B

Balance, in content analyses, 83–85

Balanced assessment, of outcome measures, 116

“Between” comparisons, 157

Bias

evaluator, 138

randomization to avoid, 63

reducing, 110

Bonferroni method, 111

C

Calculators, allowing during test taking, 53–54

Case studies, 28, 30, 60, 167–180.

See also Comparative studies;

Content analyses;

Synthesis studies

assessment of, 3, 5

authors’ backgrounds in, 32

comments on, 178–180

criteria for inclusion, 168–169

differential impact on different student populations, 172–175

in establishing curricular effectiveness, 8–9

findings, 171

interactions among curricula and common practices, beliefs, and understandings, 176–177

patterns in findings, 172

professional development, 177–178

school location, by study type, 33

the studies, 169

time management, 178

Case studies methodology, 60, 170–171

backing claims by evidence and argument, 170

defining the case, 170

“minimally methodologically adequate” studies, 97, 101–103, 115, 118–119, 136–137, 150, 155, 164

replicability of design, 170–171

revealing mechanisms at play during implementation of a curriculum, 171

triangulation of evidence from multiple sources, 60

Catalytic programs, 53

Chi-square tests, 128, 157

Claims, backing with evidence and argument, 170

Clarity of objectives, of content analyses, 77–78

Classroom observations, 114

Classroom teachers. See Teachers

CMP. See Connected Mathematics Project

Commercial publishers. See Publishers

Commercially published (non-NSF-funded) curricula, 15, 20–22, 97, 99–100, 105, 120, 142–143, 145, 149, 152–153, 156, 158–159, 162–164, 168, 198

for elementary school, 21, 29, 169

and the filters, studies of, 142

for high school, 22, 29, 169

major textbook publishers, 20–21

market studies not useful in evaluating curricular effectiveness, 28

for middle school, 21, 29, 169

secrecy with which market share data are held, 20

Community factors, 44

Comparative analyses, 7–8

appropriate statistical tests, 7

constraints as to generalizability of study, 7

disaggregated data, 7, 158, 200

in establishing curricular effectiveness, 7–8

extent of implementation fidelity, 7

outcome measures that can be disaggregated, 7

random assignment, 7

Comparative curricula, for content analyses, selection of, 74–75

Comparative research designs, 58–59

Comparative studies, 2–4, 28, 30, 57–58, 96–166

assessment of, 2–4

authors’ backgrounds in, 32

“between” comparisons, 157

comparability of samples, 3

conclusions from, 164–166

defining, 97

description of comparative studies database on critical decision points, 104–164

an evolving methodology, 96

implementation fidelity, 3



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