learning, and teaching? Discuss the role of authors and developers in the process of evaluation.

  • How does your company consider the issues of implementation in relation to effectiveness, such as professional development, high-stakes tests, standards, technology, equity, and the adoption of materials and marketing issues?

Much of the debate around curriculum quality in the mathematics and mathematics education community resulted in part because content analysis is an ill-defined concept; therefore, we solicited statements on this topic. Sixteen prominent mathematicians and mathematics educators from a variety of perspectives on content analysis were identified. We sent a written request and received statements from eight: Richard Askey, University of Wisconsin, Madison; Eric Gutstein, University of Illinois, Chicago; Roger Howe, Yale University; William McCallum, University of Arizona; R. James Milgram, Stanford University; Luis Ortiz-Franco, Chapman University; Deborah Schifter, Education Development Center; and Hung Hsi Wu, University of California, Berkeley. We asked for their advice on content analysis by addressing the following questions:

  • What should be included in a content analysis?

  • How would you judge the quality of a content analysis?

  • What is the definition of content analysis?

  • Does your response represent the intended and enacted curriculum?

  • What references are available in the field on this topic?


We included evaluation studies that focused on one or more of the 13 NSF-supported or 6 commercially generated mathematics curricula, and whose authorship and affiliation were identified. Evaluation studies also had to fall into one of the following categories: (1) Comparative Analysis, (2) Case Study, (3) Content Analysis, (4) Synthesis Study, (5) Background Information, Historical Documentation, or Report to the NSF; and (6) Informative Study (Chapters 4 through 6 provide category descriptions.) We did not wish to limit its initial review to published studies because the topic is relatively current and some papers may not yet have been published. Dissertations would have been excluded if only published studies had been chosen, and we believed these studies could contain useful information. Finally, we sought studies from the following classifications pertaining to curriculum implementation:

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