Appendix B
Survey Data from Federal Agencies and Nonfederal Organizations



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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research Appendix B Survey Data from Federal Agencies and Nonfederal Organizations

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research TABLE B-1 Funding Levels for Water Resources Research for all the Federal Agencies, and Levels for EPA, NSF, and DOI for FY1999–2001 (data in the thousands of dollars; not adjusted for inflation)   All Federal Agencies EPA Research Category 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 I. Nature of Water   A. Properties of water 680 1087 1251       B. Aqueous solutions 6919 10066 11008       Subtotal 7599 11153 12259       II. Water Cycle   A. General 10635 14209 10290       B. Precipitation 14369 14693 14831       C. Snow, ice, and frost 5090 4964 5122       D. Evaporation and transpiration 8590 9390 9498       E. Streamflow and runoff 4961 5332 5449       F. Groundwater 15541 16286 19776 100 281 389 G. Water and soils 9816 10047 10365       H. Lakes 7561 10661 11412 800 4437 5270 I. Water in plants 10214 14487 12406       J. Erosion and sedimentation 14765 14577 15343       K. Chemical processes 9882 12762 10912       L. Estuaries 3459 11404 13669   8596 10338 M. Global water cycle problems 12143 12024 12073       Subtotal 127026 150835 151147 900 13314 15997 III. Water Supply Augmentation and Conservation   A. Saline water conversion 4699 4439 3719       B. Water yield improvement 3131 3784 4764       C. Use of water of impaired quality 856 1353 1128       D. Conservation in domestic and municipal use 110 7 20       E. Conservation in industrial use 375 296 426       F. Conservation in agricultural use 4224 4577 4796       Subtotal 13394 14456 14853       IV. Water Quantity Management and Control   A. Control of water on surface 22391 24480 23333       B. Groundwater management 4420 3227 5485       C. Effects on water of man’s nonwater activities 3353 4378 4526       D. Watershed activities 11114 13544 13839 6716 8990 9421 Subtotal 41278 45629 47183 6716 8990 9421

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research NSF USGS USBR 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 680 1087 1251   6305 9551 10474 614 515 534       6985 10638 11725 614 515 534       503 3059 662 1741 1741 1648       7824 7643 7627       269 232 168 811 749 949 1113 1230 1133       3068 3504 3221 705 686 747 103 361 293 291 357 369 2112 2039 1981 235 336 279 1534 1598 2077 10631 10977 13479 202 225 48 2454 2994 2837 1065 954 1078       861 370 849 1854 1819 1907       3223 6492 3763   421 512 540 5148 4217 4314 223 551 638 3898 7187 5123 5574 4988 5478       661 186 537 2382 2206 2228       8012 7652 7563 1417 1043 1249       33561 42302 36118 33742 31900 35242 1032 1705 1426   4699 4439 3719 131 30 45       23 135 121 81   535   106 2 14   54   356   372 32 950       4722 4574 3840 158 1126 170 381 391 399 2037 2712 2657 100 1115 95 436 433 452 192 26 159 292 835 190 194 260 316       155 107 106   705 3183 561 1011 1084 1167 2229 2738 2816

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research   All Federal Agencies EPA Research Category 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 V. Water Quality Management and Protection   A. Identification of pollutants 28055 27433 34754 11226 9966 10323 B. Sources and fate of pollution 63604 61622 67469 3785 4497 4713 C. Effects of pollution on water resources 33152 30999 31661 6541 5399 4265 D. Waste treatment processes 23535 23845 26344       E. Ultimate disposal of wastes 4567 4753 4845       F. Water treatment and distribution 8761 11623 11692 6699 9182 9273 G. Water quality control 17677 18922 25919 3213 5887 4826 H. Effects of waterborne pollution on human health 10961 12472 17777 4628 2212 6200 Subtotal 190311 191669 220460 36092 37143 39600 VI. Water Resources Planning and Other Institutional Issues   A. Techniques of planning 2286 2194 991       B. Evaluation process 1998 1729 470 455 439   C. Economic issues 1687 881 935       D. Water demand 641 746 593       E. Water law and institutions 1035 40 45       F. Nonstructural alternatives 250 286 311       G. Risk perception and communication 1526 2583 1061 331 465 110 H. Other social sciences 88 233 280       I. Water resources policy 1360 1141 391       Subtotal 10871 9834 5077 786 904 110 VII. Resources Data   A. Network design 1866 1990 1990 295 262   B. Data acquisition 3750 4033 4962     750 C. Evaluation, processing, and publication 2693 2656 2335       Subtotal 8309 8679 9286 295 262 750

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research NSF USGS USBR 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 3795 5228 4945 3884 3753 4392 207 202 251 9935 12267 12501 13571 13460 12977 169 296 164 1539 784 984 13869 13377 14295       3333 4639 5311       646 845 895 845 1021 984 1758 1698 1762       1428 1988 2276   1805 1182 1168 146 95 333 772 825 668 765 1128 1124   23444 28237 29292 33228 32383 33759 1794 2168 1978 1023 762 30   1023 762 30   1206 333 314       36 98 166 206 333 314 150 138         1000     25 60 84 75 845 109       42 14     136 240   1149 930 203       49 60 168 5682 4102 1240 150 138   152 232 418 84 137 146 400 467 619       84 137 146 1602 1622 1856 79 145 40 72 117 125       1 40 55 240 391 417 2002 2089 2475 80 185 95

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research   All Federal Agencies EPA Research Category 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 VIII. Engineering Works   A. Structures 8912 10321 8918       B. Hydraulics 106 224 142       C. Hydraulic machinery 574 882 735       D. Soil mechanics 1619 1130 1982       E. Rock mechanics and geology   F. Concrete 576 340 483       G. Materials 1570 1671 1232       H. Rapid excavation   I. Fisheries engineering 20143 39757 32469       J. Infrastructure repair and rehabilitation 3303 3734 2792 230     K. Restoration engineering   L. Facility protection 150 59 199       Subtotal 36953 58118 48951 230     IX. Manpower, Grants, and Facilities   A. Education—extramural 2187 4973 7925       B. Education—in-house 22 32 31       C. Capital expenditures for research facilities 2060 19171 17873 187     D. Grants, contracts, and research act allotments 3818 3818 4218       Subtotal 8087 27994 30047 187     X. Scientific and Technical Information   A. Acquisition and processing 15 15 15       B. Reference and retrieval 15 15 15       C. Secondary publication and distribution     135       D. Specialized information center services 751 824 1332       E. Translations   F. Preparation of reviews 179 315 352       Subtotal 960 1168 1849       XI. Aquatic Ecosystem Management and Protection   A. Ecosystem and habitat conservation 59932 61813 63639 12472 10016 12242 B. Aquatic ecosystem assessment 59940 62139 60619 31869 28056 27082 C. Effects of climate change 13446 9593 16611 3069   5328 D. Biogeochemical cycles 21331 24891 22485 147 98 124 Subtotal 154648 158436 163354 47557 38170 44776 Total Water Resources Research 599436 677971 705336 92576 98970 110654

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research NSF USGS USBR 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001   106 224 142   574 882 735 716 384 1292       96 116 133   49 52 95   253 244 182       2000 2000 2000 443 457 769 275 148 497       117 113 228 150 59 199   1141 591 1988 2000 2000 2000 1638 2088 2284 1337 3049 6112   2060 4860 3604   14124 14269             3818 3818 4218       3397 7909 9716 3818 17942 18487           135   751 824 1332   157 293 330   908 1116 1797   10260 13006 11274 15837 15486 15970 270 201 354 10791 15468 13552 13360 14336 14561 254 316 444 5454 5848 6354 2624 2395 2368       14365 18069 14383 2840 2840 2808       40869 52391 45563 34661 35057 35707 524 517 798 117303 150892 139365 111226 123108 129371 12171 14207 13655

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research TABLE B-2 Funding Levels for Water Resources Research for the USDA for FY1999–2001 (data in the thousands of dollars; not adjusted for inflation)   USDA Total ARS Research Category 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 II. Water Cycle   A. General 2919 2933 2495 2919 2668 2330 B. Precipitation 2363 2658 2446 2363 2658 2446 C. Snow, ice, and frost 971 997 1099 971 997 1099 D. Evaporation and transpiration 3889 4009 4401 3889 4009 4401 E. Streamflow and runoff 1196 1465 1674 1196 1465 1494 F. Groundwater 2754 2880 3453 2754 2880 3453 G. Water and soils 4847 4649 5000 4576 4399 4845 H. Lakes 644 650 0 644 650   I. Water in plants 6441 7445 8093 6441 7445 8093 J. Erosion and sedimentation 8596 8797 9351 6672 6880 7121 K. Chemical processes 160 337 61 60 60 61 L. Estuaries 16 16 166 16 16 166 M. Global water cycle problems 1474 2089 2021 1474 2089 2021 Subtotal 36270 38925 40260 33975 36216 37530 III. Water Supply Augmentation and Conservation   A. Saline water conversion   B. Water yield improvement 2977 3619 4598 2977 3619 4598 C. Use of water of impaired quality 775 953 963 775 953 963 D. Conservation in domestic and municipal use   E. Conservation in industrial use 318 292 65 210 210   F. Conservation in agricultural use 4218 4570 4788 4054 4344 4684 Subtotal 8288 9434 10414 8016 9126 10245 IV. Water Quantity Management and Control   A. Control of water on surface 10805 11108 11198 1275 809 798 B. Groundwater management 3672 1628 4749 3672 1628 4598 C. Effects on water of man’s nonwater activities 2867 3283 4020       D. Watershed activities 4243 4447 4312 3963 4447 4312 Subtotal 21587 20466 24279 8910 6884 9708

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research CSREES ERS USFS 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001   265 165       180   271 250 155     1924 1917 2230 100 277   371 792 500       1924 1917 2230 108 82 65   164 226 104   272 308 169   8466 9221 9254       1064 1078 1146     151       290       2867 3283 3730 280   8746 9221 9695       3931 4361 4876

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research   USDA Total ARS Research Category 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 V. Water Quality Management and Protection   A. Identification of pollutants 1112 1007 1013 365 466 155 B. Sources and fate of pollution 7394 8710 10290 6213 7502 8814 C. Effects of pollution on water resources 980 1851 2162 914 1206 1565 D. Waste treatment processes 1408 1467 2411 639 781 538 E. Ultimate disposal of wastes 1964 2034 2099 1964 2034 2099 F. Water treatment and distribution 634 453 143 634 453 143 G. Water quality control 11726 10915 18903 6915 6072 9106 H. Effects of waterborne pollution on human health   Subtotal 25218 26437 37021 17644 18514 22420 VI. Water Resources Planning and Other Institutional Issues   A. Techniques of planning 53 404 54 53 53 54 B. Evaluation process 275 275 275       C. Economic issues 420 420 420       D. Water demand 270 257 258 92 92 93 E. Water law and institutions   F. Nonstructural alternatives 220 220 220       G. Risk perception and communication   260         H. Other social sciences   I. Water resources policy   Subtotal 1238 1836 1227 145 145 147 VII. Resources Data   A. Network design 712 744 780 712 744 780 B. Data acquisition 88 89 90 88 89 90 C. Evaluation, processing, and publication 283 178 180 283 178 180 Subtotal 1083 1011 1050 1083 1011 1050 IX. Manpower, Grants, and Facilities   A. Education—extramural   974 554       B. Education—in-house   C. Capital expenditures for research facilities   D. Grants, contracts, and research act allotments   Subtotal   974 554      

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research CSREES ERS USFS 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 747 541 858   1181 1208 1476   66 645 597   769 686 1873   4811 4843 9797   7574 7923 14601     351         275 275 275             220 220 220 200 200 200       178 165 165             220 220 220         260     611   893 880 880 200 200 200   974 554     974 554  

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research WERF AWWARF TNC 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 200   100     350       200   100     350             470 75                   350             470 75 350       200 100         250   200 100   250  

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research   Nonprofit Total Research Category 1999 2000 2001 V. Water Quality Management and Protection   A. Identification of pollutants 1561 2482 3495 B. Sources and fate of pollution 1438 1449 1275 C. Effects of pollution on water resources 3189 1222 1152 D. Waste treatment processes 2589 3307 3384 E. Ultimate disposal of wastes 1230 850 604 F. Water treatment and distribution 2553 1910 3747 G. Water quality control 1198 1943 3169 H. Effects of waterborne pollution on human health 1509 1289 754 Subtotal 15267 14452 17580 VI. Water Resources Planning and Other Institutional Issues   A. Techniques of planning 1021 834 1580 B. Evaluation process 514 313 200 C. Economic issues 450 180 168 D. Water demand 103 52 181 E. Water law and institutions   333 33 F. Nonstructural alternatives 399 402 331 G. Risk perception and communication 1317 1014 1261 H. Other social sciences     455 I. Water resources policy 13 13 15 Subtotal 3817 3141 4224 VII. Resources Data   A. Network design 28 76 64 B. Data acquisition 260 462 126 C. Evaluation, processing, and publication 25 289 455 Subtotal 313 827 645 VIII. Engineering Works   A. Structures 317 429 504 B. Hydraulics 892 923 1089 C. Hydraulic machinery   100 60 D. Soil mechanics   2 33 E. Rock mechanics and geology     8 F. Concrete 100     G. Materials   H. Rapid excavation   I. Fisheries engineering 15     J. Infrastructure repair and rehabilitation 550 1142 913 K. Restoration engineering 5     L. Facility protection   200 150 Subtotal 1879 2796 2757

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research WERF AWWARF TNC 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 300 700 1700 861 1360 1315       300   100 338 450 203       2300 800 700 350   2000 2500 1900   1000 500 400 230 350 150           200 2346 1760 3360       100 500 800   200 750         500 300 1300 500 75       6000 5500 6100 5425 4620 5853             840   650       300   200 175 300               450   150               300           300   700   500         455       300 300 200 2165 600 1755         200     200       375         200     200 375           200     100   100   100   200 450 650 250               200 150       200 100 400 450 850 400      

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research   Nonprofit Total Research Category 1999 2000 2001 IX. Manpower, Grants, and Facilities   A. Education—extramural 2217 3060 3788 B. Education—in-house 188     C. Capital expenditures for research facilities   D. Grants, contracts, and research act allotments   Subtotal 2405 3060 3788 X. Scientific and Technical Information   A. Acquisition and processing 20 20 40 B. Reference and retrieval 20 2 2 C. Secondary publication and distribution   D. Specialized information center services   E. Translations   F. Preparation of reviews   37 3 Subtotal 40 59 45 XI. Aquatic Ecosystem Management and Protection   A. Ecosystem and habitat conservation 9161 9905 9614 B. Aquatic ecosystem assessment 903 1148 1286 C. Effects of climate change     15 D. Biogeochemical cycles     100 Subtotal 10064 11053 11015 Total Water Resources Research 36745 38630 46303

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research WERF AWWARF TNC 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001   500         9050 9300 9500   500         9050 9300 9500 6900 6700 6800 8760 6345 9083 9050 9300 9500

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research TABLE B-7 Funding Levels for Water Resources Research for the four largest WRRIs for FY1999–2001 (data in the thousands of dollars; not adjusted for inflation)   Nevada Research Category 1999 2000 2001 I. Nature of Water   A. Properties of water   B. Aqueous solutions   Subtotal   II. Water Cycle   A. General 14     B. Precipitation   C. Snow, ice, and frost   D. Evaporation and transpiration   E. Streamflow and runoff     29 F. Groundwater   G. Water and soils   H. Lakes   I. Water in plants   J. Erosion and sedimentation   K. Chemical processes   L. Estuaries   M. Global water cycle problems   Subtotal 14   29 III. Water Supply Augmentation and Conservation   A. Saline water conversion   B. Water yield improvement 136 37   C. Use of water of impaired quality   D. Conservation in domestic and municipal use   E. Conservation in industrial use   F. Conservation in agricultural use   Subtotal 136 37   IV. Water Quantity Management and Control   A. Control of water on surface   9 12 B. Groundwater management   6 61 C. Effects on water of man’s nonwater activities   D. Watershed activities   Subtotal   15 73

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research Texas Utah Pennsylvania 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001     25       25   24     50   24     20 118 118 179 90   57     18 23 28 41             32 34 61           50 6 9 10           40 11 16 31   20 172     45 92 99 174           8 6 6 10           10     5           20       15       320 457 549     18       220 269 1372     21       25       290 288 310 511 630 746 2150     45   600 502 464         42 129   348 353     204 210     772 978   600 1826 2050         42 129 150 75 65       25 22 16 35           10       8   150 75 108 22 16 35      

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research   Nevada Research Category 1999 2000 2001 V. Water Quality Management and Protection   A. Identification of pollutants     12 B. Sources and fate of pollution 77 73 124 C. Effects of pollution on water resources 117     D. Waste treatment processes   E. Ultimate disposal of wastes   F. Water treatment and distribution   G. Water quality control 133 50 144 H. Effects of waterborne pollution on human health   Subtotal 327 123 280 VI. Water Resources Planning and Other Institutional Issues   A. Techniques of planning   29   B. Evaluation process   C. Economic issues   D. Water demand   E. Water law and institutions   F. Nonstructural alternatives   G. Risk perception and communication   H. Other social sciences   I. Water resources policy   Subtotal   29   VII. Resources Data   A. Network design   B. Data acquisition   C. Evaluation, processing, and publication   Subtotal   VIII. Engineering Works   A. Structures   B. Hydraulics   C. Hydraulic machinery   D. Soil mechanics   2 13 E. Rock mechanics and geology   F. Concrete   G. Materials   H. Rapid excavation   I. Fisheries engineering   J. Infrastructure repair and rehabilitation   K. Restoration engineering   L. Facility protection   Subtotal   2 13

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research Texas Utah Pennsylvania 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001     40 400 422 428           15 419 533 668 304 393 165     30       422 422 422     20 76 67 53 513 740 1411   54     10 57   27 150 150 150     16 743 911 1123 222 282 336     5 209 289 374           136 1904 2222 2673 1611 1987 2538     120 116 104 86 65 701 724       39 13             18         180       120 103 52 61         33 33         399 402 331           5 617 714 748     8     15 13 13           33 311 1287 1298 1226 65 881 732       28 76 64             37 106 113 223 156 13       25 89 80             90 271 257 223 156 13     40 113 126 66 204 303 198     60 892 923 1029           60       20       8         15     492 463         5     492 651 1025 1049 1095 204 303 198

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research   Nevada Research Category 1999 2000 2001 IX. Manpower, Grants, and Facilities   A. Education—extramural   B. Education—in-house   C. Capital expenditures for research facilities   D. Grants, contracts, and research act allotments   Subtotal   X. Scientific and Technical Information   A. Acquisition and processing   B. Reference and retrieval 20     C. Secondary publication and distribution   D. Specialized information center services   E. Translations   F. Preparation of reviews   37 3 Subtotal 20 37 3 XI. Aquatic Ecosystem Management and Protection   A. Ecosystem and habitat conservation   B. Aquatic ecosystem assessment   C. Effects of climate change   D. Biogeochemical cycles   Subtotal   Total Water Resources Research 497 243 398

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Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research Texas Utah Pennsylvania 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 100 1010 1052 422 588 619 1695 1462 2117   188     100 1010 1052 422 588 619 1883 1462 2117 20 20 40           2 2       20 20 40   2 2           40 94 88 57 17 17 17     20 759 1009 1092 144 139 174     15   100     75 853 1097 1149 161 156 291 870 3456 4763 5891 6853 7567 4777 5733 8192