Index

A

Access to health care, 3, 7, 36, 92, 93

see also Health insurance;

Patientcompliance;

Self-care practices;

Utilization of health care

early life disadvantage, 107

prejudice and discrimination, 77

research recommendations, 6, 102

Adolescents

multiracial self-identification, 10

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 108

socioeconomic status and behavior risk factors, 35

African Americans, see Black persons

Age factors, see Life cycle factors

AIDS, see HIV

Alaska Natives, 1

behavioral risk factors, 62, 63, 68

health and disability, general, 20-21, 26, 29

health insurance, 95

historical perspectives, 12

mortality, 17, 26

prejudice and discrimination, 81

quality of health care, 97

racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10-11, 13, 14

research recommendations, 26, 28

reservation inhabitants, 13-14

risk factors, 28

socioeconomic status, 56-57

Alcohol use and abuse, 32, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66

prejudice and discrimination, 78

Alternative and complementary medicine, 112

research recommendations, 6, 114

Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, 20, 23

genetics and, 50

psychosocial factors, 72

stress on spouse, 83

American Indians, 1

see also Alaska Natives

behavioral risk factors, 62, 63, 68, 118

causes of death, 18, 19

health and disability, general, 20-21, 26, 29

health insurance, 95

health promotion, 113

hospitalization, 13-14

mortality, 13, 16, 17, 18, 26

prejudice and discrimination, 12, 81

quality of health care, 96, 97

racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10, 11, 13-14

research recommendations, 26, 28

reservation inhabitants, 13-14, 29



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 161
Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda Index A Access to health care, 3, 7, 36, 92, 93 see also Health insurance; Patientcompliance; Self-care practices; Utilization of health care early life disadvantage, 107 prejudice and discrimination, 77 research recommendations, 6, 102 Adolescents multiracial self-identification, 10 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 108 socioeconomic status and behavior risk factors, 35 African Americans, see Black persons Age factors, see Life cycle factors AIDS, see HIV Alaska Natives, 1 behavioral risk factors, 62, 63, 68 health and disability, general, 20-21, 26, 29 health insurance, 95 historical perspectives, 12 mortality, 17, 26 prejudice and discrimination, 81 quality of health care, 97 racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10-11, 13, 14 research recommendations, 26, 28 reservation inhabitants, 13-14 risk factors, 28 socioeconomic status, 56-57 Alcohol use and abuse, 32, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66 prejudice and discrimination, 78 Alternative and complementary medicine, 112 research recommendations, 6, 114 Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, 20, 23 genetics and, 50 psychosocial factors, 72 stress on spouse, 83 American Indians, 1 see also Alaska Natives behavioral risk factors, 62, 63, 68, 118 causes of death, 18, 19 health and disability, general, 20-21, 26, 29 health insurance, 95 health promotion, 113 hospitalization, 13-14 mortality, 13, 16, 17, 18, 26 prejudice and discrimination, 12, 81 quality of health care, 96, 97 racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10, 11, 13-14 research recommendations, 26, 28 reservation inhabitants, 13-14, 29

OCR for page 161
Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda risk factors, 28, 62, 63, 68, 118 socioeconomic status, 56-57 targeted interventions, 118 Asians/Pacific Islanders, 2 behavioral risk factors, 3, 62, 63, 65 causes of death, 18, 19-20 diabetes, 19-20 disease prevalence, 23-24 early life disadvantage, 105 educational status, 57 health and disability, general, 20-21, 23-24, 26 health insurance, 92, 93 health promotion, 113 mortality, 13, 16-20 (passim), 27, 65, 105 quality of health care, 96, 99 racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10, 11, 13 religious beliefs, 74 socioeconomic status, 56, 57 stress, 83, 84 Attitudes and beliefs see also Prejudice and discrimination; Stress personal resources, 73 provider stereotyping, 3, 99-101, 102, 103 providers, distrust of, 102 self-esteem, 78, 106 self-rated health status, 21, 34 self-reported risk behaviors, 61, 63, 65 B Behavioral risk factors, 8, 32-33, 34, 61-69, 111-121 see also Alcohol use and abuse; Diet andnutrition; Individual behavior; Life cycle factors; Obesity; Physical exercise; Psychosocial factors; Smoking; Stress; Violence Alaska Natives, 62, 63, 68 American Indians, 62, 63, 68, 118 Asians, 3, 62, 63, 65 blacks, 3, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 74, 116 educational status and income, 61 health promotion, 4, 5, 111-121 Hispanics, 3, 61, 63, 65 religious influences, 9, 33, 35, 39, 50, 71-75 (passim) research recommendations, 4, 5, 67-69 self-reported, 61, 63, 65 sexual, 66-67 sociocultural factors, 62, 64, 66, 68, 69, 115-121 socioeconomic status and, 35, 58, 62-64, 65, 66, 68 substance abuse, 66 whites, 62, 63, 65-66, 68, 116 Beliefs, see Attitudes and beliefs Biopsychosocial factors, see Psychosocial factors Black persons, 1, 2, 29 Alzheimer’s disease, 20, 23 behavioral risk factors, 3, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 74, 116 cancer, 22, 98, 101 cardiovascular disease, 18, 19, 20, 21-22, 52, 64, 87-88, 96, 98 causes of death, 2, 18-20 (passim) cerebrovascular disease, 22, 96 diabetes, 22, 96, 101, 118 disease prevalence, specific conditions, 22-23 early life disadvantage, 105, 106 educational status, 57 health and disability, general, 20-21, 22-23, 29 health insurance, 92-94, 95 health promotion, 113, 116, 119 historical perspectives, 12, 29 hospitalization, 96, 97-98, 99 income, 29 prejudice and discrimination, 77, 80, 81, 87-88, 99, 100 quality of health care, 95-102 (passim) racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10, 11 religious beliefs, 74 research recommendations, 25, 27, 68, 102, 120 risk factors, general, 28 self-care, 101 slavery, 12 smoking, 3, 63, 65, 116 socioeconomic status, 56, 57, 83-84, 92-94, 95, 101-102, 119, 120 stress, 83-84, 85, 87 C Cancer behavioral risk factors, 61 blacks, 22, 98, 101

OCR for page 161
Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda cause of death, 18, 19 educational status, 55 prevalence by sex, 24 prevalence by sex and race, 22 quality of health care, 96, 98 women, 24, 96, 101, 113 Cardiovascular disease, 34, 109 Asians, 52 behavioral risk factors, 61, 64 black persons, 18, 19, 20, 21-22, 52, 64, 87-88, 96, 98 cause of death, 18, 19, 20, 84 educational status, 55 genetics and, 52, 87 Hispanics, 52, 96 prejudice and discrimination, 78, 79, 87-88 psychosocial factors, 3, 71, 72, 74, 84, 86, 87-88, 90 quality of health care, 96, 98 religious influences, 71, 74 stress and, 3, 84, 87-88 whites, 52, 64 Causes of death, 2, 18-20, 84 see also Mortality Census data multiracial self-identification, 10 population size, by race, 11 Cerebrovascular disease blacks, 22, 96 cause of death, 18, 19 educational status, 55 quality of health care, 96 whites, 18, 22, 23 Cognitive functioning, 15, 23 see also Alzheimer’s disease and dementia; Mental health and illness alcohol consumption, 66 Hispanics, 23 research recommendations, 26-27 Cohort analysis, 3, 20, 21 allostatic load, 88 committee recommendations, 4, 6, 27, 108-109, 110 genetics and environment, 53 health promotion, 112, 114 life cycle research, 108-109, 110 prejudice and discrimination, 78, 80-81 selection processes, 40-41 Commonwealth Minority Health Survey, 83 Complementary medicine, see Alternative and complementary medicine Cultural factors, see Sociocultural factors; specific racial/ethnic groups D Definitional issues allostatic load, 88 behavioral risk factors, 65 physiological reactivity, 87, 88 racial and ethnic groups, 9-11, 13-14, 27, 39-40 disease prevalence statistics, 24 genetics, 46-49, 53 mortality rates, 15 racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10, 14, 39-40, 76 racism, prejudice, and discrimination, 76, 79 research priorities, 33 stress, 82 Diabetes, 34 behavioral risk factors, 64 blacks, 22, 96, 101, 118 cause of death, 18, 19 educational status, 55 health promotion, 112 Hispanics, 2, 18, 19, 23, 96, 118 prevalence by sex and race, 22 quality of health care, 96 research recommendations, 26 self-care, 101 targeted interventions, 118 Diet and nutrition, 32, 64, 121 see also Obesity genetics and, 49 Disabilities and disabled persons, 14-15, 20-21 see also Diseases and disorders personal resources, 73 Discrimination, see Prejudice and discrimination Diseases and disorders, general, 7, 21-25, 32, 34 see also Behavioral risk factors; Causes of death; Disabilities and disabled persons; Incidence and prevalence; Risk factors; specificdisease categories (e.g., Cardiovascular disease)

OCR for page 161
Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda Alaska Natives, 20-21, 26, 29 allostatic load, 88 American Indians, 20-21, 26, 29 Asians, 20-21, 23-24, 26 blacks, 20-21, 22-23, 29 early life disadvantage, 107 educational status, 55, 58 Hispanics, 20-22, 23, 25, 26, 31 religious influences, 71 genetic factors, 49 psychosocial factors, 86, 90 research recommendations, 4, 25, 26-27, 90 socioeconomic status, 55, 57 stress, 83 whites, 21-22, 25, 29 Drug abuse, see Substance abuse E Economic factors, 7 see also Employment; Health insurance; Income; Socioeconomic factors access to health care, 92 incentives and disincentives, 115 selection processes, 42 Educational attainment, 4, 30, 33, 35, 55-57, 58 multiracial self-identification, 10 prejudice and discrimination, 76 research recommendations, 27, 60 self-care practices, 58 Employment, 3, 33, 40, 42, 54, 59 immigrants, 68 occupational hazards, 50, 82, 83, 91 prejudice and discrimination, 76, 77 stress, 83, 91 Environmental contaminants and degradation, 7, 34, 53, 59, 67, 92 behavioral risk factors, 64 early life disadvantage, 107 prejudice and discrimination, 34, 76 targeted interventions, 118 Exercise, see Physical exercise G Gender factors alcohol consumption, 66 Alzheimer’s disease, 20 behavioral risk factors, 65 cancer, 24, 96, 101, 113 cardiovascular disease, 21-22 educational attainment, 57 health and disability, general, 21 health promotion, 96, 101, 113 income, 55-56 socioeconomic status, 55-56 specific diseases, prevalence by sex and race, 21-22 Genetic factors, 33, 34, 35, 46-53 alcohol consumption, 66 committee charge/methodology, 8 environment-gene interactions, 35 selection processes, 39 sociocultural factors and, 47, 50 utilization of health care and, 49-50 Geographic factors quality of health care, 3, 5, 98-99 research recommendations, 5, 102, 103 H Handicapped persons, see Disabilities and disabled persons Health care, 92-103 see also Access to health care; Health care professionals; Health insurance; Patient compliance; Quality of health care; Treatment issues; Utilization of health care self-care practices, 33, 34, 36, 58, 101-102 Health care professionals provider stereotyping, 3, 99-101, 102, 103 providers, distrust of, 102 research recommendations, 6, 102, 103 Health insurance, 92-95, 97, 102 Medicaid, 94, 96, 97 Medicare, 93-97 (passim), 101, 119 Health promotion, 4, 5, 111-121 cohort analysis, 112, 114 gender factors, 96, 101, 113 research recommendations, 5, 114-115, 120-121 targeted interventions, 117-118, 121 Heart disease, see Cardiovascular disease Hispanics, 2 behavioral risk factors, 3, 62, 63, 65, 68-69 causes of death, 18, 19

OCR for page 161
Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda diabetes, 2, 18, 19, 23, 96, 118 disease prevalence, 21-22, 23, 25 early life disadvantage, 105 educational status, 57 health and disability, general, 20-22, 23, 25, 26, 31 health insurance, 92-94 health promotion, 113, 119 income, 29, 31 mortality, 2, 3, 13, 14, 16-19, 25, 27, 43, 65, 105 quality of health care, 95-97, 98, 99, 101, 102 racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10-11, 13 research recommendations, 25, 26, 68-69, 102 respiratory diseases, 23, 96 selection processes, 39-40, 41-42, 43 self-care, 101 socioeconomic status, 56, 57, 119 stress, 85 targeted interventions, 118 Historical perspectives, 11-12, 28-29, 119 early health disadvantage, 105 prejudice and discrimination, 11-13, 77, 80, 84 social and economic policy, 119-120 HIV cause of death, 20 self-care, 101 Homicide, 20 Hospitals and hospitalization, 96-98, 99, 102-103 American Indians, 13-14 blacks, 96, 97-98, 99 I Immigrants, 2-3 see also Hispanics behavioral risk factors, 66 historical perspectives, 12-13 mortality, 26, 43 prejudice and discrimination, 78, 81 racial/ethnic identification, 10, 11 regulatory measures, 119 research recommendations, 26 selection processes, 39-40, 41, 42 slavery, 12 stress, 84 whites, 12 Immunologic factors behavioral risk factors, 64 early life disadvantage, 108 genetics and, 52 psychosocial factors, 86, 88-89 Incidence and prevalence, 5 see also Mortality cancer, 22, 24 gender factors, 21-22 Hispanics, 21-22, 23, 25 mental illness, 20, 23, 24-25 respiratory diseases, sex and race, 22, 23 Income, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35, 57-58 see also Socioeconomic status gender factors, 55-56 research recommendations, 59 Indian Health Service, 95 Indians, see American Indians Individual behavior, 28-29, 33, 111-114 see also Behavioral risk factors; Educational attainment; Psychosocial factors racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10 socioeconomic status, 58 Insurance, see Health insurance Interdisciplinary studies, 1, 4, 32, 33, 86 causal processes, 37 committee charge/methodology, 8 Interventions, see Health promotion; Treatment issues L Latinos, see Hispanics Life cycle factors, 4, 7, 36, 104-110 see also Adolescents alcohol consumption, 66 behavioral risk factors, 62, 66 cohort analysis, 108-109, 110 early health disadvantage, 17, 104-108, 109 health promotion, 114 mortality rates, age-adjusted, 2, 15, 16, 17, 34, 105 prejudice and discrimination, 6, 80-81 research recommendations, 4, 5, 59, 108-110 selection processes, 40-41 self-rated health status, 21 sexual behavior, 67 socioeconomic status, 55, 56, 59, 60

OCR for page 161
Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda stress, 82 targeted interventions, 118, 121 violence, 106, 107 Life expectancy, 29, 34 blacks, 1, 15 Hispanics, 16 whites, 15 Lifestyle risk factors, see Behavioral risk factors; Health promotion Longitudinal studies, 20, 21, 108-109 see also Cohort analysis caregiver stress, 83 committee recommendations, 4, 6 prejudice and discrimination, 78 psychosocial factors, 70-71 social policy, 120 socioeconomic status, 56 M Macarthur Successful Aging Cohort study, 110 Medicaid, 94, 96, 97 Medicare, 93-97 (passim), 101, 119 Men, see Gender factors Mental health and illness, 72, 84-85 see also Alzheimer’s disease and dementia; Psychosocial factors; Stress; Violence disease prevalence statistics, 20, 23, 24-25 early life disadvantage, 106 educational status, 55 prejudice and discrimination, 77 research recommendations, 26-27 sexual behavior, 67 Metabolic syndrome, 89 Methodology, see Research methodology Mortality, 14-20 see also Causes of death; Life expectancy age-adjusted, 2, 15, 16, 17, 34, 105 Alaska Natives, 17, 26 alcohol consumption, 66 allostatic load, 88 American Indians, 13, 16, 17, 18, 26 Asians, 13, 16-20 (passim), 27, 65, 105 blacks, 2, 3, 13-20 (passim), 25, 27, 41, 105 early life disadvantage, 17, 105, 106, 107 educational status, 55 Hispanics, 2, 3, 13, 14, 16-19, 25, 27, 43, 65, 105 infant, 17, 105 racial self-identification and, 13 research recommendations, 4, 5, 25-26, 27, 37, 90 psychosocial factors, 71, 90 selection processes, 40-41, 43 socioeconomic status, 55 stress, 83, 84 vital statistics, 37 whites, 2, 3, 13-20 (passim), 25, 27, 41, 65 Multidisciplinary studies, see Interdisciplinary studies N National Health Interview Survey, 20, 21 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 108 Native Americans, see Alaska Natives; American Indians Neoplasms, see Cancer Neurological factors see also Alzheimer’s disease and dementia; Cerebrovascular disease; Psychosocial factors; Stress early life disadvantage, 106 neurovisceral factors, 71, 89-90 research recommendations, 27 Nontraditional medicine, see Alternative and complementary medicine Nutrition, see Diet and nutrition; Obesity O Obesity, 61, 62, 63, 65-66, 121 immigrants, 66 socioeconomic status, 4 Office of Management and Budget, 10 P Panel studies, see Cohort analysis Patient compliance, 3, 33, 36, 102, 103 see also Access to health care; Utilization of health care Physical exercise, 3, 32, 63 educational status, 66 socioeconomic status, 4

OCR for page 161
Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda Policy issues, 28-31, 102, 115-121 see also Health promotion; Quality of health care; Research recommendations genetics and, 47 historical perspectives, 119-120 research recommendations, 4, 6, 120-121 Population size projections, 2, 11 racial group breakdowns, table, 11 Poverty, see Income; Socioeconomic factors Prejudice and discrimination, 3, 28-29, 34, 35-36, 76-81, 83 blacks, 77, 80, 81, 87-88, 99, 100 cardiovascular disease, 78, 79, 87-88 cohort studies, 78, 80-81 committee charge/methodology, 9 defined, 76, 79 employment, 76, 77 environmental contaminants and degradation, 34, 76 historical perspectives, 11-13, 77, 80, 84 lifetime impacts, 6, 80-81 minorities other than blacks, 6, 12, 81 provider stereotyping, 3, 99-101, 102, 103 providers, distrust of, 102 quality of health care, 3, 77, 99-101, 102, 103 research recommendations, 4, 5, 6, 33, 79-81, 91 stress, 77-79, 83, 84 targeted interventions, 117-118, 121 Prevalence, see Incidence and prevalence Psychosocial factors, 28, 34, 36, 70-75, 84-85, 86-91 see also Attitudes and beliefs; Behavioral risk factors; Individual behavior; Mental health and illness; Prejudice and discrimination; Sociocultural factors; Stress cardiovascular disease, 3, 71, 72, 74, 84, 86, 87-88, 90 immune system, 86, 88-89 metabolic syndrome, 89 physiological reactivity, 87, 88, 90 racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10, 13 religious influences, 9, 33, 35, 39, 50, 71-75 (passim) research recommendations, 5, 6, 33, 74-75, 90-91 treatment, general, 72, 74-75 Q Quality of health care, 3, 36, 92, 95-103 see also Health promotion; Patient compliance cancer, 96, 98 cardiovascular disease, 96, 98 cerebrovascular disease, 96 geographic variation, 3, 5, 98-99 health insurance coverage and, 92 prejudice and discrimination, 3, 77, 99-101, 102, 103 R Racism, see Prejudice and discrimination Reciprocal causation, 35, 38-39, 41-42, 44, 54-56, 60 Religious influences, 9, 33, 35, 39, 50, 71-75 (passim) Research methodology, 1-2, 23, 26, 36-39 see also Cohort analysis; Definitional issues; Interdisciplinary studies; Longitudinal studies behavioral risk factors, 65 causal processes, 1, 36-39, 48-49 committee study charge/methodology, 2, 7-9, 10-11 early life disadvantage, 107 experimental and quasi-experimental designs, 38, 50-51, 78-79, 110, 115-116 genetics, 46-52 historical perspectives, 1 prejudice and discrimination, 77-81 psychosocial factors, general, 72, 86-87 reciprocal causation, 35, 38-39, 41-42, 44, 54-56, 60 selection processes, 4, 5, 38-45, 54-56, 60 socioeconomic status, 59-60 vital statistics, 37 Research recommendations, 4-6, 30-31 access to health care, 6, 102 Alaska Natives, 26, 28 American Indians, 26, 28 behavioral risk factors, 4, 5, 67-69 blacks, 25, 27, 68, 102, 120 cognitive functioning, 26-27 cohort studies, 4, 6, 27, 108-109, 110 committee charge/methodology, 2, 8

OCR for page 161
Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda definitional issues, 33 educational attainment, 27, 60 environmental factors, 53 health care professionals, 6, 102, 103 health promotion, 114-115 Hispanics, 25, 26, 68-69, 102 genetics, 53 geographic factors, 5, 102, 103 life course research, 4, 5, 59, 108-110 mortality, 4, 5, 25-26, 27, 37, 90 nature of ethnic and racial differences, 25-29 neurology, 27 policy issues, 4, 6, 120-121 prejudice and discrimination, 4, 5, 6, 33, 79-81, 91 psychosocial factors, 5, 6, 33, 74-75, 90-91 quality of health care, 102-103 risk factors, general, 4, 5, 25, 26-28 selection processes, 44-45 sociocultural influences, 27, 68, 69 socioeconomic status, 4, 5, 59-60, 119 stress, 5, 6, 85 utilization of health care, 6, 102, 114 vital statistics, 37 whites, 25, 68, 102 Respiratory disease cause of death, 18, 19 educational status, 55 Hispanics, 23, 96 prevalence by sex and race, 22, 23 quality of health care, 96 Risk factors see also Behavioral risk factors; Genetic factors; Life cycle factors; Psychosocial factors; Stress American Indians, 28, 62, 63, 68, 118 research recommendations, 4, 5, 25, 26-28 stress, impacts on other risk factors, 83 S Selection processes, 4, 5, 38, 39-45 reciprocal causation, 35, 38-39, 41-42, 44, 54-56, 60 Self-care practices, 33, 34, 36, 101-102 educational status, 58 Self-esteem, 78, 106 Self-rated health status, 21, 34 behavioral risk factors, 61, 63, 65 socioeconomic status, 55-56 Sex-related difference, see Gender factors Sexual behavior, 66-67 Smoking, 3, 32, 61, 62, 63, 64, 113, 116-117 blacks, 3, 63, 65, 116 immigrants, 66 prejudice and discrimination, 78 socioeconomic factors, 3, 62-63, 65 Sociocultural factors, 7, 28-29, 32-34, 43, 70-75 see also Immigrants; Policy issues; Prejudice and discrimination; Psychosocial factors adaptive health behaviors, 33, 35 alcohol use, 62 alternative and complementary medicine, 6, 112, 114 behavioral risk factors, 62, 64, 66, 68, 69, 115-121 committee charge/methodology, 8 early life disadvantage, 107 genetics and, 47, 50 health and disability, general, 20 health promotion, 113-121 Indian reservations, 13-14, 29 prejudice and discrimination, 77 racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10, 14, 39-40, 76 religious influences, 9, 33, 35, 39, 50, 71-75 (passim) research recommendations, 27, 68, 69 selection processes, 39 self-care, 58, 101 sexually transmitted diseases, 67 Socioeconomic status, 3, 8, 29-35 (passim), 54-60, 119-121 see also Educational attainment; Employment; Income behavioral risk factors, 35, 58, 62-64, 65, 66, 68 blacks, 56, 57, 83-84, 92-94, 95, 101-102, 119, 120 gender factors, 55-56 health promotion, 113, 114 Hispanics, 56, 57, 119 life cycle factors, 55, 56, 59, 60 Medicaid, 94, 96, 97 Medicare, 93 mortality rates, 16

OCR for page 161
Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda prejudice and discrimination, 36, 81 research recommendations, 4, 5, 59-60, 119 selection processes, 42 smoking, 3, 62-63, 65 stress, 83, 84 whites, 57, 65 Stress, 3, 36, 82-85 see also Prejudice and discrimination allostatic load, 88 blacks, 83-84, 85, 87 cardiovascular disease, 3, 84, 87-88 caregivers, elderly, 83 defined, 82 genetics and, 52 immunologic response, 88-89 physiological reactivity, 87, 88, 90 prejudice and discrimination, 77-79, 83, 84 research recommendations, 5, 6, 85 socioeconomic status, 83, 84 targeted interventions, 118 whites, 82, 84 Substance abuse, 66 T Tobacco use, see Smoking Treatment issues, 92 see also Access to health care; Alternative and complementary medicine; Health care professionals; Health insurance; Health promotion; Hospitals and hospitalization; Patient compliance; Utilization of health care behavioral interventions, 111-114 genetics and, 52-53 health insurance coverage and, 92 psychosocial factors, 72, 74-75 U Utilization of health care, 8, 33, 36, 62, 92, 93 see also Access to health care; Patient compliance; Self-care practices disease prevalence statistics, 24 early life disadvantage, 107 genetics and, 49-50 providers, distrust of, 102 research recommendations, 6, 102, 114 socioeconomic status and, 36 V Violence, 33, 83 black neighborhoods, 67 early life disadvantage, 106, 107 homicide, 20 Vital statistics, 37 W White persons, 1, 2 Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, 20, 23 behavioral risk factors, 62, 63, 65-66, 68, 116 cardiovascular disease, 52, 64 causes of death, 2, 18-20 cerebrovascular disease, 18, 22, 23 diabetes, 22, 23 disease and conditions, general, 21-22, 25, 29 educational status, 57 health and disability, general, 20-21, 29 health insurance, 92-94, 95 historical perspectives, immigrants, 12 mortality, 2, 3, 13-20 (passim), 25, 27, 41, 65 quality of health care, 95, 97-98, 102 racial/ethnic identification, 9, 10, 11 religious beliefs, 74 research recommendations, 25, 68, 102 self-care, 101 socioeconomic status, 57, 65 stress, 82, 84 Women, see Gender factors World Health Organization, 25

OCR for page 161
Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda This page intentionally left blank.