Appendixes



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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research Appendixes

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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research A Biographical Information on Members and Staff of Committee on Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research NANCY C. ANDREASEN (Co-chair) is the Director of The MIND Institute in Albuquerque, N.M.; Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry, Neuroscience, and Neurology at the University of New Mexico; and Andrew H Woods Chair of Psychiatry at the University of Iowa in Iowa City. After obtaining a Ph.D. in English literature, Dr. Andreasen became an Assistant Professor of English before turning to medicine. She obtained her MD in 1970 from the University of Iowa and completed her residency training there. Her research interests include multiple aspects of neuroscience and psychiatry. She has conducted studies of creativity, mood disorders, and schizophrenia. She currently applies multimodality neuroimaging tools, including structural Magnetic Resonance (sMR), functional Magnetic Resonance (fMR), and positron emission tomography (PET) to the study of normal brain development and degeneration and to illnesses such as schizophrenia. She leads an interdisciplinary team that includes cognitive neuroscientists, computer scientists, electrical and biomedical engineers, physicists, and physicians. Dr. Andreasen has won numerous honors and awards, the highest of which is the President’s National Medal of Science, presented to her in 2000 for her work in biological sciences. She received the Interbrew-Baillet Latour Heath Prize from the Belgian National Foundation for Scientific Research in 2003 for her work in neuroimaging and schizophrenia. She has received the Rhoda and Bernard Sarnat Award from the Institute of Medi-

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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research cine. She also won the Lieber prize for her research in schizophrenia. Other prizes and awards include Woodrow Wilson and Fulbright Fellowships; Honorary Fellow of the RCSP (Canada); Member of the Institute of Medicine; Research Scientist Award from NIMH; Menninger Award for Psychiatric Research; American Psychiatric Association Prize for Research; the Adolph Meyer Award; the Sigmund Freud Award, and the Distinguished Service and Stanley Dean Awards from the American College of Psychiatrists. She is the author of numerous scientific and scholarly articles and fourteen books, ranging from John Donne: Conservative Revolutionary (Princeton, 1976) to Brave New Brain: Conquering Mental Illness in the Era of the Genome (Oxford, 2001). She has also authored two widely used textbooks on psychiatry and is Editor in Chief of the American Journal of Psychiatry. THEODORE L. BROWN (Co-chair) is founding director emeritus and professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Illinois—Urbana Champaign (UIUC). Dr. Brown received his Ph.D. from Michigan State University in 1956. He has been a faculty member in the UIUC Department of Chemistry since 1956 (he assumed emeritus status in January 1994). During 1980-1986, he served as vice chancellor for research and dean of the Graduate College. He was the first director of the Beckman Institute in 1987-1993. He served as interim vice-chancellor for academic affairs during 1993. He is an emeritus member of the Beckman Institute Advanced Chemical Systems Group. He participated in the National Academies Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable from 1989 to1994. Dr. Brown’s fields of research interests were inorganic chemistry and organometallic chemistry, with an emphasis on the kinetics and mechanisms of reactions. His current interests are in the cognitive, philosophic, and social aspects of the scientific enterprise. His recent book Making Truth: Metaphor in Science (http://www.press.uillinois.edu/s03/brown.html) explores the metaphoric foundations of science. He is a fellow of AAAS (1987) and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1994), received the American Chemical Society Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Inorganic Chemistry (1993), and was a Guggenheim fellow (1979-1980). JENNIFER CHAYES is an expert in the emerging field at the interface of mathematics, physics, and theoretical computer science. She is cofounder and comanager of the Theory Group at Microsoft Research. Dr. Chayes is also an affiliate professor of mathematics and physics at the University of Washington and was for many years a professor of mathematics at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). She is the recipient of a National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellowship, a Sloan fellowship, and the UCLA Distinguished Teaching Award. Dr. Chayes serves on nu-

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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research merous boards, advisory committees, and editorial boards, including the scientific boards of Banff International Research Station and the Fields Institute, the Advisory Boards of the Center for Discrete Mathematics and Computer Science, and the National Academy of Sciences Office for the Public Understanding of Science. She is the chair of the mathematics section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is a past vice-president of the American Mathematical Society. Dr. Chayes did her doctoral work in mathematical physics at Princeton and held postdoctoral positions in mathematics and physics at Harvard and Cornell. She has twice been a member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. STANLEY COHEN is professor and former chair of genetics and professor of medicine at Stanford University. In 1973, he and Herbert Boyer, of the University of California, San Francisco, invented the technique of DNA cloning, which allowed genes to be transplanted between different species. Their discovery signaled the birth of genetic engineering. He received his B.A. magna cum laude in biological sciences from Rutgers University and his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Cohen’s numerous honors and awards include the National Medal of Science, the National Medal of Technology, and the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award. JONATHAN R. COLE, John Mitchell Mason Professor of the University and Provost and Dean of Faculties, Emeritus, received a B.A. in American history from Columbia in 1964 and a Ph.D. with honors in sociology from Columbia in 1969. He has been teaching at Columbia since 1966. He served as director of the Center for the Social Sciences from 1979 to 1987, when he became vice president for arts and sciences, a post he held until July 1989, when he became provost. Among his many awards and honors, he has received a John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship, has been a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study of the Behavioral Sciences, and is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Cole has published extensively on historical and social aspects of science; has been a leading international contributor to the understanding of the opportunities, challenges, and obstacles facing women in the scientific community; has led a National Academy of Sciences evaluation of the peer-review system in science; and has published works recently on health risks and on dilemmas facing American research universities. ROBERT CONN is managing director of Enterprise Partners Venture Capital. He is helping to lead the $350 million Enterprise Partners VI fund, which is targeted to provide early-stage investments in semiconductors, computing, networking, technology-based life-sciences and drug discovery, and enterprise software. He was previously the dean of the University of

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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research California, San Diego (UCSD) Jacobs School of Engineering from 1993 to 2002, and before that served as a professor of engineering and applied science at the University of California, Los Angeles and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. During his tenure as dean, the Jacobs School rose to become ranked among the top 10 public engineering schools in the country. Dr. Conn led efforts to establish major enterprises in key technical areas including the Center for Wireless Communications in 1995 and the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology in 2000. The latter involved a significant partnership between the state of California, the University of California, and industry, with the state contributing $100 million and industry $140 million. He also helped UCSD to win the highly competitive National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure and the Distributed Terascale Facility at the San Diego Supercomputer Center. Most recently, he established the Jacobs School’s William J. von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement, enabled by a $10 million gift from the William J. von Liebig Foundation. Dr. Conn has been a leader in plasma physics, materials research, and fusion-energy development. He has served on many National Academy of Engineering and Department of Energy (DOE) committees and was chair of DOE’s primary fusion-energy advisory committee from 1992 through 1996. In the late 1980s, Dr. Conn cofounded a startup company, Plasma and Materials Technologies (PMT), to develop and market semiconductor etching and deposition equipment. Dr. Conn served as chairman of the Board and senior technologist in 1986-1994 and stepped down from affiliation with the company after joining UCSD as dean of engineering. PMT merged in 1997 into what is now Trikon Technologies, headquartered in the UK. MILDRED DRESSELHAUS is Institute Professor of Electrical Engineering and Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She has been active in the study of a wide array of problems in the physics of solids. Her recent interests have been nanoscience, carbon nanotubes, nanowires, and low-dimensional thermoelectricity. Dr. Dresselhaus is a member of the American Philosophical Society (APS) and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Physical Society (APS), the The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the Materials Research Society, the Society of Women Engineers, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She has served as president of APS, treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences, president of the AAAS, and as a member of numerous advisory committees and councils. She is now chair of the Board of the American Institute of Physics. Dr. Dresselhaus has received numerous awards, including the National Medal of Science and 18 honorary doctorates. She is the coauthor of four books on carbon science.

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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research GERALD HOLTON is Mallinckrodt Research Professor of Physics and Research Professor of History of Science at Harvard University. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1948, and his chief interests are the history and philosophy of science, the physics of matter at high pressure, and the study of career paths of young scientists. His books include The-matic Origins of Scientific Thought (1973; rev. ed., 1988); Science and Anti-Science (1993); The Advancement of Science, and its Burdens (1998); Scientific Imagination (1998); and Einstein, History, and Other Passions (2000). In addition to teaching at Harvard University since 1947, Dr. Holton was a visiting professor at MIT from 1976 to 1994 as a founding faculty member of the Program on Science, Technology and Society. He has been a visiting professor at Leningrad University, the University of Rome, the Centre National de la Recherché Scientifique (Paris), and Imperial College (London) and a lecturer in China for the Chinese Academy of Social Science. He has been an officer of numerous professional organizations, including president of the History of Science Society (1983-1984), vice president of the Académie Internationale d’Histoire des Sciences (1981-1988), and founding chairman of the American Institute of Physics Committee for the Center for History of Physics. Dr. Holton is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. His awards include the Sarton Medal (1989) and the Joseph H. Hazen Prize (1998) of the History of Science Society, the J.D. Bernal Prize of the Society for Social Studies of Science (1989), the Andrew Gemant Award of the American Institute of Physics (1989), the Joseph Priestley Award of Dickinson College (1994), the Oersted Medal of the American Association of Physics Teachers (1980), and selection as a Jefferson Lecturer by the National Endowment for the Humanities (1981). THOMAS KALIL is the special assistant to the chancellor for science and technology at the University of California, Berkeley and an adjunct fellow at the New America Foundation. At Berkeley, he is helping faculty members to develop research and education initiatives that respond to national priorities and that build strong partnerships with government agencies, the private sector, and community-based organizations. He previously coordinated technology policy for the National Economic Council during the Clinton administration and has served as a consultant to the Digital Promise project. He was a trade specialist at the Washington offices of Dewey Ballantine, where he represented the Semiconductor Industry Association on U.S.-Japan trade issues and technology policy. He received a B.A. in political science and international economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and completed graduate work at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. He is the author of articles on nuclear strategy, U.S.-

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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research Japan trade negotiations, U.S.-Japan cooperation in science and technology, the National Information Infrastructure, distributed learning, and electronic commerce. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Association for Computing Machinery, the Internet Society, and the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers. ROBERT W. KATES is a geographer and independent scholar in Trenton, Maine, and university professor (emeritus) at Brown University. His current research focuses on long-term trends in environment, development, and population. He is co-convenor of the international Initiative for Science and Technology for Sustainability, an executive editor of Environment magazine, and visiting scholar at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Dr. Kates developed and directed three academic interdisciplinary centers: in resource assessment at the University of Dar Es Salaam; on technology, environment, and development at Clark University; and on World Hunger at Brown University. He is a recipient of the 1991 National Medal of Science and the MacArthur Prize Fellowship (1981–85) and is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the Academia Europaea. Dr. Kates received an M.A. and a Ph.D. in geography from the University of Chicago and an honorary D.Sc. from Clark University. TIMOTHY L. KILLEEN was born in Cardiff, Wales. He received a B.Sc. in physics and a Ph.D. in atomic and molecular physics from University College, London. He is director of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado, and a senior scientist at the NCAR High Altitude Observatory, where he leads an experimental and theoretical program in upper atmospheric research. Before joining NCAR, Dr. Killeen was professor of atmospheric and space sciences at the University of Michigan. During his tenure at Michigan, he was also director of the Space Physics Research Laboratory and associate vice president for research. He has taught many undergraduate and graduate courses, including an innovative introductory course sequence for nonscience majors dealing with the physical and human impacts of global change. He has been honored with the Excellence in Teaching and Excellence in Research awards from the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan and with two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) achievement awards. His research interests include the experimental and theoretical study of the earth’s upper atmosphere. He is a principal investigator and instrument developer for a spaceborne Doppler interferometer on the NASA TIMED spacecraft. He is co-principal investigator for a new National Science Foundation (NSF) science and technology center devoted to numerical modeling of space weather. Dr. Killeen has served as president of the Space Physics

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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research Section of the American Geophysical Union and on various NASA and NSF committees. He is editor-in-chief of the Journal of Atmospheric and SolarTerrestrial Physics. MARIO MOLINA has been involved in developing our understanding of the chemistry of the stratospheric ozone layer and its susceptibility to human-made perturbations. In 1974, Dr. Molina and F. S. Rowland reported in Nature on their research on the threat to the ozone layer from chlorofluorocarbon gases that were being used as propellants in spray cans, as refrigerants, as solvents, and so on. More recently, he has been involved with the chemistry of air pollution of the lower atmosphere. He is also pursuing interdisciplinary work on tropospheric pollution, working with colleagues in many other disciplines on the problem of rapidly growing cities with severe air pollution. Dr. Molina was born in Mexico City, Mexico. He holds a degree in chemical engineering (1965) from the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; a postgraduate degree (1967) from the University of Freiburg, Germany, and a Ph.D. in physical chemistry (1972) from the University of California, Berkeley. He went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1989 with a joint appointment in the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences and the Department of Chemistry and was named MIT institute professor in 1997. Before joining MIT, he held teaching and research positions at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; the University of California, Irvine; and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology. Dr. Molina is a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. He has served on the U.S. president’s Committee of Advisers in Science and Technology, the secretary of energy advisory board, the National Research Council Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, and the boards of the U.S.-Mexico Foundation of Science and other nonprofit environmental organizations. He has received several awards for his scientific work, including the 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry, which he shared with F. S. Rowland and P. Crutzen for their work in atmospheric chemistry. PATRICK SUPPES is the Lucie Stern Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at Stanford University and since 1992 has been the director and faculty adviser of Stanford’s Education Program for Gifted Youth. He was director of Stanford’s Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences (1959-1992). He is also professor emeritus by courtesy in Stanford’s Department of Statistics, Department of Psychology, and School of Education. Dr. Suppes is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1962), the American Psychological Association (APA) (1964), and

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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1968) and is a member of the National Academy of Education (NAE) (1965), and a member of the American Philosophical Society (1991). Among his awards are the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, the Columbia University Teachers College Medal for Distinguished Service (1978) and the National Medal of Science (1990). He is a past president of the Pacific Division of American Philosophical Association (1972-1973), the American Educational Research Association (1973-1974), NAE (1973-1977), and the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science (1976, 1978). Dr. Suppes received his bachelor’s degree from the University of Chicago and his doctorate from Columbia University. He has published widely in philosophy, the social sciences, and education. JAN H. VAN BEMMEL is professor of medical informatics, first at Free University Amsterdam, 1973-1987, thereafter at Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 1987. He was rector magnificus (vice chancellor) of Erasmus University, Rotterdam, 2000-2003. He received his M.Sc. in physics and mathematics from Technical University Delft in 1963, and his Ph.D. in physics and mathematics from Nijmegen University in 1969. He has been editor-in-chief of Methods of Information in Medicine, 1986-2001, of the IMIA Yearbooks of Medical Informatics, 1992-2001, and of the Handbook of Medical Informatics, 1995-97. He was President of the International Medical Informatics Association, 1998-2001. He became a member of Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), 1987, member of Dutch Health Council, 1987, and foreign associate member of Institute of Medicine of National Academy of Sciences, 1991. He was chairman of the International Committee of KNAW for the assessment of all biomedical and health sciences research in the Netherlands, 1993-1998, and chairman of the KNAW Committee for the future assessment of all university research in the Netherlands, 1999-2001. TANDY WARNOW is Professor of Computer Sciences at the University of Texas at Austin, where she is a member of five graduate groups (Computer Sciences, Mathematics, Computational and Applied Mathematics, Molecular Biology, and Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior). Her research combines mathematics, computer science, and statistics to develop improved models and algorithms for reconstructing complex and large-scale evolutionary histories in both biology and historical linguistics. She is on the board of directors of the International Society for Computational Biology and previously was the Co-Director of the Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics at the University of Texas at Austin. She received the National Science Foundation Young Investigator Award in 1994, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation Award in Science and Engineering in 1996.

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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research ROBERT M. WHITE is university professor of electrical and computer engineering and director of the Data Storage Systems Center at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). He received a B.S. in 1960 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in 1964 from Stanford University. In addition to an active program of research in data-storage systems, Dr. White has longstanding interests in technology policy. His policy interests are focused on federal science and technology policy. He is exploring the effects of various government policies on technology innovation, whereby new technology appears in a competitive product or process. Examples of issues include the effects of federal funding and the management of intellectual property. Before joining CMU, he served during the first Bush administration as the first undersecretary of commerce for technology. Earlier, he was vice president of Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC). He was a manager and a principal scientist at Xerox PARC and then moved on to serve as vice president of Control Data Corporation before his position at MCC. Dr. White’s professional memberships include the American Physical Society, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He serves on the boards of directors of several companies, including ST-Microelectronics and Silicon Graphics. MARY LOU ZOBACK is a senior research scientist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Team in Menlo Park, California. She received a Ph.D. in geophysics from Stanford University in 1978 and joined the USGS earthquake-studies staff permanently in 1979 after a year National Research Council postdoctoral fellowship at USGS. From 1986 to 1992, she led the World Stress Map project, a task group of the International Lithosphere Program that involved 40 scientists in 30 countries in an effort to compile and interpret geological and geophysical data on the present-day tectonic stress field. Dr. Zoback has served on a National Research Council panel to evaluate the proposed Yucca Mountain site for long-term disposal of radioactive waste, on a steering committee for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Solid Earth Sciences program to define 20- to 25-year goals for that program, and on a USGS team to define a 10-year science strategy for the Geologic Division of USGS. She is a past president of the Geological Society of America and served as president of the Tectonophysics Section of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and as a member of the AGU Council. Her honors include the AGU Macelwane Award (1987), a USGS Gilbert Fellowship Award (1990-1991) for a one-year sabbatical in Karlsruhe, Germany, and the Meritorious Service Award from the U.S. Department of the Interior (2002).

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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research Professional Staff DEBORAH D. STINE (Study Director) is associate director of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) and director of the Office of Special Projects. She has worked on various projects at the National Academies since 1989. She received a National Research Council group award for her first study for COSEPUP, on policy implications of greenhouse warming; a Commission on Life Sciences staff citation for her work in risk assessment and management; and two awards from the Policy and Global Affairs Division for her efforts in dissemination of National Academies’ reports. Other studies have addressed human reproductive cloning, setting priorities for NSF’s large research facilities, science and technology presidential appointments, science and technology centers, international benchmarking of U.S. research fields, graduate and postdoctoral education, responsible conduct of research, careers in science and engineering, and many environmental topics. She holds a bachelor’s degree in mechanical and environmental engineering from the University of California, Irvine; a master’s degree in business administration; and a Ph.D. in public administration, specializing in policy analysis, from the American University. Before coming to the National Academies, Dr. Stine was a mathematician for the U.S. Air Force, an air-pollution engineer for the state of Texas, and an air-issues manager for the Chemical Manufacturers Association. LAUREL HAAK (Program Officer) is a program officer for the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP). She received a B.S. and an M.S. in biology from Stanford University. She was the recipient of a predoctoral National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Research Service Award and received a Ph.D. in neuroscience in 1997 from Stanford University Medical School, where her research focused on calcium signaling and circadian rhythms. She was awarded a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Research associateship to work at NIH on intracellular calcium dynamics in oligodendrocytes. After working at NIH, she joined the staff at the American Association for the Advancement of Science and was editor of Science’s Next Wave Postdoc Network. While a postdoctoral scholar, she was editor of the Women in Neuroscience newsletter, and she is now president of this organization. She has served on the Society for Neuroscience Committee for the Development of Women’s Careers in Neuroscience and the Biophysics Society Early Careers Committee, and she was an adviser and mentor for the National Postdoctoral Association.