Geospatial Technology Competency Model establishes a link between competencies—the knowledge, skills, and abilities that an individual needs to do a job—and roles, which are groupings of work-related competencies. Many of the technical and analytical competencies listed in the model are directly related to the process of spatial thinking.
In short, therefore, workforce demands are changing; those demands can be met only if the K–12 education system produces graduates with the requisite skills and knowledge, with a commitment to lifelong learning, and with flexibility to adapt to change. Central to changing workforce needs are knowledge workers for the rapidly growing IT sector. Central to the IT sector and many other sectors is spatial thinking. To what extent does the K–12 educational system generate graduates with these spatial thinking skills? One answer can be found in the most recent international comparative survey of mathematics and science performance.
5.4THE 1999 TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE STUDY (TIMSS)
The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (formerly known as the Third International Mathematics and Science Study) is the international parallel to the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education through the Na-