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Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance E Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers Kenneth M.Baldwin, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics in the College of Medicine at the University of California, Irvine. His laboratory research focuses on the impact of activity patterns and exercise regimens on the biochemical and physiological properties of cardiac and skeletal muscle in mammals. Of primary interest is how the effects of these various activities are translated into biochemical events that lead to alterations in protein expression in muscle. As a corollary to these experiments, Dr. Baldwin’s group, in conjunction with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), recently sent rats on a Space Shuttle mission to study the effects of weightlessness on skeletal muscle. Recently he received the NASA Public Service Medal and the American Physiological Society Edward Adolph Award. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa in exercise physiology. Gary K.Beauchamp, Ph.D., received his B.A. in biology from Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota, in 1965 and his Ph.D. in biopsychology from the Pritzker School of Medicine of The University of Chicago in 1971. He then went to the newly established Monell Chemical Senses Center, a nonprofit, basic research institute loosely affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania, as a postdoctoral fellow. He has remained at Monell since that time and is currently director of the Center. He is also an adjunct professor of anatomy in the School of Veterinary Medicine and an adjunct professor of psychology in the School of Arts and Sciences of the University of Pennsylvania. His research interests include genetics of chemosensation, development and aging of taste and smell, taste interactions, and the role of smell and taste in food and beverage choice and acceptance. During his research career, he has authored or coauthored over 250 original research papers, book chapters, and review articles. Among his awards are the Claude Pepper Award of Excellence from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), National Institutes of Health (NIH) (1990–1997) and the Outstanding Achievement in the Chemical Senses Award in 1999 from the Association for Chemoreception Sciences. He
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Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance currently serves on numerous advisory bodies and is a member of the NIDCD Advisory Council and the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Wine and Food, The Ambrose Monell Foundation, and The G.Unger Vetlesen Foundation. John A.Caldwell, Jr., Ph.D., is the principal research psychologist with the Warfighter Fatigue Countermeasures Program at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. He has published over 80 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and laboratory technical reports. He frequently lectures at safety briefings and scientific symposia, and he conducts operationally-focused workshops on fatigue countermeasures for aviators and industrial personnel. He is a member of the National Sleep Foundation’s Speakers Bureau and Science Advisory Council, and he frequently consults with various organizations on the effects of fatigue on pilots and methods for overcoming the adverse impact of fatigue in the aviation environment. Dr. Caldwell received his Ph.D. in experimental psychology in 1984 from the University of Southern Mississippi. In 1983 he became the assistant director of the Behavioral Medicine Laboratory at Children’s Hospital National Medical Center in Washington, D.C., where he spent 3 years. Afterwards, he spent 16 years with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) conducting studies on methods of aviator status monitoring and on the effects of medications on aviator performance in specially-instrumented flight simulators and aircraft. In August 2002 he transferred to the Air Force Research Laboratory at Brooks. The focus of his research is to fully understand the effects of sleep deprivation on pilots and to develop monitoring methodologies and fatigue countermeasures for use in the operational aviation environment. Key accomplishments have included the first-ever controlled aviator flight-performance evaluations of the efficacy of dextroamphetamine and modafinil for sustaining performance and the completion of several unique protocols investigating the feasibility of real-time monitoring of aviator physiological activity in flight. Kong Y.Chen, Ph.D., is a research assistant professor in the Department of Medicine of Vanderbilt University. He also serves as the director of the Energy Balance Core Laboratory. His areas of expertise include advanced designs and modeling techniques of biomedical engineering and developing new methods and improving existing techniques for measuring human energy metabolism, body composition, and physical activity. Dr. Chen is a member of the American Gastroenterology Association, the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, and the American College of Sports Medicine. He was the Young Investigator of the Year for the Vanderbilt Clinical Nutrition Research Center for two consecutive years (1999, 2000) and served as a reviewer for numerous journals. His research is funded by NIH, the Department of Defense, other government agencies, and private nonprofit foundations.
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Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance Giovanni Cizza, M.D., Ph.D., is an endocrinologist who works as a senior staff physician at the National Institute of Mental Health, Clinical Neuroendocrinology Branch, Mood and Anxiety Program. He is also an adjunct scientist at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland. Between 1996 and 1999, Dr. Cizza worked as associate director in clinical research, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, in Rahway, New Jersey. An author and lecturer on the medical consequences of depression, including osteoporosis and metabolic alterations, neuroendocrinology of aging, the physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its relationships with the leptin axis, Dr. Cizza coedited the book Stress: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications, and he authored several articles in medical journals, such as the Annals of Internal Medicine, Journal of Clinical Investigation, Nature Medicine, Endocrinology, and the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Awards include the Late Breaking Clinical Trial Symposium at the Endocrine Society in 1999, the Henry Christian Award from the American Federation for Clinical Research, the New Investigator Award for the Neurosciences from the American Geriatric Society, and two Trainee Investigator Awards at Clinical Research Meetings. Dr. Cizza is a member of the Endocrine Society, the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, and the Society for Neurosciences. Dr. Cizza holds a medical degree from Pisa University School of Medicine, Italy, and a Ph.D. in experimental pathology from the same university. His training in clinical endocrinology was both at Pisa University School of Medicine and at the Interinstitute Endocrine Program of NIH. He also attended a 3-year postgraduate program in clinical pharmacology at the Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research in Milano, Italy. Dr. Cizza’s current research interests include the medical consequences of depression, the development of a novel pharmacological treatment, a CRH type-1 antagonist for depression and anxiety disorders, prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and related diseases of bone metabolism. William J.Evans, Ph.D., is the director of the Nutrition, Metabolism, and Exercise Laboratory in the Donald Reynolds Department of Geriatrics at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and a research scientist in the Geriatric Rehabilitation, Education, and Clinical Center at the VA Medical Center. He is a professor of geriatrics, physiology, and nutrition. From 1993 to 1997 he was the director of the Noll Physiological Research Center at the Pennsylvania State University, and from 1982 to 1993 he served as the chief of the Human Physiology Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American College of Nutrition and an honorary member of the American Dietetic Association. Dr. Evans is the author or coauthor of more than 190 publications in scientific journals. Much of his research has examined the functional and metabolic consequences of physical activity in elderly people. Along with Irwin Rosenberg, M.D., he is the author of Bio-
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Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance markers: The Ten Determinants of Aging You Can Control and has recently authored AstroFit. He receives grant support from a variety of sources, including NIH, the Veterans Administration, NASA, and private industry. Ongoing research in the Nutrition, Metabolism, and Exercise Laboratory is examining the effects of a low protein diet and exercise on renal function, body composition, and functional capacity in elderly men and women with chronic renal failure, effects of exercise on fatigue in anemic cancer patients, effects of physical activity and diet on insulin action in elderly people, and the etiology of late life dysfunction. He has been an associate editor for Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise and Journal of Gerontology and is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Dr. Evans serves as a reviewer for more than ten journals and has been a reviewer of grants for the American Federation for Aging Research, NIH, NASA, and the Veterans Administration. Karl E.Friedl, Ph.D., is the research area manager for the Army Operational Medicine Research Program at USAMRMC, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Prior to this assignment, he was an Army research physiologist in the Occupational Physiology Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), where he specialized in physical and biochemical limits of prolonged, intensive military training. Previously, LTC Friedl worked in the Department of Clinical Investigation at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington, performing studies in endocrine physiology. He received his Ph.D. in physiology in 1984 from the Institute of Environmental Stress at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Reed W.Hoyt, Ph.D., is a research physiologist at USARIEM, Natick, Massachusetts. Dr. Hoyt received his Ph.D. in biomedical sciences from the University of New Mexico in 1981 and was a postdoctoral fellow and a research assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania before joining USARIEM in 1986. He is a member of the American Physiological Society, Sigma Xi, the American Institute of Nutrition, and the American Society of Clinical Nutrition. He is a recipient of the American Physiological Society Caroline tum Suden Professional Opportunity Award for Meritorious Research on Exercise and Energy Metabolism and the Department of the Army Superior Civilian Service Award. He has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Applied Physiology, has published over 40 scientific articles, and holds five patents. He is interested in using new methods to understand the effects of exercise and environmental extremes on the metabolic and thermal status of soldiers in the field. Michael Kleerekoper, M.D., received his medical training at the University of Sydney, Australia. After completing a fellowship in endocrinology and metabolism at Washington University-St. Louis, he joined the faculty at Henry Ford Hospital and began his research in the area of bone and endocrinology. In 1993
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Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance he joined Wayne State University in the endocrinology section of the Department of Internal Medicine. He serves as the director of research for the areas of bone and mineral metabolism and gerontology for the School of Medicine. Dr. Kleerekoper is a member of the Institute for Gerontology. David C.Klonoff, M.D., F.A.C.P., is a practicing endocrinologist. He is interested in new technology for diabetes, including noninvasive glucose monitoring, drug delivery systems, medical economics of interventions, and pharmacology of diabetes drugs. Dr. Klonoff is a clinical professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and editor-in-chief of the peer-reviewed journal, Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. As medical director of the Dorothy L. and James E.Frank Diabetes Research Institute of Mills-Peninsula Health Services in San Mateo, California, he conducts clinical trials of drugs and devices. Dr. Klonoff has authored over 60 publications. He has chaired or served on grant review panels for NIH, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), NASA, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (JDRFI), the U.S. Army, and the University of Michigan. Dr. Klonoff has given invited presentations at the Food and Drug Administration, NIH, CDC, and nine U.S. medical schools. He was named best endocrinologist in San Mateo County by Bay Area Consumer Checkbook. Dr. Klonoff is a graduate of University of California, Berkeley, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in his junior year, and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Medical School, where he was elected to Alpha Omega Alpha in his junior year. He completed two years of postgraduate training at UCLA Hospital and three years at UCSF hospitals. Dr. Klonoff founded the annual Diabetes Technology Meeting in 2001. Dr. Klonoff chaired the JDRFI/NASA Bioartificial Pancreas Meeting and the NASA Smart Medicine/Clinical Studies Grant Review Panel. Dr. Klonoff is a member of the U.S. Army Technologies for Metabolic Monitoring (TMM) Steering Committee and was scientific chair of the TMM meeting in 2002 in Washington, D.C. and was on the Scientific Sessions Planning Committee for the American Diabetes Association 2003 meeting in New Orleans. Wendy M.Kohrt, Ph.D., is a professor of medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (UCHSC) in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, in Denver. She also holds an adjunct appointment in the Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder. Dr. Kohrt’s research interests include aging, exercise, regional adiposity, energy metabolism, and hormone replacement. She is a member of the NIH Geriatric and Rehabilitative Medicine study section; the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Strategic Health Initiative for Women, Sport, and Physical Activity Committee; the UCHSC Hartford/Jahnigen Center of Excellence in Geriatrics Advisory Board; the Executive Committee, Center for Human Nutrition, UCHSC; and the editorial board of the Journal of Applied Physiology. Dr. Kohrt is the editor of the Yearbook of Sports Medicine. She re-
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Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance ceived her M.S. and Ph.D. in the field of exercise physiology at Arizona State University, Tempe. Harris R.Lieberman, Ph.D., is a research psychologist in the Military Nutrition Division of USARIEM in Natick, Massachusetts. Dr. Lieberman is an internationally recognized expert in the area of nutrition and behavior and has published over 100 original, full-length papers in scientific journals and edited books. He has been an invited lecturer at numerous national and international conferences, government research laboratories, and universities. He received his Ph.D. in physiological psychology from the University of Florida and then conducted postdoctoral research at the Department of Psychology and Brain Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). From 1980 to 1990 he was on the research staff at MIT, where he examined the effects of food constituents and drugs on human behavior and brain function. In 1990 Dr. Lieberman joined the civilian research staff of USARIEM where he has continued his work in nutrition, behavior, and stress. From 1994 to 2000 he was chief or deputy chief of the Military Nutrition program at USARIEM. His recent research has addressed the effects of various nutritional factors, diets, and environmental stress on animal and human performance, brain function, and behavior. His work has focused on developing and applying a variety of emerging technologies in nutrition, neuroscience, and microelectronics to sustain and enhance human performance in stressful environments. He holds two patents for novel technologies to assess and enhance cognitive performance. Dr. Lieberman currently chairs an International Defense Panel on Cognitive and Ergogenic Aids. Bradley C.Nindl, Ph.D., is a research physiologist in the Military Performance Division at USARIEM in Natick, MA. Dr. Nindl received a B.S. in biology from Clarkson University in 1989, an M.S. in physiology of exercise from Springfield College in 1993, and a Ph.D. in physiology from The Pennsylvania State University in 1999. Dr. Nindl served as a captain in the U.S. Army Medical Service Corps at USARIEM from 1999–2002. His lines of research are centered on endocrine, body composition, and physical performance responses to both exercise and military operational stress. Dr. Nindl’s current work involves measuring the insulin-like growth factor-I system in response to longitudinal physical training as it relates to optimizing warfighter physical readiness for MRMR Science and Technology S: Physical Training Interventions to Enhance Military Task Performance and Reduce Musculoskeletal Injuries. Dr. Nindl is an author or coauthor of 70 journal articles, book chapters, and government technical reports. He is a member of ACSM, the American Physiological Society, The Endocrine Society, and the National Strength and Conditioning Association. He is on the editorial board of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise and The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research and on the executive committee of the New England chapter of ACSM. Dr. Nindl was a recipient of the 2002 American College of Sports Medicine New Investigator Award.
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Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance Clifford J.Rosen, M.D., is the executive director at the Maine Center for Osteoporosis Research and Education at St. Joseph Hospital in Bangor, Maine; a staff scientist at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine; and a professor of nutrition at the University of Maine, Orono. He is currently the president of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research, editor-in-chief of the Journal of Clinical Densitometry, and chairman of the NIH Study Section OBM-2. Dr. Rosen has published over 180 peer-reviewed journal articles and authored, coauthored, or edited over 20 books and chapters. He received his M.D. from the State University of New York at Syracuse, Upstate Medical Center. Michael N.Sawka, Ph.D., is chief, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division at USARIEM. He directs Department of Defense research programs in: cold stress physiology, heat stress physiology, high altitude physiology, environmental pathophysiology, and environmental genomics. He received a B.S. and an M.S. from East Stroudsburg University, and a Ph.D. from Southern Illinois University. Dr. Sawka’s research interests are environmental and exercise physiology and rehabilitation medicine. He has published over 250 full-length scientific papers and a graduate textbook on environmental physiology. His research has been frequently cited by the national news media and he serves on numerous editorial boards, scientific review panels, and professional committees. T.Peter Stein, Ph.D., is a professor of surgery and nutrition at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. His expertise is in the areas of clinical nutrition and protein and energy metabolism during space flight. Dr. Stein was a cowinner of the American Institute of Aviation and Astronautics Jeffries Medical Research Award in 1992 for his work on Spacelab Life Sciences-1. Memberships include the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Institute of Nutrition, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, the American Physiological Society, the American Chemical Society, and the American Society for Gravitational Physiology. Dr. Stein received a B.Sc. from the Imperial College of Science and Technical University of London, an M.Sc. (biochemistry) from University College, University of London, and a Ph.D. (molecular biology/chemistry) from Cornell University. Julian F.Thayer, Ph.D., received a B.A. in psychology from Indiana University and his Master’s and Ph.D. from New York University. After academic positions at Penn State University and the University of Missouri, he joined the National Institute on Aging to initiate a program on emotions and quantitative psychophysiology. His research interests are biological and psychological adaptation and flexibility in the context of dynamical systems models with applications to psychopathology, pathophysiology, and health. This work utilizes indices of autonomic nervous system function derived from cardiac variability measures to probe whole organism systems.
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Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance Nancy J.Wesensten, Ph.D., is a research psychologist and deputy chief of the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Division of Neuropsychiatry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Washington, D.C. She received her Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Bowling Green State University, specializing in electroencephalographic indices of decision-making and psychophysiological responsivity to external stimuli across sleep stages. At WRAIR, her focus has been on determining fieldability of sleep-inducing agents (via evaluation of their hypnotic and amnestic effects) (in collaboration with Lorex Pharmaceuticals), and whether fieldability can be improved by amelioration of hypnotic side effects using reversal agents. More recently, she conducted studies to evaluate the efficacy and fieldability of the novel synthetic stimulant modafinil on performance and alertness during sleep deprivation (in collaboration with Cephalon, Inc.) compared with caffeine. These lines of research are aimed at determining the role of various neurotransmitter systems in sleep/wake regulation in order to produce more effective countermeasures for military use. Dr. Wesensten was a coinvestigator on a recently completed, large-scale study funded by the Federal Highway Administration in which the chronic effects of different amounts of nighttime sleep on daytime performance (including simulated driving) were evaluated. Her other research efforts include an on-going collaborative effort with NIH investigating regional cerebral blood flow changes during the various stages of sleep and wakefulness and a collaborative effort with USARIEM, which investigated hypnotic efficacy of triazolam on sleep and degradation of electroencephalographic indices of cognitive capacities at simulated high altitude. Peter G.Weyand, Ph.D., is physiologist and biomechanist who specializes in terrestrial locomotion. His primary research focus is the relationship between skeletal muscle function, metabolic energy expenditure, and performance. Dr. Weyand is currently an assistant professor of kinesiology at Rice University. He is also a research physiologist at Harvard University’s Concord Field Station, a large-animal facility specializing in animal locomotion, and formerly served as a senior research fellow at USARIEM. Dr. Weyand combines his research and teaching interests by involving numerous undergraduate students in his research program. To date, student work has been published in Nature, the Journal of Experimental Biology, and the Journal of Applied Physiology. Past courses taught include Harvard biology classes entitled “Muscles, Metabolism and Movement” and “See Spot Run.” In 1996, he received Harvard University’s Joseph E.Levenson Award for excellence in undergraduate teaching. Dr. Weyand received his Ph.D. in exercise physiology from the University of Georgia. Robert R.Wolfe, Ph.D., is a professor and chief of metabolism at the Shriners Hospital for Children-Galveston and The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston. His research focuses on the physiological regulation of metabolism. He has made extensive use of stable isotope methodology in his investigations
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Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance of human subjects. He has served on numerous national and international committees, including NIH study sections and advising committees to NASA, the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, and several research councils of foreign countries. Dr. Wolfe has published over 300 peer-reviewed papers and 90 review articles and text chapters. Andrew J.Young, Ph.D., is a research physiologist and chief of the Military Nutrition Division at USARIEM in Natick, Massachusetts, and an adjunct associate professor in the Sargent College of Allied Health Professions at Boston University. He obtained his B.S. in biology and his commission in the U.S. Army at the Virginia Military Institute, and his Ph.D. in physiology at the North Carolina State University. Following graduate school, Dr. Young served six years on active duty in the U.S. Army with assignments at USARIEM (1977–1981) and at WRAIR (1981–1983). After leaving active duty, Dr. Young continued government service as a civilian scientist at USARIEM. Dr. Young’s research has concerned the biological basis for, and strategies to mitigate, physical performance degradations in military personnel exposed to physiological stressors, such as intense physical exertion coupled with sleep restriction, nutritional deprivation, and exposure to extremes of heat, cold, and high altitude, all of which could be expected during continuous or sustained military operations. Dr. Young is a graduate of the Command and General Staff Officer’s Course and has been awarded the Army Commendation Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, the Department of the Army Achievement Medal for Civilian Service, and the Expert Field Medical Badge. He is a member of the American Physiological Society, a fellow of ACSM, and has published over 100 scientific papers in peer-reviewed professional journals, government technical reports, and other open literature.
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