accumulation of modest effects and/or can reveal whether the rates of learning change over time within curricular change.
The longitudinal study by Carroll (2001) showed that the effects of curricula may often accrue over time, but measurements of achievement present challenges to drawing such conclusions as the content and grade level change. A variety of measures were used over time to demonstrate growth in relation to comparison groups. The author chose a set of measures used previously in studies involving two Asian samples and an American sample to provide a contrast to the students in EM over time. For 3rd and 4th grades, where the data from the comparison group were not available, the authors selected items from the NAEP to bridge the gap. Table 5-1 summarizes the scores of the different comparative groups over five years. Scores are reported as the mean percentage correct for a series of tests on number computation, number concepts and applications, geometry, measurement, and data analysis.
It is difficult to compare performances on different tests over different groups over time against a single longitudinal group from EM, and it is not possible to determine whether the students’ performance is increasing or whether the changes in the tests at each grade level are producing the results; thus the results from longitudinal studies lacking a control group or use of sophisticated methodological analysis may be suspect and should be interpreted with caution.
In the Hirsch and Schoen (2002) study, based on a sample of 1,457 students, scores on Ability to Do Quantitative Thinking (ITED-Q) a subset of the Iowa Tests of Education Development, students in Core-Plus showed increasing performance over national norms over the three-year time period. The authors describe the content of the ITED-Q test and point out