Index

A

Abdominal obesity, 69, 70

Academic performance, 105, 215, 252, 253

Action plan for prevention

clinical medicine approach, 107-108, 109

contexts for, 25-44

definitions and terminology, 79-83

developing recommendations, 16, 111-115, 323

energy balance, 3, 90-106

evidence-based strategies, 3, 16, 107-115, 322-323

framework, 83-85

goals, 4-5, 86-90, 115

public health approach, 108-110, 115, 127, 129

Active Living by Design, 206

Added caloric sweeteners, 31, 145-146, 290

Adolescents. See Children and adolescent obesity;

Older Children and Youth

Adopted children, studies, 93

Adults

diabetes, 68

energy balance, 90, 160

obesity, 5, 22, 43-44, 63-65, 68

overweight, 80

physical activity, 29, 35, 179

prevention goals, 88

treatment for obesity, 108

TV viewing time, 160-161

Advertising and marketing

alcoholic beverages, 175

bans and restrictions on, 174-175, 178, 268, 353, 362, 363

codes and monitoring mechanisms, 176-177

and eating behavior, 169-170, 172-173

energy density of advertised foods, 172

and energy imbalance, 172, 173, 174, 355

ethnic groups targeted by, 106

evidence of effects of, 353-354, 355

expenditures, 172

exposure time for children, 171, 174

First Amendment rights, 174-175, 353, 362

health and nutrient claims, 169-170, 176

litigation, 354

packaging, 172, 356

prevention through, 128, 268, 353, 367;

see also Public education

quantity and nature of commercials, 172

recommendations, 9, 177

research needs, 177, 268

in schools, 176, 251, 265-269

self-regulation by industry, 175, 354



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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance Index A Abdominal obesity, 69, 70 Academic performance, 105, 215, 252, 253 Action plan for prevention clinical medicine approach, 107-108, 109 contexts for, 25-44 definitions and terminology, 79-83 developing recommendations, 16, 111-115, 323 energy balance, 3, 90-106 evidence-based strategies, 3, 16, 107-115, 322-323 framework, 83-85 goals, 4-5, 86-90, 115 public health approach, 108-110, 115, 127, 129 Active Living by Design, 206 Added caloric sweeteners, 31, 145-146, 290 Adolescents. See Children and adolescent obesity; Older Children and Youth Adopted children, studies, 93 Adults diabetes, 68 energy balance, 90, 160 obesity, 5, 22, 43-44, 63-65, 68 overweight, 80 physical activity, 29, 35, 179 prevention goals, 88 treatment for obesity, 108 TV viewing time, 160-161 Advertising and marketing alcoholic beverages, 175 bans and restrictions on, 174-175, 178, 268, 353, 362, 363 codes and monitoring mechanisms, 176-177 and eating behavior, 169-170, 172-173 energy density of advertised foods, 172 and energy imbalance, 172, 173, 174, 355 ethnic groups targeted by, 106 evidence of effects of, 353-354, 355 expenditures, 172 exposure time for children, 171, 174 First Amendment rights, 174-175, 353, 362 health and nutrient claims, 169-170, 176 litigation, 354 packaging, 172, 356 prevention through, 128, 268, 353, 367; see also Public education quantity and nature of commercials, 172 recommendations, 9, 177 research needs, 177, 268 in schools, 176, 251, 265-269 self-regulation by industry, 175, 354

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance social and public health pressures, 366 standards development, 175-176 targeting children, 106, 145, 172, 174, 355 television commercials, 8, 44, 172-173, 174, 265, 301, 302, 355 vulnerability of children to, 8, 172-173, 267-268, 302, 353-354, 355 Advertising Council, 184 Advocacy community mobilization, 210-211 by health professionals, 223-225 media, 181, 183, 351 by parents, 300 Age and BMI, 56-57, 63-65 and child obesity trends, 1, 63 AGRICOLA database, 339, 340 Agricultural policies, 6-7, 144-146, 148, 217 African Americans. See also Ethnic groups; Racial and ethnic disparities body image dissatisfaction, 66, 104 defined, 58 n.4 diabetes, 68 interventions for, 200, 274 obesity trends, 60, 105 targeted marketing of foods to, 106 Alabama, 61 Alaska, 61 Alcohol prevention analogies, 175, 352, 354, 366 America on the Move initiative, 141 American Academy of Family Physicians, 224 American Academy of Pediatrics, 174, 224, 253, 290, 358 American Cancer Society, 201 American Council on Food and Nutrition, 367 n.6 American Federation of School Teachers, 265 American Indians. See also Ethnic groups; Racial and ethnic disparities body image dissatisfaction, 66, 104 defined, 58 n.4 diabetes, 68 obesity trends, 60, 105 school-based dietary interventions, 245, 246, 247-248 American Medical Association, 224 American Planning Association, 210, 218 American Psychological Association, 265, 371 PsychINFO database, 341 Task Force on Advertising and Children, 173-174, 355, 356 American Public Health Association, 132, 358, 359-360 American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST), 199 Americans in Motion, 224 Americans’ Use of Time Study, 29, 159 Animal studies, 94 Appetite. See also Hunger; Satiety regulatory systems, 95, 157 Arkansas BMI initiative, 271 Asian/Pacific Islanders. See also Ethnic groups; Racial and ethnic disparities body image dissatisfaction, 104 defined, 58 n.4 diabetes, 68 obesity trends, 105 Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, 132, 218 Atherosclerosis, 69 Australia, 44, 180, 256-257 Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC), 140-141 Away-from-home foods. See also Fast food; Restaurant industry; School food and beverages consumption trends, 27-28, 30, 161, 357-358 costs and convenience, 26 defined, 331 energy density, 92, 162, 163 energy intake, 30, 158, 161 frequency of dining out, 161-162 leisure/social aspects, 28 nutrition labeling, 163-164, 165, 168, 197, 356 portion sizes, 158 B Back to Sleep campaigns, 179 Balanced diet benefits associated with, 97 defined, 91, 331 dietary guidelines, 96-97 ethnically appropriate foods, 144, 156 responsibility to provide, 292-293

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance Basal metabolism, 331 Behavioral research, 17, 323-324 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 29, 35, 36, 61, 160 Behavioral settings. See Community environment; Home environment; School environment Better Business Bureau, 175 Beverages. See also Food and beverage industry; Milk and other dairy products; School food and beverages; Sodas and fruit drinks consumption trends, 33 Blood pressure. See High blood pressure; Hypertension Blue Cross of California, 201 Body fat, 54, 80, 93, 137, 140, 334. See also Body mass index Body image, 66, 91-92, 100, 103-104, 199 Body mass index age-specific trends, 56-57, 63-65, 80, 336 beverage consumption and, 293-294 calculation, 80 charts, 1 n.1, 55, 79-80, 88, 89-90 clinical screening and tracking, 221-222, 307-308 and co-morbidities, 62, 80 crossing percentiles, 89-90 defined, 79, 331-332 and diabetes, 24, 62, 68 distribution trends, 61-62, 80, 336 ethnicity and, 58-60 gender tends, 56-58 obesity definition, 1 n.1, 22, 54-55, 63 optimum population goals, 86, 88-90 overweight, 80, 336 revised growth reference, 55 school screening, 270-271, 308 socioeconomic status and, 60-61 TV viewing and, 302 Body weight CDC guidelines for children, 89 and energy intake, 159 goals, 89-90 growth spurts and, 91, 307 as health issue, 306-308 healthy, 335 heritability, 91, 93, 94 inappropriate gain, 90 measurement, 137, 140 monitoring, 306-308 physiological regulation of, 159 survey data, 89, 137, 140 Boy Scouts, 202 Boys and Girls Clubs of America, 44, 202 Brain regulation of energy balance, 69-70, 94, 95, 157 stress response, 70 Breastfeeding, 222, 288-290 Built environment. See also Local communities city planning, 210 community interventions, 203, 204-217 correlation studies, 206-208 defined, 332 designing for physical activity, 11, 12, 125, 132, 196, 204-211, 273-274 evaluation of interventions, 208-209 food access, 215-217 land development codes, 210 race/ethnicity and, 205 rating, 218 recommendations, 11, 209-211, 213-214, 220 recreational facilities, 206, 211 research needs, 208-209 safety considerations, 11, 205, 207-208, 211 schools, 213-215, 273-274 smart growth principles, 209, 210 socioeconomic status and, 205, 207 street-scale interventions, 208 transportation issues, 38, 205 walking and biking opportunities, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211-215 C California, 71, 103-104, 180, 200, 201, 213, 214, 242, 248, 358, 359 Caloric sweeteners. See Added caloric sweeteners Calories, defined, 332. See also Energy expenditure; Energy intake Canada, 44, 68, 356 Cancer, 69, 107, 169 Carbohydrates, 34 Cardiovascular disease food label health claims, 169

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance prevention interventions, 107, 109, 196, 200, 223, 262 risk factors, 23, 69 Center for Consumer Freedom, 367 n.6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 346 BMI charts, 1 n.1, 55, 79-80, 88, 89-90 grants program, 132, 133 guidelines for healthy weight, 89 health curriculum recommendations, 261 Healthy Days Measures, 218 physical activity promotion, 141, 255 Project MOVE, 136-137 REACH 2010 initiative, 200 recommended role, 130-131 research funding, 135, 204 revised growth reference, 55 School Health Index, 274-275 surveillance and monitoring, 29, 37, 61, 137 tobacco prevention policies, 358 VERB campaign, 141, 182-183, 184 Check-off programs, 145 Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH), 245, 246, 256, 262-263, 270 Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), 142, 143 Childhood and adolescent obesity. See also Epidemic of childhood/adolescent obesity; Prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity abuse and neglect and, 287 adult obesity trends and, 63-65 age-related trends, 1, 63 and co-morbid health risks, 62, 67-69, 319 definitions, 1 n.1, 22, 56, 63, 79-81, 115, 336 food insecurity and, 215 genetics and, 65, 91, 94, 106 health care costs, 72 intergenerational transmission, 65 international dimensions, 2, 22 medical conditions and, 91 public interest, 40-43 Children and youth. See also Infants; Older children and youth; Toddlers and young children balanced diet, 91 BMI distributions, 61-62, 80, 336 diabetes, 23, 73 energy balance, 90, 97 energy expenditure, 90 energy requirements, 97, 158, 167-168 free time, 36, 38, 160 physical activity trends, 35-36, 160 purchasing influence, 172, 292, 302 Children’s Advertising Review Unit, 175-176 Cholelithiasis, 67, 72 Cholesterol, dietary, 180 Church-based interventions, 199-200 CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Heath Literature), 339, 340 Class of 1989 Study, 197 Clinical medicine. See also Treatment of obesity effectiveness of interventions, 365 evidence-based approach, 107-108, 109 preventive services, 221-224, 226 Clinical practice guidelines, 107 Coalition building, 7, 128, 198-199, 200, 202-203, 225-226 Cochrane Database, 339, 340 Common Sense for Consumption Act, 363 Community-based interventions. See also Built environment; Local communities advocacy, 210-211 categories of, 346-349 child/youth programs, 197-198, 201-204 church-based, 199-200 coalition building, 7, 10, 11, 128, 198-199, 200, 202-203, 225-226 culturally appropriate and targeted strategies, 198, 199-201, 203 demonstration projects, 132, 200, 204, 208-209, 213 dietary changes, 196, 197 ecological framework, 196-199, 203 by employers, 195, 202 evaluation of, 11, 17, 203-204, 217-219, 325 evidence of effectiveness, 46, 196-198, 222-223, 348 food-access-related, 11, 144, 216-217, 218, 357-358 funding, 132-133, 209 guide to preventive services, 209, 348-349

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance large-scale, 196-197, 217-219, 345, 347 neighborhood associations, 210-211 nutrition education, 198, 201 physical activity, 12, 179-180, 196, 197, 201, 202, 211-215 public health preventive services, 125, 200, 346, 347, 348-349 recommendations, 10-12, 201-204, 219-221, 225 recreational programs, 202 “report cards,” 218 by youth organizations, 201 Community centers, schools as, 272-274 Community environment. See also Built environment; Local communities access to food products, 144, 215-217, 357-358 health impact assessment, 217-219 Community health care advocacy by professional organizations, 224-225 counseling by health-care professionals, 221-223 insurance coverage, 225-226 preventive services, 12, 221-225, 226, 348-349 quality-improvement programs, 226 recommendations, 12, 225, 226-227 Community Health Status Indicators Project, 218 Community Preventive Services Taskforce, 361 Co-morbidities of obesity. See also Diabetes BMI and, 62, 80 defined, 332 disorders, 67 economic costs, 23, 70-71 health risks of children, 62, 67-69 trends, 22, 62 Congress for the New Urbanism, 210 Consumer attitudes. See also Public interest in obesity trends, 40-43 Consumer information, 128, 141-142, 163 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, 97, 137, 138, 159, 163, 293 Corn subsidies, 146 Coronary artery disease, 69 Cost-reduction interventions, 46, 347, 349 Costs of childhood obesity. See also Economic costs of obesity health-care-related, 70-72 integrated view of, 69-70 physical health, 65, 67-69, 71, 73 social and emotional health, 22-24, 65, 66-67, 69-70, 71, 73 Counseling by health-care professionals, 221-223 at school, 269-270 Current Population Survey, 45 D Dairy products. See Milk and other dairy products Deaths, 67, 68, 73 Demographic trends, 25-40 Demonstration projects, 132, 200, 204, 208-209, 213 Denmark, 287 Depression and depressive symptoms, 66, 67, 69-70, 105 Diabetes, type 1, 67 n.5 Diabetes, type 2 in adults, 68 BMI and, 24, 62, 68 in children, 23, 73 complications of, 68, 69 in ethnic minority groups, 23, 68 gestational, 65, 288 health care costs, 71-72 high-fructose corn syrup and, 146 lifetime risk, 2, 23, 67-68 prevalence, 67-68, 225 risk factors, 68 Diet. See also Balanced diet deaths related to, 67, 73 nutrient density, 96 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 131 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 13, 96-97, 131, 164, 165, 239, 240, 292, 332 Dietary intake economic environment and, 100, 101, 215-216, 358 and energy balance, 95-98, 101 health claims advertising and, 169-170 by macronutrient, 34 physiological regulation of, 159

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance psychosocial and behavioral considerations, 95-98, 105 research challenges, 97-98 trends, 28, 30-33, 97 Dietary interventions community-based, 196, 197 education campaigns, 180, 345 effectiveness of, 241, 244-247, 364 school based, 240-241, 244-247, 252-253, 364 self-help, 365 tobacco control interventions compared, 350-351 Dietary Reference Intakes, 168, 333 Disability, defined, 333 Disease defined, 333 emergency response to, 133 Discrimination, 66, 67, 100, 178 Dyslipidemia, 62, 67 E Eating behavior in absence of hunger, 294-296, 305 advertising and, 172-173 brain’s regulation of, 69, 95, 157 breastfeeding and, 222, 288-290 “clean the plate” pressures and, 295 energy density of foods and, 156-157, 159, 291, 293 flavor preferences, 289, 291 food as reward and, 295 health-claims advertising and, 169-170 home environment and, 14-15, 287-296 introducing new foods, 291 package size and, 159 parental influence, 287-289, 305-306 portion size and, 158, 291-292, 294-296, 305 selection and availability of foods, 292-294 self-regulation, 289, 294 TV viewing during meals and, 222, 293 Eating disorders, 43, 287 Eating patterns, trends, 27-28, 30-35 Ecological systems theory model, 83-85, 115 EconLit database, 339, 340 Economic costs of obesity, 23, 70-71, 72, 225 Economic environment and food intake, 100, 101, 215-216, 358-360 funding of school meals, 250, 252 and physical activity, 100, 102 in schools, 238, 250-252, 358, 359 taxation and pricing interventions, 44, 128, 146-147, 178, 358-360 Edible Schoolyard, 248 Education. See Public education Electronic media. See also Television viewing home environment, 39-40, 303 time spent by children on, 171, 172 EMBASE (Excerpta Medica), 339, 340, 342 Employers and worksite interventions, 195, 202 Energy balance action plan for prevention, 90-106 adults, 90, 160 body image, 103-104 in children and youth, 90, 97 central nervous system regulation of, 69-70, 94, 95, 157, 159 defined, 83 n.2, 90, 115, 333 dietary intake and, 95-98, 101 ecological systems theory model, 83-85, 115 environmental influences, 100-106 food marketing and advertising practices and, 172, 173, 174, 355 genetic variation and biological considerations, 91, 93-95, 159 physical activity and, 92, 98-99, 102 promotion, 115 psychosocial and behavioral considerations, 69-70, 95-99 racial and ethnic disparities, 105-106 sociocultural environment and, 84-85, 91-92, 100-106 socioeconomic status, 104-105, 146-147 stigmatization considerations, 100, 103 surveys, 137 transportation patterns and, 37 TV viewing and, 301-302 Energy density of foods, 28 access and affordability issues, 216 of advertised foods, 172 of away-from-home foods, 92, 162, 163 defined, 333 and eating behavior, 156-157, 159, 291, 293

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance and energy storage, 156-157 infant response to, 290 labeling foods for, 170, 171 and satiety, 157, 159 of school foods, 240, 243 taxes on energy-dense foods, 44, 146-147 Energy expenditure adult patterns, 160 defined, 90, 333 measurement of, 99, 332 physical activity and, 92, 99 resting metabolism and, 92 n.6 Energy imbalance, 83-85, 93 Energy intake away-from-home foods, 30, 158, 161 body weight and, 159 defined, 91, 333 by gender, 35 measurement, 332 physiological regulation of, 289, 294 predictors of, 158-159 trends for children, 97 Energy requirements for children and adolescents, 97, 158, 167-168 Entertainment industry. See Leisure, entertainment, and recreation industries; Television viewing Environmental influences. See also Community environment; Home environment; School environment defined, 334 ecological layers, 15, 100, 101-102, 286, 320 on energy balance, 100-106 genetic interactions, 93-94 monitoring needs, 140 obesogenic, 2, 306, 320, 336 Epidemic of childhood/adolescent obesity adult obesity epidemic and, 63-65 BMI distribution, 61-62 consumer attitudes and, 40-43 contexts for action, 25-44 costs for children and society, 22-24, 65-72 defined, 21 n.1, 55, 334 demographic trends, 1, 25-40 eating patterns and, 27-28, 30-35 in ethnic groups, 1, 26-27, 58-61 family life and, 25-26 health-care costs, 70-72 high-risk population subgroups, 58-61, 134 lifestyle trends, 25-26, 27-39 media and, 39-40 overall burden, 55-58 physical activity and, 29, 35-39 physical health implications, 22-23, 67-69 prevalence and time trends, 22, 54-65 programs and policies, 43-44 public awareness, 40-43 public health implications, 22-24 public health precedents, 21, 44-47, 343-371 regional differences, 61 social and emotional consequences, 23, 66-67 socioeconomic difference, 60-61, 104-105 ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database, 339, 340-341 Ethnic groups. See also Racial and ethnic disparities; Sociocultural environment body image perceptions, 199 definitions, 58 n.4 diabetes, 23, 68 diversity trends, 26-27 food preferences, 27, 106 genetic susceptibility to obesity, 106 high-risk groups, 58-61, 68, 199-201 interventions targeted to, 199-201, 203, 257 media education campaigns, 182-183 obesity prevalence, 1, 10, 26-27, 58-61, 94, 105-106 physical activity, 29-30, 205, 257 and protective effects of breastfeeding in, 289 regional differences, 61 socioeconomic difference, 60-61, 106, 201 targeted marketing of foods to, 106 trust issues, 106, 200 TV viewing time, 301 Evaluation of prevention interventions BMI distribution as measure of change, 88 community-based participatory studies, 17, 203-204, 217-219, 325 demonstration projects, 132, 200, 204, 208-209, 213

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance design of studies, 304 funding for, 204, 215 health impact assessment, 217-219 intermediate goals and, 6, 17, 86-87, 323 natural experiments, 209 pilot programs, 242, 247-248, 251, 252, 274, 277 pretest/posttest design, 208 prospective approach, 217-219 Exercise. See also Physical activity defined, 334 Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program, 141, 142 F Family Interaction, Social Capital and Trends in Time Use Data, 29, 160 Family life, trends, 25-26, 285-286 Farmers’ markets, 144, 216, 248 Fast food. See also Restaurant industry advertising and marketing, 302, 355 consumption trends, 162, 163, 358 defined, 334 energy density, 92, 163 litigation, 363-364 nutrient density, 162 nutrition labeling, 356 sales, 162 Fat, dietary. See also Body fat consumption trends, 30-31, 34, 245 food supply trends, 34, 366 saturated, 169 Fat-brain axis, 95 Federal Trade Commission, 9, 153, 174, 175, 177, 355-356 Federal Transportation Enhancements Program, 209 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS), 290, 291 Feet First, 206 Finland, 196 Fish and shellfish, 32 Fit ‘n Active Kids program, 141 Fitness. See also Physical fitness cardiorespiratory, 179-180 counseling, 269-270 defined, 334 Five-a-Day media campaign, 141, 180, 244 Fluoridation campaigns, 199, 350 Food and beverage industry. See also Advertising and marketing; Restaurant industry; School food and beverages check-off programs, 145 federal regulation, 361-362 liability protection, 360, 362 litigation, 362-364 motivation for change, 154, 157, 170, 366 packaging, 154, 158-159, 167, 172, 356 portion sizes, 154, 158-159 positive changes, 7, 155, 156, 266-267 product development, 154, 155-157, 170 recommendations, 8, 156, 166 sales to young consumers, 153-154, 172 self-regulation, 175-176, 366 targeted marketing of foods, 106, 145, 172 Food and Drug Administration nutrition labeling regulation, 9, 167-171, 362 Obesity Working Group, 163 tobacco regulation, 353 Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, 361 Food environment access and opportunity, 27, 100, 101, 105, 128, 144, 215-217, 292-294, 356-358 away-from-home foods, 26, 27-28, 331 built environment, 215-217 community-based interventions, 144, 216-217, 218, 357-358 and eating behavior, 292-294 economic factors and, 100, 101, 215-216, 358-360 healthy foods, 105, 144, 215-217 at home, 292-294 policy and political considerations, 100, 101, 144-146, 369 portion sizes, 27, 358, 369 rating, 218 recommendations, 217 restricting availability, 357 sociocultural considerations, 100, 101, 106 Food Guide Pyramid, 28, 164-165, 292, 334 Food insecurity, 88 n.3, 104-105, 143-144, 147, 215

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance Food insufficiency, 104-105 Food Marketing Institute, 167 Food security, 215, 334 Food service workers, 134 Food Stamp Program, 141, 142-143, 144, 216 Food supply, 34, 35, 145, 146 Food system, 145, 334 Foods. See also specific food groups ethnic, 156 of minimal nutritional value, 241, 335 product groups with health claims, 169 reduced-calorie products, 156 as reward and, 295 4H Clubs, 202 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), 350-351, 356, 360 France, 44 Fruits and vegetables access to fresh foods, 144, 216, 242, 251 children’s acceptance of, 291 consumption trends, 28, 32 costs, 216, 360 health benefits, 107, 169, 223 promotion, 107, 141, 180, 198, 200, 223 school offerings, 240, 242, 247-248, 251, 291 subsidies, 360 Funding community-based interventions, 132-133, 209 for evaluation studies, 204, 215 of school meals, 250, 252 G Gender and BMI, 56-58 and body image dissatisfaction, 104 and energy intake, 35 and physical activity, 257-258 Genetics and energy balance, 91, 93-95, 159 environmental interactions, 93-94 and body fatness, 93 and body weight, 91, 93, 94 and prevalence of obesity, 94 single-gene disorders, 94 susceptibility to obesity, 65, 106 Georgia, 211, 250 Germany, 44 Girl Scouts, 44, 198, 202 Girls Health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS), 200, 203 Girls on the Run, 197 Global Strategy for Diet, Physical Activity and Health, 367 Glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, 67, 68, 69, 70 Go for Health, 256 Growth charts, 89 n.4. See also Body mass index, charts Growth spurts, 91, 307 Guidelines for School and Community Programs to Promote Lifelong Physical Activity Among Young People, 255 Gun control analogies, 350, 361, 362 H Health body weight and, 306-308 costs of obesity, 22-23, 65, 67-69, 71, 73 defined, 335 food security and, 215 impact assessments, 217-219 population, 215, 336 promotion, 100, 106, 128, 335, 359-360 report cards, 270-271 Health-care professionals advocacy role, 223-225 obesity screening and counseling by, 10, 221-223, 272 school referrals to, 272 training, 224-225 Health-care system, 128 Health education, 106 classroom requirements and practices, 261-262 recommendations, 264-265 teacher training, 264, 265 Health insurance coverage, 60-61, 225-226, 307 Health services. See also Community health care costs, 70-72 school-based, 269-272 Healthful diet. See Balanced diet

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance HealthStyles Survey, 38, 211 Healthy Days Measures, 218 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), 96-97 Healthy People 2000, 156 Healthy People 2010, 129, 194, 321 Hepatic steatosis, 67 High blood pressure, 62, 69. See also Hypertension High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 69 High fructose corn syrup, 145-146 High-risk population subgroups, 6, 58-61, 68, 134, 199-201, 322 Highway safety analogies, 44-45, 126, 128, 132, 350, 361, 366 Hispanics. See also Ethnic groups; Racial and ethnic disparities body image dissatisfaction, 66, 104 energy gaps, 93 defined, 58 n.4 diabetes, 68 obesity trends, 60, 105 HIV prevention, 107 Home environment. See also Parents; Television viewing and eating behavior, 14-15, 287-296 electronic media, 39-40, 303 family characteristics and, 25-26, 285-287 food and beverage selection and availability, 292-294 meal preparation, 26, 28 obesogenic families, 306 and physical activity, 14-15, 296-301 recommendations, 14-15, 290, 308-309 Home visits, 46, 349 Hunger. See also Appetite; Satiety eating in absence of, 294-296, 305 in U.S., 88 Hypertension, 62, 67, 225 Hypertriglyceridemia, 69 Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, 70 I Illinois, 213 Inactivity deaths related to, 67 decreasing, 114, 301-305 defined, 336 health care costs of, 71, 73 prevalence, 29-30 safety reasons, 207 technology and, 160 TV viewing and, 301-305 Indiana, 247 Industry. See also Advertising and marketing; Food and beverage industry; Leisure, entertainment, and recreation industries; Restaurant industry health promotion by, 128, 161, 182 recommendations, 8, 165-166, 177 self-regulation, 175, 354 Infants breastfeeding, 222, 288-290 food insecurity, 105 low birthweight, 288 mortality rates, 21 overweight, 55, 58 n.3, 80-81 Information environment. See Advertising and marketing; Public education Injury prevention campaigns, 345, 361 Institute of Medicine, 144, 168, 344, 360 Institute of Traffic Engineers, 210 Insulin levels, 62. See also Diabetes; Glucose intolerance/insulin resistance International dimensions of obesity, 2, 22, 367, 371 International Food Information Council, 40-41 Intervention programs. See also Community-based interventions behavioral theory and, 345 comprehensive approaches, 46-47, 128, 131, 196-199, 203, 262-263, 345, 349-352 ethnic groups targeted, 199-201, 203, 257 evaluation of, 133, 134, 136-137, 142, 214-215 evidence of effectiveness, 45-46, 196-198, 222-223, 262-263, 348, 349-352, 370-371 funding, 6, 44, 128, 131, 132-133, 142, 148, 359-360 industry-sponsored, 161 international efforts, 44 large-scale, 196-197, 217-219, 345, 347 parental involvement, 287 registry of, 44 school-based, 239, 244, 246-247

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance successful elements of, 46-47, 350-351 taxes on soft drinks and snack foods, 44, 128, 146-147 translation and diffusion of, 134-135 Intrauterine environment, 65, 95, 288 Iowa, 247 J Joint Committee of National Health Education Standards, 261 Jump Up and Go Program, 225 K Kaiser Family Foundation, 184, 355, 371 Kidney failure, 69 Kids Off the Couch, 201 Know Your Body study, 244 L Labeling. See Nutrition labeling Laws and regulations, 357 evidence of effectiveness, 46, 347, 349 Lead paint control analogies, 350, 362 Leisure, entertainment, and recreation industries, 7-8, 159-161, 166, 172, 175-176 Leisure time availability, 36, 38, 159-160 physical activity trends, 29, 35, 36, 37 Leptin, 95 Lexis/Nexis, 339, 341 Life expectancy, 23 Lifestyle Education for Activity Program, 257 Lifestyle trends, 25-26, 27-39 Litigation, 128, 154, 354, 362-364 Local communities. See also Community health care; Community interventions built environment, 132, 204-217 defined, 193-194, 332 food environment, 215-217 mobilization, 43-44, 128, 194-221 recommendations, 213, 217, 219-221 stakeholders and coalitions, 128, 133, 194, 195, 196-204 Louisiana, 61, 250 Low-income populations built environment, 205, 207 community-based interventions, 199, 206, 217, 274 food access issues, 215-216, 217 nutrition programs, 142-144 overweight in, 206 Lung cancer prevention, 107 M Macronutrients. See Carbohydrates; Fat, dietary; Protein, dietary Marketing. See Advertising and marketing Maryland, 207 Mass media advertising and marketing, 8, 171-177, 178 advocacy, 181, 183, 351 anti-drug campaigns, 181-182 anti-tobacco campaigns, 178, 181-182, 347 dietary interventions, 180 effectiveness of campaigns, 46, 179, 347, 349, 364-365 obesity coverage, 40-41, 154, 181, 202 obesity epidemic, 39-40 physical fitness promotion, 179-180 public education campaigns, 8, 9-10, 177-185, 349, 364, 371 public service announcements, 184 Massachusetts, 225, 271 Meals. See also Balanced diet; Eating behavior breakfast, 28 “clean the plate” pressures, 295 eating out, 26 home preparation, 26 snacks, 28 TV viewing during, 222, 293 Meat and poultry consumption trends, 32 Media. See also Electronic media; Mass media; Television viewing Medicaid, 61, 71 Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment program, 226 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 61 Medicare, 61, 71

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance Medline, 339, 341 Menstrual abnormalities, 67 Metabolic syndrome, 69, 70 Metabolism. See Basal metabolism; Energy balance resting, 92 n.6, 93 Metropolitan Planning Organizations, 210 Michigan, 61, 247 Micronutrient deficiencies, 88 n.3 Middle-School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, 257 Midwestern Prevention Project, 197 Military recruits, weight-for-height standards, 24 Milk and other dairy products, 31-32, 240, 293 Minnesota, 104, 242-243 Heart Health Program, 179, 180, 196, 197 Mississippi, 61, 250 Monitoring the Future Survey, 40 Montana, 207 N National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 98, 253 National Association of County and City Health Officials, 132, 218 National Cancer Institute, 180, 199 National Center for Health Statistics, 54 National Committee for Quality Assurance, 226 National Governors Association, 132 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 6, 29, 36, 54, 55-56, 60, 61, 63, 68, 89, 137, 138, 139, 140, 148, 157, 160 National Health Education Standards, 261 National Health Examination Survey (NHES), 36, 60 National Health Interview Survey, 29, 159-160, 221 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 179, 225 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 361 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), 38, 39, 138 National Human Activity Pattern Survey, 160 National Institutes of Health, 358 Task Force on Obesity Prevention, 131, 135 National Library of Medicine, 341 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 60, 138 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 60, 61, 62, 139 National Personal Transportation Surveys, 39 National School Lunch Program, 142, 143, 145, 237 n.1, 239-241, 250 National Walk Our Children to School Day, 213 National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, 182 Native Americans. See American Indians Neighborhood associations, 210-211 Neonatal critical period, 95 New Mexico, 247 North Carolina, 266 North Carolina Black Churches United for Better Health project, 199-200 North Karelia Project, 179, 196-197 Nutrient density of foods, 96, 115, 162, 171, 172, 243, 335 Nutrition Academic Award Program, 225 Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases, 204 Nutrition assistance programs, 6-7, 142-144, 148 Nutrition education availability, 100 behavioral curricula, 262-263 community-based interventions, 198, 201, 273 food service personnel, 134 health education curriculum, 261-262 media campaigns, 141 programs, 141-142, 148, 225 recommendations, 6, 142, 148 by restaurant industry, 164-166 at school, 261-263, 273 Nutrition labeling calorie content, 168 comparative claims, 170-171 consumer understanding and use, 167, 169-170 and eating behavior, 169-170 energy density and nutrient density, 170, 171

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance health claims, 9, 167, 169-170, 171, 362 ingredient disclosure, 356 nutrient claims, 9, 167, 168-169, 171 Nutrition Facts Panel, 9, 158, 166-168, 169, 171, 335 percent Daily Value, 166-167, 171 recommendation, 8-9, 171 research needs, 9, 171 restaurant foods, 163-164, 165, 168, 197, 356 serving size, 167, 168, 356 warnings, 353, 356 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, 166, 170 n.8 Nutrition standards, 44, 125, 129-130, 131, 134 O Obesity. See also Childhood and adolescent obesity; Epidemic of childhood/adolescent obesity; Prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity BMI, 22, 54-55, 63 Ohio, 67, 206, 207, 247 Older children and youth family decision-making responsibilities, 304-305 fast food consumption, 163 healthful eating behaviors, 290-292 1% or Less campaign, 180 Orthopedic problems, 67 Overweight age-specific trends, 63, 80 BMI, 80, 336 defined, 55, 80, 336 P Parents as advocates, 300 defined, 14 eating behavior, 305-306 involvement in interventions, 287 labor force participation, 25, 26 media campaigns targeting, 179, 183 nutrition education, 142, 287, 299 obese or overweight, 64-65, 93, 104, 199, 289 perception of weight as health issue, 42-43, 65-66, 269, 306-308 physical activity patterns of, 297-298, 302 physician counseling for, 222 promoting healthy food choices, 14-15, 287-296 promoting physical activity, 14-15, 299, 300-301 as role models, 183, 195, 197, 273, 286, 292, 298, 305-306 Partnership for a Walkable America, 141, 213 n.2 Partnership for the Public’s Health, 200 Partnership to Promote Healthy Eating and Active Living, 84, 141 Pathways, 245, 246, 262-263 Pawtucket Heart Health Program, 179, 196 Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS), 139 Pennsylvania, 207 Physical activity. See also Inactivity; Sedentary behavior and academic performance, 253 active living, 155 n.1, 331 adults, 29, 35, 179 after-school programs, 260, 272-274 age and, 98, 296-297, 302-303 benefits of, 98-99, 253, 300 biological correlates, 69, 296-297 built environment and, 38, 125, 132, 196, 204-211 changes needed, 128, 252-263 classroom curricula, 255, 262-263 community mobilization, 44, 179-180, 196, 197, 201, 202, 211-215 competitive sports, 202, 258-259, 299 counseling, 223 dance classes, 257 defined, 97, 336 developmental correlates, 296-297 economic environment and, 100, 102 education programs, 141-142, 299 effectiveness of interventions, 256-258, 262-263 endurance training, 256-257 and energy balance, 92, 98-99, 102 environmental influences, 102, 105, 257 evaluation of programs and policies, 213, 260, 274-275, 364 extracurricular programs, 258-259 family-based interventions, 299-300 food intakes and, 91, 245 funding for programs, 44

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance gender differences, 257-258, 296-297 home environment and, 14-15, 296-301 industry-sponsored efforts, 182 interactive effects of diet and, 92-93 interventions, 136-137, 141-142, 179-180, 182, 211-215, 223, 245 leisure time, 36, 105, 159-160 measurement of, 98-99, 205, 209 media campaigns, 179-180 outdoor play, 205, 222, 299, 300 parental role, 299 PE classes and recess, 35, 37, 125, 253-258, 259, 336 physical environment and, 125, 132, 196, 204-211, 299 promoting, 44, 141-142, 148, 161, 179-180, 200-201, 222, 299 psychosocial and behavioral correlates, 98-99, 297 public programs, 141-142 race/ethnicity and, 29-30, 205, 257 recommendations, 6, 259-261, 273 recommended levels, 29 n.3, 98, 253 reducing sedentary behaviors, 263-264, 301-305 research needs, 261, 300 safety issues, 205, 211, 299, 300 school-based interventions, 43, 245, 256-258, 299 social environment and, 297-299 socioeconomic status and, 105, 201, 205, 206, 298-299 surveillance, 29, 137, 140 transportation patterns and, 37-39, 71 trends, 29, 35-39, 160 TV viewing and, 301-305 types, 29 walking and biking, 37, 38-39, 92, 125, 141, 160, 211-215, 259, 300 Physical environment. See also Built environment; Food environment; School food and beverages and food intake, 100, 101 and physical activity, 100, 102 Physical fitness, 129, 137, 140, 141, 269-270, 334, 336 Planet Health, 137, 245, 246-247, 263, 264 Policy/political environment agricultural policies, 144-146 food environment and, 100, 101, 144-146, 369 and implementation of interventions, 348 and physical activity, 100, 102, 214 public opinion and, 178-179 Portion sizes, 358, 369 age and, 165 of away-from-home foods 158 control, 165, 294-296 defined, 158 n.3 and eating behavior, 158, 291-292, 294-296 marketing strategy, 158-159, 366 quantifying dietary intakes, 98 regulation of, 362 trends, 27, 30 Potatoes, 28 Pregnancy gestational diabetes, 65, 288 intrauterine environment, 65, 95, 288, 289 obesity during, 65, 288, 289 President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, 141 Prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity adult obesity and, 22, 63-65 away-from-home foods and, 26, 331 BMI distribution, 61-62, 73 in ethnic groups, 1, 26-27, 58-61, 94, 105-106 food environment and, 356-357 high-risk population subgroups, 58-61, 72-73 overall burden, 1-2, 55-58 population genetics and, 94 regional differences, 61 socioeconomic status and, 60-61, 104-105 Prevention of childhood/adolescent obesity. See also Action plan for prevention; Intervention programs annual report on, 130-131 behaviors targeted, 222 clinical screening and tracking, 221-224, 226 community health services, 221-225, 226, 348-349 congressional support, 131, 177 coordinating task force, 5-6, 130-131, 147 cost considerations, 100 current efforts, 125-126

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance definitions, 81-83, 337 economic benefits of, 72 energy balance, 90-106 federal commitment to, 5, 129-131 food industry as target of, 370 global dimension, 371 government support and funding, 5-6, 128 guide to preventive services, 209, 348-349 individual-level approach, 86, 87, 107-108, 109, 110, 221-223 individual responsibility vs. collective action, 369 insurance coverage, 100, 224, 225-226 intermediate goals, 86-87 legislation and regulations, 360-361 lessons learned from other initiatives, 103, 109, 125, 128, 179-183, 344-352, 369-370 longitudinal studies, 140-141, 209 multifactorial approaches, 16, 46-47, 81-82, 83, 109, 125, 126, 128, 178, 179, 245-246, 249, 299, 322, 344, 349-352, 370 national priorities, 5-7, 127, 129-131, 147-148 population-level approach, 82, 86, 87, 88-90, 107-109, 125, 199-201 primary prevention approach, 82, 107, 115, 337 psychosocial considerations, 222 public health precedents for, 24, 44-47, 83, 107, 179-183, 321, 350-351 public-private partnerships, 141 social environment and, 320, 365-367 sociocultural considerations, 100, 103, 106, 109-110, 369 stakeholders, 16, 19, 127, 320, 321, 324 state and local priorities, 6, 131-134, 148 targeted to high-risk populations, 81, 142 treatment distinguished from, 81-82 Prevention research. See also Evaluation of prevention interventions best practices and effectiveness evaluations, 97-115, 344-345, 346, 370-371 causality and, 108-109 clinical practice approach, 107-108, 109, 110 community-based, 134, 344-345 components of, 112-113 cost-effectiveness analyses, 136-137 developing recommendations, 111-115 experimental behavioral, 134, 135-136 falsifiability, 108 federal investment in, 135, 177 framework, 136 generalizability, 107-108, 111, 260, 345, 346, 350, 364 incorporation into program planning and implementation, 136 interdisciplinary and interdepartmental collaborations, 130, 134, 135 literature on, 114, 339-342 phases, 108 population-based, 110, 134 predictability, 107 public health approach, 108-110 randomized controlled trials, 110, 111, 114 recommendations, 148 replicability, 107-108 review of evidence, 107-115 scientific uncertainty and, 109 social values and, 109-110 standard of evidence, 111, 114 Project MOVE (Measurement of the Value of Exercise), 136-137 Protein, dietary consumption trends, 34 food supply trends, 34 Provider reminder systems, 46, 347, 348, 349 PsychINFO database, 339, 341 Psychosocial and behavioral considerations depression and depressive symptoms, 66, 67, 69-70, 105 and dietary intake, 95-98, 105 in energy balance, 69-70, 95-99 health costs of obesity, 23, 65, 66-67, 69-70, 71, 73 and physical activity, 98-99 stigmatization of obesity, 2, 23, 103 Puberty, 297 Public education areas of focus, 183-184 audience exposure, 180-181 barriers to success, 180-181 complementary components, 178 dietary interventions, 180, 345 evaluation and monitoring component, 178

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance funding for, 184 media campaigns, 9-10, 43, 128, 177-185, 353 nutrition and physical activity programs, 141-142 of parents, 179, 183 recommendations, 9-10, 183-185 sensitivity in design of, 178 Public health. See also Prevention of childhood/adolescent obesity access and opportunity issues, 356-358 achievements of 20th century, 21, 44-46, 346-348 action plan for preventions, 108-110, 115, 127, 129 agricultural policies and, 144-146, 148 community preventive services, 7, 125, 200, 346, 347, 348-349 criteria for comparison of prior approaches, 368 economic factors, 347, 358-360 evidence-based approach, 108-110, 126 framework for interventions, 352-367 implications of obesity epidemic, 22-24 individual and clinical efforts, 348, 365 information environment, 353-356 leadership, coordination, and priority setting, 7, 129-134 legal environment, 349, 360-361 lessons learned, 125, 128, 179-183, 344-352, 369-370 litigation, 362-364 media campaigns, 179-183, 346, 347, 349, 364-365 multi-problem approaches, 126, 349-352 nutrition assistance programs, 142-144, 148 nutrition education programs, 141-142 oversight and enforcement role, 133-134 physical activity programs, 141-142 precedents for prevention, 21, 24, 44-47, 83, 125-126, 128, 179-183, 343-371 prevention and treatment programs, 107-109, 364-365 product labeling, 356 recommendations, 131, 134, 135, 137, 140, 141, 142, 144, 147-148 regulatory environment, 361-362 research and evaluation, 107-109, 134-137, 148 school-based interventions, 347, 348, 349, 364 social environment and, 126-127, 365-367 state and local agencies, 133-134, 148 surveillance and monitoring, 137-141, 148 taxes on food and beverages, 146-147 Public Health Foundation, 218 Public interest in obesity and policy changes, 178-179, 365-367 raising, 306-308 trends, 40-43, 154 triggers for, 126-127 R Racial and ethnic disparities. See also Ethnic groups; Sociocultural environment in BMI, 58-60 in body size dissatisfaction, 103-104 in built environment, 205 community health interventions, 203 in energy balance, 105-106 in food access, 215-216 in physical activity opportunities, 205 in prevalence of obesity, 105-106 REACH 2010 initiative, 200 Recommendations evidence-based approach to developing, 16, 111-115, 323 Recreation industry. See Leisure, entertainment, and recreation industries Recreational facilities and programs, 202, 206, 211 Regional differences in prevalence of obesity, 61 Research priorities, 16-17, 88, 177, 322-325. See also Prevention research Restaurant industry. See also Away-from-home foods; Fast food advertising, 172, 175-176 healthier food options, 162, 163-164 nutrition education, 164-166 nutrition labeling, 163-164, 165, 168, 197, 356 recommendations, 8, 165-166 sales, 162 self-regulation, 175-176 Reyes Syndrome campaigns, 179

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance Risk, defined, 337 Risk analysis, defined, 337 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 206, 218 Role models health professionals as, 223 parents as, 183, 195, 197, 273, 292, 298, 305-306 Roper Youth Report, 173 S Safe Routes to School programs, 213, 214 Safety in built environment, 205, 207-208, 211 defined, 337 Satiety, 157, 159, 289, 294, 295 School Breakfast Program, 142, 143, 237 n.1, 239-241, 258-259 School environment after-school and extracurricular programs, 200, 258-259, 260, 272-274 behavioral nutrition curricula, 262-263 changes needed in, 248-250, 252-263, 264-265 Channel One News, 265, 266 classroom curricula, 253, 261-265 as community center, 272-274 competitive sports, 258-259 evaluation of programs and policies, 260, 274-275, 277-278 fitness screening and counseling, 269-272 health education, 14, 261-262 health services, 14, 269-272, 308, 349 interventions, 46, 114-115, 128, 137, 141, 197, 211-215, 244-247, 256-258, 349 location in community, 213-215 nutrition education programs, 141, 249-250, 273 PE classes, 125, 336, 253-258, 259, 260, 358 physical activity, 13, 14, 43, 211-215, 253-261, 262-263, 276-277, 358 prevention opportunities, 12-13, 237-238 rating, 218 recess, 255, 258 recommendations, 12-14, 114-115, 259-261, 264-265, 273, 276-278 reducing sedentary behaviors, 263-264 research needs, 261 tobacco prevention policies, 358 School food and beverages access to, 44, 252, 358 advertising, 14, 176, 251, 265-269 bonus commodities, 145, 248, 250 cafeteria offerings, 238-239, 240 changes needed in, 248-250, 252-263 competitive foods, 13, 241-244, 250, 251-252, 332 dietary intervention studies, 240-241, 244-247, 252-253, 364 energy density of, 240, 243 energy intakes, 237 environmental interventions, 245-246 federal meal programs, 142, 143, 145, 237, 239-241, 250, 337, 358, 364 fresh fruits and vegetables, 217, 242, 243, 247-248, 251, 291 funding of meals, 250, 252, 277 garden programs, 217, 248 menu planning, 239-240 nutrition guidelines, 239 nutritional quality and standards, 13, 240, 241, 243, 245, 249, 251, 277 pilot programs, 242, 247-248, 251, 252, 274, 277 pricing strategies, 251-252 recommendations, 13-14, 114-115, 248-250, 252-253, 276-277 research needs, 252-253 restricting sales of, 241-242, 249, 250, 358, 359 revenue issues, 250-252, 358, 359 standards setting, 44, 125, 129-130, 131, 134 training of food service personnel, 249-250 vending machines, 44, 114-115, 239, 241, 242, 243, 250, 251-252, 266, 358, 359, 364 School Health Index, 274-275 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS), 137, 139, 242, 253, 254, 266, 269 School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children, 240

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, 240, 250 Section 402 State and Community Highway Safety Grant program, 132 Sedentary behavior defined, 337 electronic media and, 40 energy expenditure patterns, 160 health care costs, 70 reducing, 263-264 Self-efficacy, 262 Self-esteem issues, 43 race/ethnicity and, 66 Self-help interventions, 126, 365 Serving size. See also Portion size defined, 158 n.3 infant feeding and, 290 package size and, 167, 168, 356 recommended, 165 Shaping America’s Youth, 44, 161 Sleep apnea, 67, 72 Small Steps campaign, 181 Smart Growth America, 210 Smart Growth Network, 210 Smart growth principles, 209, 210 Snacks and snacking activities needed to burn calories in, 92 energy-dense foods, 28, 92 Social change models, 351-352 Social cognitive theory, 262, 264 Social marketing campaign, 182-183, 184 Social movement theory, 350-351, 360 Social norms and values, 8, 15-16, 84-85, 91-92, 100, 103, 106, 126, 286, 320, 321, 369 Sociocultural environment body image, 66, 91-92, 100, 103-104 and energy balance, 84-85, 91-92, 100-106 and food intake, 100, 101, 106 and obesity, 64, 100 and physical activity, 100, 102 and prevention, 100, 103, 369, 371 prior reform movements, 45 stigmatization, 23, 43, 66, 100, 103 targeting interventions to, 198, 199-201, 203, 275 Socioeconomic status. See also Low-income populations and BMI, 60-61 and community interventions, 10, 203, 205 and energy balance, 104-105, 146-147 and healthy food access, 105, 106, 201 and intergenerational obesity, 65 and obesity prevalence, 10, 60-61, 104-105 and physical activity opportunities, 105, 201, 205, 207 racial/ethnic disparities, 60-61, 106, 201 Sociological Abstracts, 339, 341 Sodas and fruit drinks bans on school sales, 242 and BMI, 293-294 consumption trends, 293, 358 diet beverages, 156 energy density and nutrient density, 170 n.7, 293 limiting consumption, 222, 242 marketing contracts with schools, 251, 266 taxes on, 44, 128, 146-147, 359 South Australian Daily Physical Activity Program, 256-257 South Carolina, 61 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), 55, 65, 141, 142, 143-144, 216 Sports, Play and Active Recreation for Kids (SPARK), 247, 256 Stanford Adolescent Heart Health Program, 245, 247, 263 Stanford Dance for Health, 257 Stanford Five-City Project, 179-180, 196 Stanford SMART (Student Media Awareness to Reduce Television), 247, 263-264 Stanford Three Community Study, 179, 196 Steps to a Healthier U.S. Initiative, 132-133, 181, 204 Stereotyping, negative, 66 Stigmatization, 2, 23, 43, 66, 100, 103, 178, 222, 270 Stress response, 70 Stroke, 69 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, 179 Summer Food Service Program, 142 Surveillance and monitoring. See also individual surveys adolescent health and behavior, 60, 61, 62, 138, 139, 209 body weight, 89, 137, 140 collaborations, 137-138 dietary intake, 97, 137, 138

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance energy balance, 137 funding, 140 longitudinal studies, 140-141 needs, 140 nutrition and health, 29, 36, 54, 55-56, 60, 61, 63, 68, 89, 137, 138, 139 physical activity, 29, 137, 140 public health, 137-141 recommendations, 6, 140-141 school health policies and programs, 137, 139 time use, 60, 61, 62, 139, 159-160 transportation patterns, 38, 39, 138 Sweden, 44 Sweeteners. See Added caloric sweeteners T Task Force on Community Preventive Services, 299 Taxation and pricing interventions, 44, 128, 146-147, 178, 358-360 Team Nutrition, 141 Teasing, 100, 178 Television viewing advertising, 8, 44, 172, 174, 265, 301, 302, 355 bedroom sets, 39, 302, 304 household sets, 39 interventions to reduce, 200, 222, 247, 263-264, 303-304 mealtime viewing, 222, 293, 302 and obesity prevalence, 177-178, 301-302, 303 position statements of medical professionals, 224, 304 recommended limits, 15, 304, 308 time management monitor, 264 time spent, 39-40, 41, 114, 160-161, 301-302 Texas, 61 Tobacco control analogies, 45, 103, 107, 126, 128, 133, 146, 154, 178, 197, 199, 223, 350-351, 352-356, 357, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 366, 368, 369-371 Toddlers and young children food insecurity, 105 healthful eating behaviors, 290-292 predictors of energy intake, 158-159 Tort reform, 363-364 Transportation and access to healthy foods, 216 patterns, 37-39, 205, 211-212 Transportation Alternatives, 214 Transportation Research Board, 205, 341 Treatment of obesity prevention distinguished from, 81-82 research approach, 108 TRIS (Transportation Research Information Services) database, 339, 341 21st Century Community Learning Centers program, 273 Twin studies, 93, 94 2 Fruit ‘n’ 5 Veg Every Day, 180 U United Kingdom, 44, 213, 214, 248 University of California Cooperative Extension, 201 U.S. Census Bureau, 105 U.S. Conference of Mayors, 132 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 268, 332 Agricultural Marketing Service, 145 Cooperative Extension Service, 141 dietary guidelines, 96-97, 131, 164-165, 332 dietary intake surveys, 137-138 Farm Service Agency, 145 Healthy Eating Index, 96-97 and industry, 153 nutrition programs, 129, 141-142, 144, 145, 238, 239, 240, 250, 252 obesity prevention role, 13, 129, 130, 131 research on nutrition, 135 U.S. Department of Defense, 130, 131 Fresh Produce Program, 145, 248 U.S. Department of Education, 130, 131, 268, 273, 341 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 253, 332 collaboration with CDC, 200 dietary guidelines, 96-97, 131, 164, 332 funding of community-based health efforts, 132-133, 208 guideline development for advertising and marketing, 9, 175-176, 177 health and nutrition survey, 29, 36, 54, 55-56, 60, 61, 63, 68, 89, 137-138, 139, 140, 148

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Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance and industry, 153, 175-176 obesity prevention role, 129, 130, 131, 147, 204, 220-221 registry of research and intervention programs, 44 Small Steps campaign, 181, 184 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 130, 131 U.S. Department of Justice, 354 U.S. Department of the Interior, 130, 131 U.S. Department of Transportation, 130, 131, 208, 220-221 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), 221 V Vegetables. See Fruits and vegetables VERB campaign, 141, 182-183, 184 Virginia, 207 W Walking and biking opportunities built environment and, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211-215 Walking School Bus program, 213 Washington, 206 Weight. See Body weight Well-being, defined, 65, 337 West Virginia, 61, 250 White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, 182 Whites. See also Racial and ethnic disparities body image dissatisfaction, 66, 104 defined, 58 n.4 obesity prevalence, 143 World Health Organization, 290, 350, 367 Y YMCA, 202 Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey, 37 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 35, 137, 139, 209, 256, 258, 301 Z Zuni Indian Tribal Organization, 247