available research on the ways in which the validity of inferences based on test results is affected by accommodations and provides a recommendation for further research in this area. Chapter 6 discusses the kinds of validation arguments that should be articulated for NAEP and for other large-scale assessments. Chapter 7 provides an overview of the primary implications of the committee’s findings and recommendations both for NAEP and for the states. The committee’s findings and recommendations are presented at the end of the chapters that discuss the evidence on which they are based.

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