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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. NO1-OD-4-2319 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and contract 32467 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Examining the Probable Consequences of Alternative Patterns of Widespread Antiretroviral Drug Use in Resource-Constrained Settings.

Scaling up treatment for the global AIDS pandemic : challenges and opportunities / Committee on Examining the Probable Consequences of Alternative Patterns of Widespread Antiretroviral Drug Use in Resource-Constrained Settings, Board on Global Health ; James Curran . . . [et al.], editors.

p. ; cm.

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 0-309-09264-7 (pbk.)

1. AIDS (Disease) 2. AIDS (Disease)—Developing countries. 3. Antiretroviral agents—Developing countries.

[DNLM: 1. HIV Infections—drug therapy. 2. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. 3. Disease Outbreaks—prevention & control. 4. Health Planning—organization & administration. WC 503.2 I59s 2004] I. Curran, James W. II. Title.

RA643.8.I57 2004

362.196′9792′0091724—dc22

2004023710

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Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Cover: Detail of “Women’s Faces” by Lilian Nabulime, wood and metal, 2002. Lilian Nabulime is a respected Ugandan artist whose works focus on HIV and AIDS awareness and African women. Photograph by Alexander Calder, Curator, The Art Room, San Francisco, CA.

Printed in the United States of America.

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.



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