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Acronyms AC DA ALCM CD ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile. A missile designed to defend against a ballistic missile attack by destroying incom- ing ballistic missile warheads. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. The indepen- dent U.S. agency that deals with arms control matters. AtomicEnergy Commission. The U.S. agency for military and peaceful atomic energy development from 1946 to 1975. Air-Launched Cruise Missile. A cruise missile launched from an aircraft in flight. A cruise missile is a pilotless, aerodynamic vehicle with an air-breathing jet engine designed to operate in the atmosphere. ASAT Anti-Satellite. A weapon used to attack satellites. ASBM Air-to-Surface Ballistic Missile. A ballistic missile launched from an airborne carrier to hit a surface target. ASW Antisubmarine Warfare. The complex of activities - involved in the detection, identification, tracking, and destruction of hostile submarines. BMD Ballistic Missile Defense. Measures for defending against an attack by ballistic missiles. Committee on Disarmament. A negotiating body of the United Nations for multilateral disarmament treaties set up in 1978. Renamed the Conference on Disarma- ment in February 1984. 275

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276 CTB ENDC FBS FRODs GLCM IAEA ICBM ACRONYMS Comprehensive Test Ban. A proposed ban on nuclear test- ing in all environments. Eighteen Nation Disarmament Conference. A negotiating organ for multilateral agreements established in 1961. Forward-Based Systems. A Soviet term defining interme- diate-range U.S. nuclear delivery systems based in third countries or on aircraft carriers that can, strike targets in the Soviet Union. Functionally Related Observable Differences A SALT If term referring to differences in the observable features of airplanes that provide for distinguishing between those aircraft that are and are not capable of perform- ing certain functions limited by SALT. Ground-Launched Cruise Missile. A cruise missile launched from a land-based platform. See ALCM. International Atomic Energy Agency. An international organization established in 1956 to promote peaceful uses of atomic energy and to provide safeguards to as- sure that atomic installations are not used for weapons purposes. Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. A land-based rocket- propelled vehicle capable of delivering a warhead through space to a target at ranges in excess of 5,500 km. TNF Intermediate-Range NuclearForces. A U.S. term for land- based nuclear systems with a range capability greater than that of short-range nuclear forces but less than that of intercontinental forces (5,500 km). INFCE International NuclearFueZ Cycle Evaluation. An interna- tional study initiated by the Carter Administration to assess the comparative economic, technical, and politi- cal advantages of various nuclear fuel cycles, with par- ticular reference to the use of plutonium for recycling and breeder reactors. LTB Limited Test Ban. A treaty initially signed by the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union in 1963 to prohibit the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in space, and underwater. Mutual Assured Destruction. The concept of recipro- cal deterrence that rests on the inherent ability of the two nuclear superpowers to inflict unacceptable damage on one another after surviving a nuclear first strike. MAD

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ACRONYMS 277 MARV Maneuverable Reentry Vehicle. A ballistic missile reentry vehicle whose ballistic trajectory can be adjusted by internal or external mechanisms, enabling it to evade ABM defenses and/or strike its target with a high degree of accuracy. MIRV Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicle. A package of two or more reentry vehicles with nuclear warheads that can be carried by a single ballistic mis- sile and delivered to separate targets. MX Missile Experimental. A new U.S. ICBM with ten war- heads scheduled to be deployed in the late 1980s. NPT Non-Proliferation Treaty. A multilateral treaty to pre- vent the spread of nuclear weapons while guarantee- ing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy through cooperation. NNPA Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act. Legislation providing for the current U.S. policy controlling the export of nuclear materials and equipment. NTM National Technical Means. A nation's technical intelli- gence assets that can monitor another country's compli- ance with an arms control agreement from outside of that country. NTM include satellite-based sensors such as photographic reconnaissance, aircraft-based sys- tems such as radars and optical systems, and sea- and ground-based systems such as radars and antennas for collecting telemetry. OST Outer Space Treaty. A 1967 treaty that prohibits the placing of nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction around the earth and outlaws the establish- ment of military bases, installations, and fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons, and the conduct of military maneuvers in outer space. PAR Perimeter Acquisition Radar. Radars on the perimeter of A TO ~ I_ _ 7 ~ 7 ~ ~ A ~ ~ . ~ PD59 PNE a nation designed to detect incoming warheads and pre- dict their trajectories while they are still several thou- sand miles from their targets. Presidential Directive 59. A directive of the Carter Ad- ministration formalizing the doctrine of countervailing strategy, which emphasized the importance of flexible options and survivable command and control to assure deterrence against a wide range of threats. Peaceful Nuclear Explosion. A nuclear explosion for peaceful purposes.

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278 PNET RV SALT A CR ONYMS Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty. A treaty that estab- lished a limit of 150 kt on individual underground nu- clear explosions for peaceful purposes and a limit of 1,500 kt on any simultaneous series of nuclear explo- sions for peaceful purposes. It was signed by the United States and the Soviet Union in 1976. RORSAT Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite. A Soviet satellite intended to provide real time location of targets such as ships at sea. -- Reentry Vehicle. The part of a ballistic missile designed to reenter the earth's atmosphere in the terminal portion of its trajectory to deliver a warhead to a target. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. Negotiations initiated in 1969 between the United States and the Soviet Union directed at limiting the strategic offensive and defen- sive nuclear forces of the two sides. SAM Surface-to-Air Missile. A surface-launchec3 missile de- signed to operate against aircraft or other aerodynamic targets. SCC Standing Consultative Commission. A permanent U.S.- Soviet commission established in the SALT T agree- ments and incorporated into the SALT IT agreement to deal with questions of compliance and the working out of additional procedures to implement the provisions of the SALT agreements. SDT Strategic Defense Initiative. The Reagan Administra- tion's research and development program to investigate the possibility of developing a nationwide ballistic mis- sile defense with the goal of ultimately eliminating the strategic role of nuclear weapons. Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile. A ballistic mis- sile launched from a submarine. See ICBM. SRAM Short-Range Attack Missile. A nuclear-armed short- range air-to-surface missile deployed on B-52s for de- fense suppression as well as target attack. Strategic Arms Red action Talks. Negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union initiated in 1982 by the Reagan Administration to seek substantial reductions in strategic nuclear weapons. Threshold Test Ban. A treaty signed by the United States and the Soviet Union in 1974 to prohibit underground tests of nuclear weapons with a yield greater than 150 kt. SIJBM START TTB