, 3040 in toxicity testing, 4203, 44-46 in vitro techniques, 38, 43, 45 Alsheimer's disease, 34 American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, 53, 55 American Humane Association, 14 American Physiological Society, guidelines on use of animals, 15' 59 American Psychological Association, 15 Animal motels in AIDS research, 28-29 applicability to humans, 27 autoimmune disease, 40-41 in behavioral medicine, 35 hypertension, 31 invertebrates, 42 nonmammaIian vertebrates, 42 Animal rights, 15-16, 63, 81, 82, 85 Animal shelters, 64, 83 Animal Welfare Act amendments, 6, 49-50, 51

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INDE~f animal fighting prohibitions, 50, 51 animals covered by 6, 49, 50-51, 84 history, 14 penalties for violation, 50 protocol design requirements, 58 reporting requirements for animal use, 25, 4050 standards for care, 6, 51-53, 70 transportation restrictions, 50 Antivivisectionist movement, 12, 14 Autoimmune disease, 4041 B Benefits of animal use AIDS research, 4, 28-29 to animals, 4, 2030, 3~37 cardio~rascular-renal studies, 3, 31-32 to humans, 3, 13, 27, 28-36, 4001, 48, 6506, 69 in immunology, 3, 29 life expectancy increases in humans, 3, 27 memory research, 4, 34 in nenrous system studies, 4, 32-35 in organ tr~spl~tation, 3, 2031 in pain management research, 35 polio research, 3 4, 28 pound Animals, 65-66 propagation of endangered species, 36-37 syphilis treatment, 48 sec also Animal models Biotechnology, effects on patterns of animal use, 25-26, 43 Birds benefits of animal research to, 36-37 number used in research, 21 reporting requirements of research use of, 19 C Cardio~rascular-renal studies, 3, 31-32 Cats and dogs in AIDS research, 29 benefits of research to, 36 biotechnology use of, 25 99 in cardiova~cular-renal studies, 31-32, 66 costs of, 61, 82 in nervous system research, 32-33, 66 number of pets, 18 number used in research, 18, 20 in organ transplant research, 30 public opinion on use of, 17 In teaching, 59 Derision studies, 33, 66 sec also Pound animals Consumer Product Safety Commission legal authority for toxicity testing with annals, 23 patterns of animal use, 23 Educational use of animals by federal government, 22, 23 importance, 23 number of animals, 2, 18, 23 Environmental Protection Agency Good Laboratory Practices regulations, 7, 55 legal authority for toxicity testing with animals, 23 patterns of animal use, 23 p Farm animals benefits of research to, 36 freemartin cattle, 29 legislation protecting, 13-14, 49 reporting requirements of research use of, 19 F`ood ant Drug Administration, 7, 23, 55-56 Food Ad fiber uses of animals, 2, 18 G Guide for the Care and Uac of Lobor~o~ Arumals cost of implementing standards, 60 history, 07, 53-54 purpose, 7, 14, 53, 57, 70 recommended review of, 8, 70 regulatory force of 7-8, 54, 57, 70

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00 H Hierarchy of species, 16 I Insects, genetic studies, 5, 42 Institute for Laboratory Animal Resources, 2, 19 Intermediary metabolism, 39-40, 43 Korsakoff's syndrome, 34 L Legal protection of animals Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act of 1986, 48 anticruelty, 14, 56 Cruelty to Animals Act, 14 in England, 13, 14 Food Security Act of 1985, 51 Health Research Extension Act, 7, 51, 54 historical background, 13-15 Humane Slaughter Act, 49 Improved Standards for Laboratory AnimaLs Act, 6, 51-53, 70 Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966, 49, 53, 62 Martin's Act, 13 Twenty-Eight Hour Law, 49 sec alto Animal Welfare Act; G=dc for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals; Regulation; Regulations M Mammals alternatives to, 28, 32, 3800, 4104 human emotional attachment to, 42 Memory research, 34 Monoclonal antibodies, 25, 3~)-31 Myasthenia gravis, 40-41 N National Academy of Sciences 1896 opinion on eEects of restrictive legislation, 91-94 INDEX National Aeronautics ant Space Administration patterns of animal use, 23 Nervous system studies behavior, 32-35 movement and function, 32-33 in nonmammalian vertebrates, 40~1, 42 visual cortex, postnatal development, 33 New York Academy of Science, 48 o Occupational Safety ant Health Administration, 23 Organ transplantation, 3, 29, 30 p Pain/suffering degree of, in animal research, 86 protocol refinements for reducing, 38, 72 regulatory measures for reducing, 52-53, 56, 59 research classifications based on, 48-49 studies in animals, 35 Pets/companiom legal protection of, 49 number of animals, 18 Polio, 3-4, 28 Pound animals benefits to humane, 65-66 concerns for, 6~67 cost considerations, 61, 66, 82 emotional attachment issue, 48 recommended use of, 10, 73 regulation of, 010, 56, 65, 66 67 72-73, 81 scientific considerations in use of, 10, 65 supply, 64~5 Primates (nonhuman) biotechnology use of, 25 costs of, 61 memory studies, 34 number used in research, 18, 20, 84 public opinion on use of, 17 rhesus monkeys, 28-29

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INDEX Derision studies, 33 Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 7, 51, 60~2 policy on laboratory "imale, 54-56 Public opinion on animal experimentation, 15, 1017 R Rabbits biotechnology use of, 25 number used in research, 20, 41 toxicity testing with, 24 Regulation accreditation of research institutions, 55 approaches, 4709 benefits to animals, 62 committee review of animal care, 6, 51, 52, 5055, 58, 82 cost effects of, 60 62, 73, 82, 83 education and training effects of, 59 emotional attachment to animals, 48 of facilities for animals, 09, 55, 58, 60, 82, 83 granting agency approach to, 57-58 inspection of study areas, 6, 52, 57, 62~3, 71, 8~87 licensing of experimenters, 14, 56 National Academy of Sciences 1896 opinion on, 91-94 of Pam and distress in animals, 4809, 52-53 pound animals, 9-10, 56, 65, 6067, 72-73, 81 protocol review, 7, 8, 58, 82 recommendations on, 9, 6073 record keeping, 55 research effects of, 58, 60, 69, 81, 83 of school-level experimentation, 56 self-regulation, 8, 57, 58-59 of standards of care, 50, 55 stringency based on evolutionary relationship to humans, 48 of transportation, 49 value-of-research issue in, 47-48 veterinarians as regulators, 82-83 101 Regulations enforcement of, 52, 57, 62~3 federal, 4053; Cc ado Legal protection of animals federal policy statements, 7, 53-54 Good Laboratory Practices, 7, 55-56 penalties for violation oh 6, 8, 50, 52, 57, 63 requiring animal use in toxicity testing, 5, 23, 46 state, 10, 56 sec alto Legal protection of animals Research use of animals alternatives to use of mammals, 41~4 anesthetization, 19, 31, 35, 67, 73, 93 behavioral, 18 committee review of, 51, 52, 54 costs of, 4, 60 62 essentiality, 1, 18, 40 experimental procedures with supportive care, 18 facilities, recommendations, 71 by federal government, 22-23, 26 history of, 12-13 information services to reduce duplication of research, 4506, 51-52 neglect and abuse in, 84, 8~87 in Nobel Pr~ze-winning retie arch, 39 number, 18, 1022 organ transplantation, 18 protocol review, 58 reporting requirements, 19, 25, 26, 49-50 sec alto Toxicity testing Rodents advantages in use of, 39 memory studies, 34 number used in research, 18, 20, 25, 26, 41 in organ transplant research, 29-30 public opinion on use of, 17 reporting requirements of research use of, 19, 24-25 toxicity -testing with, 24-25 transgenic mice, 26

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102 S Safety testing of medical equipment and devices, 4, 31-32, 33 Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 48 Society for Neuroscience, guidelines of use of animals, 15, 59 Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, historical background, 13-14 Society of Toxicology, 59 Speciesism, 16 Swine, 12, 25 T Toxicity testing acute toxicity tests, 24, 26, 44 alternative methods in, 44-48, 72 biological screening tests, 24, 26, 45 carcinogenicity tests, 24, 26, 45 cell and tissue culture use in, 42-45 developmental and reproductive toxicity tests, 24, 26, 45 eye and skin irritation tests, 24, 26, 44 by federal government, 22, 23 immunosuppressive agents, 30 information services to reduce duplication of research, 4S - 6, 51-52, 72 legal requirements for use of animals in, 23, 46 INDEX mutagenicity tests, 24, 26, 45 neurotoxicity tests, 24, 26, 45 number of animals used in, 2, 18, 24-25, 26 procedures, 18-19, 26 recommendations on, 72 repeated-dose chronic toxicity tests, 24, 26, 45 U Universality of the cell theory, 39 Universality of the genetic code, 40 U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 2, 19, 71 patterns of animal use, 22 U.S. Government, patterns of animal use, 22 U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training, ~5 V vision research, 33-34 Vivisection, 12-13 A Yeast, 42, 45