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591 Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Contributors Rosalyn Ashby is a lecturer in education in the History in Education Unit in the School of Arts and Humanities in the University of London Institute of Education. Her work focuses on designing history curricula, assessment sys- tems, and support materials for teachers. She now leads a history teacher- training course Pr or to becoming a university lecturer, AshLy taught his- tory, politics and economics, and then worked as a history adviser with primary and secondary teachers. She has published numerous articles and book chapters, including many coauthored with Peter Lee regarding children's ideas about history. She is an editor of the Internationa/ Review of History Education. She has a degree in Amencan history and government from the IJniversi y of Essex. Robert B. Bain is assistant professor in the school of education at the Uni- versity of Michigan. He teaches social studies education and investigates history education, the intersection between the disciplines and social studies instruction, and professional development Previously, he spent more than 25 years as a high school history teacher. Among other publications, he has coauthored an article on professional development of elementary school teachers. John D. Ilransford (C17a7'7 ) is James W. Mifflin university professor and professor of education at the University of Washington in Seattle Previously, he was centennial professor of psychology and education and codirector of the Learning Technology Center at Vanderbilt University Early work by Bransford and his colleagues in the 1970s included research in the areas of

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592 HOW STUDENTS LEARN human learning and memory and problem solving; this research helped shape the "cognitive revolution" in psychology. An author of seven books and hundreds of articles and presentations, Bransford's work focuses on the areas of cognition and technology. He served as cochair of the National Research Council (NRC) comr ittee that authored How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School He received a Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from the University of Minnesota. Susan Carey is a professor of psychology at Harvard University. Carey's research concerns the evolutionary and ontogenetic origins of human knowl- edge in a variety of domains, including number, lexical semantics, physical reasoning, and reasoning about intentional states. She studies conceptual change involving older children, and focuses on three domains of knowl- edge: number, intuitive biology, and intuitive physics. She received a Ph.D. from Harvard University. Jennifer L Cartier is an assistant professor in the Department of Instruc- tion and Learning at the University of Pittsburgh. Her research interests in- clude student learning in classrooms where modeling is a focus and teacher education particularly the ways in which hands-on curriculum materials can be implemented to engage elementary school students in realistic scien- tif~c practices. She has published articles describing students' reasoning in genetics in Science and Education and BioQUESTNotes and she has coau- thored a book chapter describing the use of black-box activities to introduce students to aspects of scientific argumentation. M. Suzanne Donovan (Study Director) is also director of the NRC's Stra- tegic Education Research Partnership (SERF) and coeditor of the project's two reports, Sfrafegic Laucafiozz Research Partnership and Learning and instruction: A SERP Research Agenda. At the NRC, she served as director of the previous study that produced How Peopke Learn: Bridging Research and Practice, and she was coeditor for the NRC reports Minority Students in Special and Girted Education and Eagerto Learn: Educating OurPreschoolers. Previously, she was on the faculty of Columbia University. She has a Ph.D. in public policy from the University of California at Berkeley. Kieran Egan is a professor in the Faculty of Education at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, Canada. Dr Egan was the 1991 winner of the Grawemeyer Award in Education for his analyses of children's imaginations. His recent books include The Educated Mind: How Cognitive Tools Shape Our Understanding (University of Chicago Press) and Getting It Wrongfrom file Beginning: Our Progressivisf Inheritance from Herbert Spencer, John Dewey, and Jean Piagef (Yale University Press).

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B OGFAFH CAL SKETCHES 593 Karen C. FT,lson is a professor emeritus in The School of Education and Social Policy and in The Psychology department at Northwestern University. After teaching high school madhematics to Chicago inner-city Afncan-Ameri- can students for 3 years, she began research to ascertain how to help all students enter high school with more knowledge of madhematics. She has conduced extensive research regarding children's learning of madhematical concepts from ages 2 through 12, focusing in on The development of effec- nve teaching and learning materials, including the "Children's Madh World's K through 5" curnculum, supporting effective learning for children from various backgrounds, and ambitious accessible learning padhs Through school mathematics. Fuson was a member of The NRC committee that authored Adding It Up Helping Children Learn Mathematics Sharon Griffin is an associate professor of education and an adjunct asso- ciate professor of psychology at Clark University. She is coauthor of "Num- ber Worlds," a research-based madhematics program for young children, coauthor of What Develops in Emotional Development? (Plenum), and au- dhor of several articles on cognitive development and madhematics educa- tion. For the past 10 years, she has sought to improve mathematics learning and achievement for young children by developing and evaluating programs to "provide the central conceptual prerequisites for success in school madh to children at risk for school failure." Griffin is currendy participating in an advisory capacity on national projects, in Canada and the United States, to enhance The cognitive, mathematical, and language development of "high- need" preschool children, from birth to 5 years. Mindy Kalchman is an assistant professor in The School of Education at DePaul University. Her research interests include children's learning of madh- ematics, dheory-based curriculum design, and The effect of discoveries from the field of developmental cognitive psychology on classroom practice. She has coaudhored numerous articles regarding madhematics education and cur- nculum and has conducted workshops on how to teach functions. Kalchman also served as a consulting content editor for The development of The Ontalio madhematics curriculum for grades - 12. She received her Ph.U.. from The Ontano Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. Kenned, R. Kocoinger is an associate professor in The Human Computer Interaction Institute and Psychology department at Carnegie Mellon Univer- sity. His research interests include cognitive modeling, problem solving and learning, intelligent tutoring systems, and educational technology Earlier in his career, Koedinger was a teacher in an urban high school. He has devel- oped computer simulations of student thinking That are used to guide The construction of educational materiels and are The core of intelligent software

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594 HOW STUDENTS LEARN systems That provide students with individualized interactive learning assis- tance. He has developed such "cognitive tutors" for madhematics That are now in use in over 1700 schools. Pamela Kraus is a research scientist and cofounder of FACET Innovations. She is currendy working on The t)iagnoser projects and related professional development projects and she is helping conduct The research and organize The facet clusters in the physical sciences. In addition, Kraus works closely with The resource teachers from across The state as they produce assessment tools. She received a Ph.U.. from The University of Washington. Peter J. Lee is a senior lecturer in education in the History Education Unit of The School of Arts and Humanities at The Institute of Education of The Uni- versity of London Previously, he taught history in primary and secondary schools. Lee has directed several research and curriculum development projects (dhe latter with Penis Shemilt). He has edited five books on history education, and published numerous chapters and articles exploring children's ideas about history, many of Them coauthored with Rosalyn AshLy. He is an editor of the International Review of History Education. He received a his- tory degree at Oxford University. ShirleyJ. Magnusson is dbe Cotchett Professor of Science and Mathematics Teacher Education at The California Polytechnic State University. She has taught science to students at The elementary, middle school, high school, and college levels since 1980. She joined the faculty at The University of Michigan in 1991 as a science teacher educator, specializing in learning and instruction in science at The elementary school level. She collaborated widh An enlace Palincsar on a program of research that has sought to define and study the outcomes from an approach to inquiry-based science instruction known as Guided inquiry supporting Multiple Literacies (GlsML) Publica- tions of Magnusson's work have appeared in The Journal of the Learning Sciences, Teaching and Teacher Education, the Journal of Science Educa- tion and Technology, and Learning Disabilities Quarterly, as well as a num- ber of books such as Science Teacher Know/edge, Cognition and Instruc- f ion: Twenty-five Years of Progress, and Translating ED ucational Theory into Peace ice. James Milnstrell is cofounder and research scientist at FACET innovations, LLC. This position followed a lengdhy career as a science and madhematics teacher and classroom researcher in The learning of physical science and madhematics. He received The Presidential Award for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Teaching from The National Science Foundation. Minstrell served on The U. s L)epartment of Education's Expert Panel on Science and

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B OGFAFH CAL SKETCHES 595 Madhematics Education. He has published numerous articles, with a major focus on understanding of madhematics and physics. Joan Moss is an assistant professor in The Department of Human Develop- ment and Applied Psychology at The Ontano Institute for Studies in Educa- tion at The University of Toronto Previously she worked as a master teacher at The Institute of Child Study Laboratory School. Her research interests in- clude children's development and understanding of rational numbers and proportional reasoning. More recently, Moss has been working on class- room-based studies of children's development of algebraic thinking. Her work in professional development includes preservice training, as well as coordination of learning opportunities with novice elementary school madh- ematics teachers using a Japanese lesson study approach. She has published widely and is an author of a madhematics textbook series. Moss carried out postdoctoral research at The University of California at Berkeley. Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar is The Jean and Charles Walgreen professor of reading and literacy at The University of Michigan's School of Education. She has conduced extensive research on peer collaboration in problem- solving activity, instruction to promote self-regulation, acquisition and in- struction of literacy with pnrnarv students at risk for academic difficulty, and how children use literacy in The context of guided inquiry expenences. She was a member of The NRC committees That produced The reports How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice, and Preventing Reading Di~icultit s in young Children Palincsar is currendy coeditor of Cognition and lnstruc- tion Cynthia M. Passmore is an assistant professor in The School of Education at the University of California, t)avis. She specializes in science education and is particularly interested in student learning and reasoning about scien- tific models. Her research also focuses on preservice and in-service teacher professional development. She teaches The science medhods courses for single and multiple subjects credential candidates, as well as graduate courses in science education Earlier in her career she worked as a high school science teacher in East Africa, Southern Califomia, and Wisconsin, Dents Shemilt has worked at The University of Leeds for more Than 25 years, where he has been evaluator of the Schools History Project 13-16, and codirector of the Camblidge History Project. Until recently, he was head of The School of Education at Tnnity and All Saints, a constituent college of The university, devoting time to educational management at The expense of real work. He is now focusing on training history teachers and pursuing a long- postponed interest in The development of students' historical frameworks.

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596 How STUDENTS LEARN He has published numerous contributions to history education, including the History 13-16 Evaluation Study and papers on students' ideas about change, evidence, and empathy in history. He received a degree in educa- tion from the University of Manchester James Stewart is a professor in the School of Education's Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His re- search interests include student understanding, reasoning, and problem solving in science, particularly in the biological sciences. Stewart's recent publica- tions include articles on student understanding in genetics and evolutionary biology in Science Educa lion and the Journal of Research in Science Teach- ing and a book chapter, "Teaching Science in a Multicultural Perspective." Suzanne M. Davison is a professor in the Department of Teacher Education and director of the Center for the Scholarship of Teaching at Michigan State University. She was a history and mathematics teacher for 6 years; directed the Teacher Assessment Project at Stanford University; taught third-grade social studies in a professional development school; and has directed sev- eral research projects exploring the relationship of teachers' practice to cur- nculum mandates. Wilson teaches prospective and practicing teachers, as well as prospective teacher educators and researchers. Samuel 5. Winehurg is professor of education at Stanford University, where he directs the Ph.U.. program in History Education. His research explores the development of historical thinking among adolescents and the nature of historical consciousness. Wineburg's book, Hisfori