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1 Summary 1.1 A SINGLE AGENCY Mapping, charting, geodesy, and surveying are fundamental services and sup- port programs that underlie practically every national endeavor, beginning with the exploration, ownership, and development of the lands, seas, and air- space and their resources. Meeting the increasing requirements for more accu- rate and up-to-date maps, charts, surveys, and land-related information is criti- cal for the various uses of resources and for the national defense. Collectively such information contributes to the development of a multipurpose cadastre. On a broad national level, attention is focused on future requirements for na- tural resources and the long-range objectives for the development, utilization, and conservation of these resources. The coordination of mapping, charting, geodesy, surveying, and multipurpose cadastre activities plays a key role in the support of the programs to meet these requirements. The present situation with respect to the proliferation of surveying, map- ping, and related activities among the 39 federal agencies involved is not much different than it was in fiscal year 1972, the year used as the base for the 1973 Federal Mapping Task Force (FMTF) report. The number of agen- cies remains the same, but there have been significant advances in technology. Some of the specific programs recommended in the 1973 report have been initiated, and there are examples of more effective coordination between agencies. More state and local governments are seeking the technical guidance and cooperative assistance of federal agencies. There is greater emphasis on products and services with special concern about users' needs. Individuals in 1 i
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2 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW the private sector are utilizing the innovations in instrumental and computer technology. There are many positive responses resulting from the FMTF re- port, yet there has been no definitive action on the key recommendation made in 1973—that there be a single civilian agency for these activities. This Panel strongly and fully endorses the 1973 recommendation for the establishment of a single agency for civilian mapping, charting, geodesy, and surveying and would add the multipurpose cadastre to this list. The 1973 Task Force urged "immediate adoption." We also urge that prompt considera- tion be given to the formation of a Federal Survey Administration (FSA); however, this Panel prefers the designation Federal Surveying and Mapping Administration to identify more clearly the functions of the organization and to eliminate any ambiguity due to use of the term "survey." A single, central- ized agency would provide the impetus and visibility that are required for the fulfillment of national goals and could execute the programs more effectively, efficiently, and economically. Furthermore, we stress that the agency status within a department be independent of other organizational elements whose primary interests lie in other directions. 1.2 ACTIONS RESULTING FROM 1973 RECOMMENDATIONS The 1973 FMTF report contains an analysis of personnel requirements and budgetary resources available to each agency for fiscal year 1972. This Panel has not attempted to update all aspects of that report. However, there are summary statements relative to the present level of support for the principal surveying and mapping agencies (see Appendix A). Despite the impacts from the effects of increasing inflation and from the restrictions imposed by ad- ministratively controlled personnel ceilings, significant progress has been made toward achieving specific goals recommended in the FMTF report. Much of the budgetary support provided for the following programs or ini- tiatives can be identified as resulting from the recommendations and the over- all impact of the 1973 study: . works, The new adjustment of the North American Horizontal Control Net- · The new (with more than 100,000 km of new leveling) Vertical Control Network for North America, The expansion of the Geodetic Data Base to include lower-order surveys, The automation of hydrographic surveying and nautical charting, The greater use of orthophotographic techniques for mapping, The National Cartographic Information Center, The Cartographic Digital Data Base, and The use of geodetic methods for Cadastral Surveying in Alaska.
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Sum many 1.3 ROLE OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS 3 This Panel believes that state and local governments should assume greater re- sponsibility for those surveying and mapping functions that relate to regional and local programs. However, the federal, state, and local roles must be com- pletely integrated. The necessity for this coordination is documented in the report Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre (Committee on Geodesy, 1980~. The following paragraphs from that report (page 102) indicate the overlapping re- sponsibilities of federal, state, and local governments. The major obstacles in the development of a multipurpose cadastre are the organizational and institutional requirements. Reorganization and improved quality control for existing governmental functions will be required. Each of the components of the cadastral sys- tem already exists somewhere within our existing governmental structure. Many of the required data are being generated at the local level, and in most cases the users are the individual citizens and the local government officials and planning organizations. Each state has organizations that prepare maps and collect data that would be an integral part of a multipurpose cadastre. At present, much of this effort is directed toward a single purpose and cannot be utilized for other programs. The federal agencies conduct surveys, prepare maps, and collect information that would be required for the development of a multipurpose cadastre .... The development of a multipurpose cadastre will require coordination between vari- ous levels of government-local, state, and federal, as well as that of parallel organ~za- tions at each level. 1.4 ROLE OF THE DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY In 1972 the major groups within the Department of Defense that were in- volved in mapping, charting, and geodesy activities were combined into a single agency—the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). As a result of this con- solidation, it has been possible to establish more weil-defined national priori- ties and develop more effective procedures for achieving them. The DMA is a good example of coordination and administrative direction. Chapter 4 of this report contains a discussion of the cooperative roles of the military and civil- ian agencies in support of total national goals. The benefits to be derived from a consolidation of the civilian mapping, charting, geodesy, surveying, and cadastral agencies, in a manner similar to the consolidation that re- sulted in DMA, are considered. 1.5 PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS The primary recommendation resulting from this National Research Council review is that there be a single agency, aFederalSurreyingar~lMappingAd- ministration, for civilian mapping, charting, geodesy, surveying, and the multipurpose cadastre. 1
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4 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW The proposed Administration should be an independent agency but could be placed within an existing Department that has some of these functions as part of its mission. If in a Department, the Administration should be indepen- dent of other organizational elements whose primary interests are not map- ping, charting, geodesy, surveying, and the multipurpose cadastre. Many of the cooperative geodetic surveys supported, totally or in part, by state and local agencies contribute to the strength of the national networks and will be included in the new adjustments of the horizontal control and the vertical control networks. In addition, there are state and local agency require- ments for surveys that cannot be served by the federal agencies, yet the results of such surveys, when properly made and monumented, should be incorpo- rated into the national data base. Similar situations exist with respect to co- operative state and local mapping projects. We recommend that the mapping, charting, geodesy, surveying, and cadas- tral agencies of the federalgovernment continue to sponsorcooperativepro- grams, with state and local governments providing sufficient guidance to en- sure conformance to national specifications and standards and thus to the development of a fully integrated national information system. Pending the establishment of a Federal Surveying and Mapping Adminis- tration, the existing liaison offices in the various states for the Geological Sur- vey, Bureau of Land Management, Federal Highway Administration, Corps of Engineers, and National Geodetic Survey (a component of the National Ocean Survey) should be utilized for these cooperative programs. The progress toward the new adjustment of the horizontal control net- work in North America and the plans being developed for a similar adjust- ment of the vertical control are described in this report. All the observational data required for these adjustments, as well as the final adjusted data, will be in a machine-readable format. This data base, managed by the National Geo- detic Suney, is accessible to those making the adjustments and to other groups, federal and state, involved in cooperative programs. However, at pres- ent, there is no provision for the private sector to use this facility. The Geological Survey is endeavoring to respond to the 1973 Task Force recommendation for the development of a cartographic data base and is seek- ing the essential budgetary support. The Panel recognizes the magnitude of the task and the unique relationship to the geodetic data base. We recommend that the geodetic and cartographic data bases be aWlequate- ly supported, be readily accessible to all users, and, even though serving dif- ferent interests and needs, be made integral parts of a national mapping, charting, geodesy, surveying, and multipurpose cadastre information system. In the section of the 1973 FMTF report dealing with nautical charting and hydrographic surveying, emphasis was placed on the full set of navigational products—conventional and special-purpose nautical charts, tide and current
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Summary 5 tables, timely notices to mariners, and other special aids to navigation. The re- quirements for high standards of accuracy to ensure maximum safety were stressed. The Task Force recommended that greater use be made of automated techniques for the acquisition of hydrographic survey data and the compila- tion of nautical charts. The National Ocean Survey is developing a totally automated system for data acquisition through chart production to distribu- tion. The survey information, in digital format, is entered into the National Charting System Data Bank. We recommend that the program for the marine data base be adequately supported and that the data base also be made an integral part of a national mapping, charting, geodesy, surveying, and multi- purpose cadastre information system. The Cadastral Survey Division of the Bureau of Land Management, in re- sponse to the Task Force recommendations for greater coordination with mapping and geodetic programs, particularly in Alaska, has identified the tasks, has acquired the most modern instrumentation, and has initiated inten- sive field programs. However, when considering the overall needs for mapping, geodetic, and cadastral information, the Panel believes that more effective co- ordination should be achieved. The report Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre (Committee on Geodesy, 1980) outlines the benefits to be derived from such a cadastre. Because of the interface with surveying and mapping programs, the development of standards for a multipurpose cadastre and the lead role for coordination among local, state, and federal agencies should be among the responsibilities of a Federal Surveying and Mapping Administration. We recommend the recognition and support of a national strategy for the multipurpose cadastre within the proposed Federal Surveying and Mapping Administration and the full coordination of the multipurpose cadastre with the surveying and mapping programs. 1.6 CONCLUSION The Panel commends the 1972-1973 Federal Mapping Task Force for the thoroughness of its study. Significant progress has been made on a large num- ber of recommendations contained in the 1973 report. However, this Panel, after identifying the problems affecting the achievement of important recom- mendations in that report, believes that many of the difficulties could be eliminated through the consolidated planning and unified program direction from a single agency. Rapidly increasing national requirements for surveying and mapping data and services and the expanding technological growth lead to our conviction that this step is even more important today than it was in 1973. We urge that prompt consideration be~gTven to the primary recommen- dation, the formation of a Federal Surveying and Mapping Administration, by the Executive Off ce of the President.
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