Biographical Memoirs


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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 85 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 85 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 85 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 85 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-09183-7 (BOOK) INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-53131-4 (PDF) INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20001 COPYRIGHT 2004 BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 85 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     D. BERNARD. AMOS BY EDMOND J. YUNIS   3     PETER MICHAEL BLAU BY W. RICHARD SCOTT AND CRAIG CALHOUN   21     SALOMON BOCHNER BY ANTHONY W. KNAPP   41     C. CHAPIN CUTLER BY PING KING TIEN   63     JOHN RAVEN JOHNSON BY CHARLES F. WILCOX, JERROLD MEINWALD, AND KEITH R. JOHNSON   87     ELVIN A. KABAT BY ROSE G. MAGE AND TEN FEIZI   99     BERWIND PETERSEN KAUFMANN BY EDWARD B. LEWIS   125

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 85     ROBERT ALFRED LAUDISE BY DONALD MURPHY   137     BOYCE DAWKINS McDANIEL BY ALBERT SILVERMAN AND PETER STEIN   151     WILLIAM DAVID McELROY BY J. WOODLAND HASTINGS   165     EDWIN THEODORE MERTZ BY JOHN E. HALVER   185     WILLIAM AARON NIERENBERG BY CHARLES F. KENNEL, RICHARD S. LINDZEN, AND WALTER MUNK   197     CHAIM LEIB PEKERIS BY FREEMAN GILBERT   217     JOHN ROBINSON PIERCE BY EDWARD E. DAVID, JR., MAX V. MATHEWS, AND A. MICHAEL NOLL   233     JOHN H. REYNOLDS BY P. BUFORD PRICE   249     LOUIS BYRNE SLICHTER BY LEON KNOPOFF AND CHARLES P. SLICHTER   269     GEORGE LEDYARD STEBBINS BY VASSILIKI BETTY SMOCOVITIS AND FRANCISCO J. AYALA   291     LEWIS THOMAS BY GERALD WEISSMANN   315     ALBERT EDWARD WHITFORD BY DONALD E. OSTERBROCK   337     WALTER HENRY ZINN BY ALVIN M. WEINBERG   365

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 85 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy’s goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject’s work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation’s contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. R. STEPHEN BERRY Home Secretary

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