communication time delays. In 1998, collaboration between ESA and NASDA produced a moderately successful demonstration on the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite (ETS) VII. This involved manipulation of a 2-meter-long, six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm attached to a 2500 kg satellite with the coordinated control of the manipulator and the base. The ETS VII mission demonstrated autonomous rendezvous and capture of a target satellite. However, in this demonstration, the target was specially designed for capture, with appropriate fiduciaries for relative orientation, positioning, and capture. Thus the proposed HST robotic servicing mission will require the development, testing, and validation of new software and hardware, which would advance the state of the art of robotics technology.

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