Appendixes



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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing Appendixes

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing A Committee Member and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE MEMBERS SUSAN L. GRAHAM (NAE), Co-chair, is the Pehong Chen Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley, and the chief computer scientist of the National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure (NPACI). Her research spans many aspects of programming language implementation, software tools, software development environments, and high-performance computing. As a participant in the Berkeley UNIX project, she and her students built the Berkeley Pascal system and the widely used program profiling tool gprof. Their paper on that tool was selected for the list of best papers from 20 years of the Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation (1979-1999). She has done seminal research in compiler code generation and optimization. She and her students have built several interactive programming environments, yielding a variety of incremental analysis algorithms. Her current projects include the Titanium system for language and compiler support of explicitly parallel programs and the Harmonia framework for high-level interactive software development. Dr. Graham received an A.B. in mathematics from Harvard University and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from Stanford University. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 2000 she received the ACM SIGPLAN Career Programming Language Achievement Award. In

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing addition to teaching and research, she has been an active participant in the development of the computer science community, both nationally and internationally, over the past 25 years. She was the founding editor in chief of ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, which continued under her direction for 15 years. She has also served on the executive committee of the ACM special interest group on programming languages and as a member and chair of the ACM Turing Award committee. Dr. Graham has served on numerous national advisory committees, boards, and panels, including the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, the NRC’s Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, the advisory committee for the NSF Science and Technology Centers, and the advisory committee of the NSF Center for Molecular Biotechnology. Dr. Graham is a former member of the President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC). MARC SNIR, Co-chair, is Michael Faiman and Saburo Muroga Professor and head of the Department of Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Dr. Snir’s research interests include large-scale parallel and distributed systems, parallel computer architecture, and parallel programming. He received a Ph.D. in mathematics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1979 and worked at New York University on the Ultracomputer project from 1980 to 1982; at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem from 1982 to 1986; and at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center from 1986 to 2001. At IBM he headed research that led to the IBM scalable parallel (SP) system; contributed to Power 4 and Intel server architecture; and initiated the Blue Gene project. Dr. Snir has published more than a hundred papers on computational complexity, parallel algorithms, parallel architectures, interconnection networks, compilers, and parallel programming environments; he was a major contributor to the design of MPI. Dr. Snir is an ACM fellow and a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He serves on the editorial boards of Parallel Processing Letters and ACM Computing Surveys. WILLIAM J. DALLY received a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute, an M.S. degree in electrical engineering from Stanford University, and a Ph.D. degree in computer science from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). He is currently the Willard and Inez Bell Professor of Engineering at Stanford University, where his group developed the Imagine processor, which introduced the concepts of stream processing and partitioned register organizations, and chair of the Computer Science Department. Dr. Dally and his group have developed the system architecture, network architecture, signaling, rout-

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing ing, and synchronization technology that can be found in most large parallel computers today. While at Bell Telephone Laboratories he contributed to the design of the BELLMAC32 microprocessor and designed the MARS hardware accelerator. At Caltech, he designed the MOSSIM Simulation Engine and the Torus Routing Chip, which pioneered wormhole routing and virtual-channel flow control. While a professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), his group built the J-Machine and the M-Machine, experimental parallel computer systems that pioneered the separation of mechanisms from programming models and demonstrated very low overhead synchronization and communication mechanisms. Dr. Dally has worked with Cray Research and Intel to incorporate many of these innovations in commercial parallel computers and with Avici Systems to incorporate this technology into Internet routers. He cofounded Velio Communications to commercialize high-speed signaling technology, and he co-founded Stream Processors, Inc., to commercialize stream processing. He is a fellow of the IEEE and a fellow of the ACM and has received numerous honors, including the ACM Maurice Wilkes award. He currently leads projects on high-speed signaling, computer architecture, and network architecture. He has published over 150 papers in these areas and is an author of the textbooks Digital Systems Engineering (Cambridge University Press, 1998) and Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2003). JAMES W. DEMMEL (NAE) joined the computer science division and mathematics department at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1990, where he holds a joint appointment as the Dr. Richard Carl Dehmel Distinguished Professor. He is also the chief scientist of the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), an interdisciplinary research center dedicated to applying information technology to societal-scale problems such as energy efficiency, disaster response, environmental monitoring, transportation, health care, and education. Dr. Demmel is an expert on software and algorithms to facilitate computational science, having contributed to the software packages LAPACK, ScaLAPACK, BLAS, and SuperLU. He is an ACM fellow and an IEEE fellow and has been an invited speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians. He received a B.S. in mathematics from Caltech in 1975 and a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1983. JACK J. DONGARRA (NAE) is a University Distinguished Professor of Computer Science in the Computer Science Department at the University of Tennessee, a Distinguished Research Staff member in the Computer

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing Science and Mathematics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and an adjunct professor in the Computer Science Department at Rice University. He specializes in numerical algorithms in linear algebra, parallel computing, use of advanced computer architectures, programming methodology, and tools for parallel computers. His research includes the development, testing, and documentation of high-quality mathematical software. He has contributed to the design and implementation of the following open source software packages and systems: EISPACK, Linpack, the BLAS, LAPACK, ScaLAPACK, Netlib, PVM, MPI, NetSolve, TOP500, ATLAS, and PAPI. He has published approximately 300 articles, papers, reports, and technical memoranda and is coauthor of several books. He is a fellow of the AAAS, the ACM, and the IEEE. He earned a B.S. in mathematics from Chicago State University in 1972. A year later he finished an M.S. in computer science from the Illinois Institute of Technology. He received his Ph.D. in applied mathematics from the University of New Mexico in 1980. He worked at the Argonne National Laboratory until 1989, becoming a senior scientist. KENNETH S. FLAMM is a professor and Dean Rusk Chair in International Affairs at the University of Texas Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) School of International Affairs. He joined the LBJ School in 1998, is a 1973 honors graduate of Stanford University, and received a Ph.D. in economics from MIT in 1979. From 1993 to 1995, Dr. Flamm served as principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for economic security and as special assistant to the deputy secretary of defense for dual-use technology policy. Defense Secretary William J. Perry awarded him the DoD’s distinguished public service medal in 1995. Prior to and after his service at DoD, he spent 11 years as a senior fellow in the Foreign Policy Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. Dr. Flamm has been a professor of economics at the Instituto Tecnológico A. de México in Mexico City, the University of Massachusetts, and George Washington University. He is also currently a member of the National Academy of Science’s Science, Technology, and Economic Policy Board, its Steering Group on Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy, and its Committee on Capitalizing on Science, Technology, and Innovation. He has served as member and chair of the NATO Science Committee’s Panel for Science and Technology Policy and Organization, as a member of the Federal Networking Council Advisory Committee, the OECD’s Expert Working Party on High Performance Computers and Communications, various advisory committees and study groups of the National Science Foundation, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Defense Science Board, and the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment and as a consultant to government agencies, international organizations, and private corporations. Dr. Flamm teaches classes in

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing microeconomic theory, international trade, and defense economics, has published extensively on the economic impacts of technological innovation in a variety of high-technology industries, and has analyzed economic policy issues in the semiconductor, computer, communications, and defense industries. MARY JANE IRWIN (NAE) has been on the faculty at the Pennsylvania State University since 1977 and currently holds the A. Robert Noll Chair in Engineering in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Her research and teaching interests include computer architecture, embedded and mobile computing systems design, power-aware design, and electronic design automation. Her research is supported by grants from the MARCO Gigascale Systems Research Center, the National Science Foundation, the Semiconductor Research Corporation, and the Pennsylvania Pittsburgh Digital Greenhouse. She received an honorary doctorate from Chalmers University, Sweden, in 1997 and the Penn State Engineering Society’s Premier Research Award in 2001. She was named an IEEE fellow in 1995 and an ACM fellow in 1996 and was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2003. Dr. Irwin is currently serving as a member of the Technical Advisory Board of the Army Research Lab, as the co-editor in chief of ACM’s Journal of Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems, as a member of ACM’s Publication Board, and on the steering committee of the Computing Research Association’s (CRA’s) Committee on the Status of Women in Computer Science and Engineering. In the past she served as an elected member of the CRA’s Board of Directors, of the IEEE Computer Society’s Board of Governors, of ACM’s Council, and as vice president of ACM. She also served as the editor in chief of ACM’s Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems from to 1999 to 2004 and as chair of the NSF/CISE Advisory Committee from 2001 to 2003. Dr. Irwin has served in leadership roles for several major conferences, including as general chair of the 1996 Federated Computing Conference, general co-chair of the 1998 CRA Conference at Snowbird, general chair of the 36th Design Automation Conference, general co-chair of the 2002 International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, and general cochair of the 2004 Conference on Compilers, Architecture, and Synthesis for Embedded Systems. Dr. Irwin received her M.S. (1975) and Ph.D. (1977) degrees in computer science from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. CHARLES KOELBEL is a research scientist in the computer science department at Rice University. Dr. Koelbel’s area of expertise is in languages, compilers, and programming paradigms for parallel and distributed systems—in layman’s terms, developing computer languages and algorithms

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing that let several computers talk to each other and work together efficiently. He has contributed to many research projects while at Rice, mostly through the Center for Research on Parallel Computation, an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center with the mission to make parallel computation usable by scientists and engineers. These projects include the National Computational Science Alliance Technology Deployment Partners program, the DoD’s high-performance computing modernization program, and the Fortran D programming language project. He was executive director of the High Performance Fortran Forum, an effort to standardize a language for parallel computing. More recently, he served for 3 years as a program director at the National Science Foundation, where he was responsible for the Advanced Computational Research program and helped coordinate the Information Technology Research program. He is coauthor of The High Performance Fortran Handbook (MIT Press, 1993) and many papers and technical reports. He received his Ph.D. in computer science from Purdue University in 1990. BUTLER W. LAMPSON (NAE) is a Distinguished Engineer at Microsoft Corporation and an adjunct professor of computer science and electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was on the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley; at the computer science laboratory at Xerox PARC; and at Digital’s Systems Research Center. Dr. Lampson has worked on computer architecture, local area networks, raster printers, page description languages, operating systems, remote procedure call, programming languages and their semantics, programming in large, fault-tolerant computing, transaction processing, computer security, and WYSIWYG editors. He was one of the designers of the SDS 940 time-sharing system, the Alto personal distributed computing system; the Xerox 9700 laser printer; two-phase commit protocols; the Autonet LAN; Microsoft Tablet PC software; and several programming languages. He received an A.B. from Harvard University, a Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science from the University of California at Berkeley, and honorary science doctorates from the Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, and the University of Bologna. Dr. Lampson holds a number of patents on networks, security, raster printing, and transaction processing. He is a former member of the NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board. He has served on numerous NRC committees, including the Committee on High Performance Computing and Communications: Status of a Major Initiative. He is a fellow of the ACM and the AAAS. He received ACM’s Software Systems Award in 1984 for his work on the Alto, IEEE’s Computer Pioneer award in 1996, the Turing Award in 1992, the von Neumann Medal in 2001, and the NAE’s Draper Prize in 2004.

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing ROBERT F. LUCAS is the director of the computational sciences division of the University of Southern California’s Information Sciences Institute (ISI). He manages research in computer architecture, VLSI, compilers, and other software tools. Prior to joining ISI, he was the head of the High Performance Computing Research department in the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He oversaw work in scientific data management, visualization, numerical algorithms, and scientific applications. Prior to joining NERSC, Dr. Lucas was the deputy director of DARPA’s Information Technology Office. He also served as DARPA’s program manager for scalable computing systems and data-intensive computing. From 1988 to 1998, he was a member of the research staff of the Institute for Defense Analyses’ (IDA’s) Center for Computing Sciences. From 1979 to 1984, he was a member of the technical staff of the Hughes Aircraft Company. Dr. Lucas received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1980, 1983, and 1988, respectively. PAUL C. MESSINA retired in April 2002 from Caltech, where he was assistant vice president for scientific computing, director of Caltech’s Center for Advanced Computing Research, and faculty associate in scientific computing. He also served as principal investigator for the Distributed Terascale facility and Extensible Terascale facility projects at Caltech and was co-principal investigator of the National Virtual Observatory Project. From 2002 to 2004, Dr. Messina was a distinguished senior computer scientist (part time) at Argonne National Laboratory and until June 2003 was a senior advisor on computing to the director general of CERN, in Geneva. During a leave from Caltech from January 1999 to December 2000, he was Director of the Office of Advanced Simulation and Computing for Defense Programs in the NNSA at DOE. In that capacity he had responsibility for managing ASCI, the world’s largest scientific computing program, which is defining the state of the art in that field. He held the position of chief architect for the NPACI, a partnership established by the NSF and led by the University of California, San Diego. His recent interests focus on advanced computer architectures, especially their application to large-scale computations in science and engineering. He has also been active in high-speed networks, computer performance evaluation, and petaflops computing issues. Prior to his assignment at DOE, he led the computational and computer science component of Caltech’s research project, funded by the Academic Strategic Alliances Program (ASAP) of the ASC. In the mid-1990s he established and led the Scalable I/O (SIO) initiative. In the early 1990s, he was the principal investigator and project manager of the CASA gigabit network testbed. During that period he also conceived, formed, and led the Consortium for Concurrent Supercomputing,

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing whose 13 members included several federal agencies, the national laboratories, universities, and industry. That consortium created and operated the Intel Touchstone Delta System, which was the world’s most powerful scientific computer for 2 years. He also held a joint appointment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as manager of high-performance computing and communications from 1988 to 1998. Dr. Messina received a Ph.D. in mathematics in 1972 and an M.S. in applied mathematics in 1967, both from the University of Cincinnati, and a B.A. in mathematics in 1965 from the College of Wooster. In 1997 he was granted an honorary Ph.D. in computer engineering by the University of Lecce, Italy. He is a member of the IEEE Computer Society, the AAAS, the ACM, the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, and Sigma Xi. He is coauthor of four books on scientific computing and editor of more than a dozen others. JEFFREY M. PERLOFF is the chair of and a professor in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics at the University of California at Berkeley. His economics research covers industrial organization and antitrust, labor, trade, and econometrics. His textbooks are Modern Industrial Organization (coauthored with Dennis Carlton) and Microeconomics. He has been an editor of Industrial Relations and associate editor of the American Journal of Agricultural Economics and is an associate editor of the Journal of Productivity Analysis. He has consulted with nonprofit organizations and government agencies (including the Federal Trade Commission and the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and Agriculture) on topics ranging from a case of alleged Japanese television dumping to the evaluation of social programs. He has also conducted research in psychology. Dr. Perloff is a fellow of the American Agricultural Economics Association and a member of the board of directors of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He received his B.A. in economics from the University of Chicago in 1972 and his Ph.D. in economics from MIT in 1976. He was previously an assistant professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Pennsylvania. WILLIAM H. PRESS (NAS) is a senior fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). From 1998 to 2004 he served as deputy laboratory director for science and technology. Before joining LANL in 1998, he was professor of astronomy and physics at Harvard University and a member of the theoretical astrophysics group of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He is also the coauthor and co-maintainer of the Numerical Recipes series of books on scientific computer programming. Dr. Press was assistant professor of physics at Princeton University and Richard Chace Tolman research fellow in theoretical physics at Caltech, where he received a Ph.D. in physics in 1972. He is a member of the National

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing Academy of Sciences and was a founding member of its Computer and Information Sciences Section. He has published more than 140 papers in the areas of theoretical astrophysics, cosmology, and computational algorithms. He is also a fellow in the AAAS, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and a past recipient of an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation fellowship and the Helen B. Warner Prize of the American Astronomical Society. Dr. Press is a past co-chair of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications of the NRC and a past member of the Chief of Naval Operations’ Executive Panel, the U.S. Defense Science Board, NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, and a variety of other boards and committees. He has led national studies in subjects including high-bandwidth telecommunications (the Global Grid), national science and technology centers (especially for computational science), and a wide variety of national security issues. Dr. Press serves as a scientific advisor to the David and Lucille Packard Foundation and other foundations. He is a member of the board of trustees of the IDA and serves on its executive committee and on the external advisory committees of its CCS and CCR Divisions. He serves on the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Science and Technology Panel. ALBERT J. SEMTNER is a professor of oceanography at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. He received a B.S. in mathematics from Caltech and a Ph.D. in geophysical fluid dynamics from Princeton. His prior professional positions were in UCLA’s Meteorology Department and in the Climate Change Research Section of the NCAR. His interests are in global ocean and climate modeling and in supercomputing. Dr. Semtner has written extensive oceanographic codes in assembly language for shipboard use. He produced the first vectorized (Fortran) version of a standard ocean model in 1974 and the first parallel-vector version (in collaboration with Robert Chervin of NCAR) in 1987. He interacted with LANL scientists on transitioning the parallel-vector code to massively parallel architectures in the early 1990s. Under the leadership of Warren Washington of NCAR, he participated in the development of the DOE Parallel Climate Model using the Los Alamos Parallel Ocean Program and a parallel sea-ice model from the Naval Postgraduate School. That climate model has been ported to numerous parallel architectures and used as a workhorse climate model in numerous scientific applications. Dr. Semtner has been an affiliate scientist with NCAR for the last 12 years and simultaneously a member (and usually chair) of the Advisory Panel to the NCAR Scientific Computing Division. He is a winner (with R. Chervin) of a 1990 Gigaflop Performance Award (for the vector-parallel code) and the 1993 Computerworld-Smithsonian Leader-

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing ship Award in Breakthrough Computational Science (for global ocean modeling studies that included ocean eddies for the first time). Dr. Semtner is an associate editor of Ocean Modeling and of the Journal of Climate. He is also a fellow of the American Meteorological Society. SCOTT STERN graduated with a B.A. degree in economics from New York University. After working for a consulting company in New York, he attended Stanford University and received his Ph.D. in economics in 1996. From 1995 to 2001, Dr. Stern was assistant professor of management at the Sloan School at MIT. Also, from 2001 to 2003, Dr. Stern was a non-resident senior fellow of the Brookings Institution. Since September 2001, Dr. Stern has been an associate professor in the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University and a faculty research fellow of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is also a co-organizer of the Innovation Policy and the Economy Program at the National Bureau of Economic Research. Dr. Stern explores how innovation—the production and distribution of ideas—differs from the production and distribution of more traditional economic goods and the implications of these differences for both business and public policy. Often focusing on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, this research is at the intersection of industrial organization and economics of technological innovation. Specifically, recent studies examine the determinants of R&D productivity, the impact of incentives on R&D organization, the mechanisms by which firms earn economic returns from innovation, and the consequences of technological innovation for product market competition. A key conclusion from this research is that translating ideas into competitive advantage requires a distinct and nuanced set of resources and strategies. Effective management of innovation therefore requires careful attention to the firm’s internal ability to develop truly distinct technologies and to subtle elements of the firm’s external development and commercialization environment. SHANKAR SUBRAMANIAM is a professor of bioengineering, chemistry, and biochemistry and biology and director of the Bioinformatics Graduate Program at the University of California at San Diego. He also holds adjunct professorships at the Salk Institute for biological studies and the San Diego Supercomputer Center. Prior to moving to the University of California, San Diego, Dr. Subramaniam was a professor of bio-physics, biochemistry, molecular and integrative physiology, chemical engineering, and electrical and computer engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). He was also the director of the Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Program at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications and co-director of the W.M. Keck

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing Center for Comparative and Functional Genomics at UIUC. He is a fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering and is a recipient of Smithsonian Foundation and Association of Laboratory Automation awards. Dr. Subramaniam has played a key role in raising national awareness of training and research in bioinformatics. He served as a member of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director’s Advisory Committee on Bioinformatics, which produced the report Biomedical Information Science and Technology Initiative (BISTI). The report recognized the dire need for trained professionals in bioinformatics and recommended the launching of a strong NIH funding initiative. Dr. Subramaniam serves as the chair of an NIH BISTI study section. He also served on bioinformatics and biotechnology advisory councils for Virginia Tech, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and on the scientific advisory board of several biotech and bioinformatics companies. Dr. Subramaniam served as review panel member of the Center for Information Technology (CIT) at NIH, and his focus was on how CIT should respond to the BISTI initiative. Dr. Subramaniam has served as a member of Illinois’s governor’s initiative in biotechnology and as advisor and reviewer of North Carolina’s initiative in biotechnology. Dr. Subramaniam has published more than a hundred papers in the interdisciplinary areas of chemistry/biophysics/biochemistry/bioinformatics and computer science. LAWRENCE C. TARBELL, JR., is the deputy director of the Technology Futures Office for Eagle Alliance, a company formed in 2001 by the Computer Sciences Corporation and Northrop Grumman to outsource part of the IT infrastructure (workstations, local area networks, servers, and telephony) for the NSA. His primary area of responsibility is IT enterprise management, with secondary responsibility in collaboration, distributed computing, and storage. Mr. Tarbell spent the previous 35 years at NSA with responsibilities for research and development of high-performance workstations, networks, computer security, mass storage systems, massively parallel processing systems, and systems software. For over 13 years, he managed and led supercomputing architecture research and development for NSA, sponsoring high-performance computing and mass storage research (both independently and jointly with DARPA and NASA) at many U.S. companies and universities. In 1990, he co-chaired Frontiers of Supercomputing II, sponsored jointly by NSA and LANL. For 3 years, he managed the development and procurement of the supercomputing and mass storage architecture at NSA. Mr. Tarbell received his M.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Maryland and his B.S. in electrical engineering (magna cum laude) from Louisiana State University.

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing STEVEN J. WALLACH (NAE) is vice president of technology for Chiaro Networks, an advisor to CenterPoint Venture Partners, and a consultant to the U.S. Department of Energy ASC program. Chiaro Networks provides major disruptive technologies in a high-end routing platform for reliability, scalability, and flexibility. Before that, he was cofounder, chief technology officer, and senior vice president of development of Convex Computers. After Hewlett-Packard bought Convex, Mr. Wallach became the chief technology officer of HP’s Large Systems Group. He was a visiting professor at Rice University from 1998 to 1999 and manager of advanced development at Data General from 1975 to 1981. He was the principal architect of the 32-bit Eclipse MV supercomputer and, as part of this effort, participated in the design of the MV/6000, MV/8000, and MV/10000 (chronicled in the Pulitzer Prize-winning book The Soul of a New Machine, by Tracy Kidder). Mr. Wallach was an engineer at Raytheon from 1971 to 1975, where he participated in various hardware design efforts, including the computer used to control the launching of the Patriot missile system and various signal processors. He had primary responsibility for the design of the all-applications digital computer (AADC), which was intended for military specification airborne applications and was made up of gate arrays (one of the first such systems) and a vector instruction set based on APL. Mr. Wallach holds 33 patents. He was a member of PITAC. He is also a fellow of the IEEE. Mr. Wallach holds a B.S. in engineering from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, an M.S.E.E. from the University of Pennsylvania, and an M.B.A. from Boston University. STAFF CYNTHIA A. PATTERSON is a study director and program officer with the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Academies. Before the current study on the future of supercomputing, she completed several projects, including a study on critical information infrastructure protection and the law, a study that outlined a research agenda at the intersection of geospatial information and computer science, and a joint study with the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate on public-private partnerships in the provision of weather and climate services. She also has been involved with a study on telecommunications research and development and a congressionally mandated study on Internet searching and the domain name system. Prior to joining CSTB, Ms. Patterson completed a M.Sc. from the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs at the Georgia Institute of Technology. In a previous life, Ms. Patterson was employed by IBM as an IT consultant for both federal government and

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing private industry clients. Her work included application development, database administration, network administration, and project management. She received a B.Sc. in computer science from the University of Missouri-Rolla. PHIL HILLIARD (through May 2004) was a research associate with CSTB. He provided research support as part of the professional staff and worked on projects focusing on telecommunications research, supercomputing, and dependable systems. Before joining the National Academies, Mr. Hilliard worked at BellSouth in Atlanta, Georgia, as a competitive intelligence analyst and at NCR as a technical writer and trainer. He earned an M.B.A. from Georgia State University (2000) and a B.S. in computer and information technology from the Georgia Institute of Technology (1986). He is currently working on a master’s degree in library and information science through Florida State University’s online program. MARGARET MARSH HUYNH, senior program assistant, has been with CSTB since January 1999 supporting several projects. She is currently supporting, in addition to the present project, Wireless Technology Prospects and Policy Options, Internet Navigation and the Domain Name System, and Whither Biometrics. She previously worked on the projects that produced the reports Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity, IT Roadmap to a Geospatial Future, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy, and The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Ms. Huynh also assisted with the project Exploring Information Technology Issues for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (Digital Divide and Democracy). She assists on other projects as needed. Prior to coming to the National Academies, Ms. Huynh worked as a meeting assistant at Management for Meetings, from April 1998 to August 1998, and as a meeting assistant at the American Society for Civil Engineers, from September 1996 to April 1998. Ms. Huynh has a B.A. (1990) in liberal studies with minors in sociology and psychology from Salisbury State University (Maryland). HERBERT S. LIN (May 2004 through December 2004) is senior scientist and senior staff officer at CSTB, where he has been study director of major projects on public policy and information technology. These studies include a 1996 study on national cryptography policy (Cryptography’s Role in Securing the Information Society), a 1991 study on the future of computer science (Computing the Future), a 1999 study of Defense Department systems for command, control, communications, computing, and intelligence (Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges), a 2000 study on workforce issues in high-technology (Building a Workforce for the Informa-

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Getting up to Speed the Future of Supercomputing tion Economy), and a 2002 study on protecting kids from Internet pornography and sexual exploitation (Youth, Pornography, and the Internet). Prior to his NRC service, he was a professional staff member and staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee (1986-1990), where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He received his doctorate in physics from MIT.