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Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties References Abdul-Razzak, H., and S. J. Ghan. 2000. A parameterization of aerosol activation: 2. Multiple aerosol types. Journal of Geophysical Research 105:6837-6844. Adams, J. B., M. E. Mann, and C. M. Ammann. 2003. Proxy evidence for an El Niño-like response to volcanic forcing. Nature 426:274-278. Albrecht, B. A. 1989. Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness. Science 245:1227-1230. Alcamo, J., ed. 1994. IMAGE 2.0: Integrated Modeling of Global Climate Change. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Allen, M. R., P. A. Stott, J. F. B. Mitchell, R. Schnur, and T. L. Delworth. 2000. Quantifying the uncertainty in forecasts of anthropogenic climate change. Nature 407:617-620. Ambartsumyan, V. A. 1958. Theoretical Astrophysics. London: Pergamon Press. Ammann, C. M., G. A. Meehl, W. M. Washington, and C. S. Zender. 2003. A monthly and latitudinally varying volcanic forcing dataset in simulations of the 20th century climate. Geophysical Research Letters 30:1657, DOI: 10.1029/2003GL016875 Ammann, C. M., G. A. Meehl, W. M. Washington, and C. S. Zender. Submitted. Climate simulations of the 20th century with the PCM. Geophysical Research Letters. Anderson, T. L., R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, R. Knutti, O. Boucher, H. Rodhe, and J. Heintzenberg. 2003a. Climate forcing by aerosols—A hazy picture. Science 300:1103-1104, DOI: 10.1126/science.1084777. Anderson, T. L., R. J. Charlson, D. M. Winker, J. A. Ogren, and K. Holmén. 2003b. Mesoscale variations of tropospheric aerosols. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 60(1):119-136. Andronova, N. G., and M. E. Schlesinger. 2001. Objective estimation of the probability density function for climate sensitivity. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D19):22605-22612, DOI: 10.1029/2000JD000259. Annual Energy Outlook. 2004. Annual Energy Outlook 2004: With Projections to 2025. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, DOE/EIA-0383(2004), also available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/.

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