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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science B High-Field Magnet Facilities Around the World This appendix summarizes the high magnetic field facilities and activities available around the world. The information was distilled from a combination of personal communication with facility staff and a review of the literature.1 It is not meant to be exhaustive but is meant to give the reader a sense of the scope of activity in the field at home and abroad. Table B.1 lists the details of the equipment available at facilities dedicated to high magnetic field science. Table B.2 briefly describes the high magnetic field services available at other large research facilities such as synchrotron and neutron sources. High magnetic field labs fall into roughly three classes based on their capabilities (the breakdown below takes into account near-term planned capabilities): Local facilities (affordable by many research groups) 15-25 T DC superconducting magnets 60-80 T pulsed-field magnets of 5-20 ms duration 100-200 T destructive pulsed-field installations of 5 µs duration 1 The committee gratefully acknowledges the work of F. Herlach and N. Miura as published in the introduction to High Magnetic Fields: Science and Technology, Vol. 1, World Scientific Publishing, Co.: Singapore, 2003, which they also edited. Their survey of magnet laboratories served as an important cross-reference for the committee’s research.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science TABLE B.1 Dedicated High Magnetic Field Facilities Location Name DC Fields and Magnets Pulsed Fields and Magnets Australia Sydney National Magnet Laboratory 60 T − 25 ms − 400 kJ − 22 mm Austria Vienna Austromag 40 T − 10 ms − 20 kJ − 25 mm Belgium Leuven Pulsed Field Facility 55 T − 20 ms − 300 kJ − 18 mm 70 T − 8 ms − 260 kJ − 10 mm China Hefei High Magnetic Field Facility 8 + 3 magnets: 15 T − 50 mm (resistive) 20.2 T − 32 mm (hybrid) [26 T (hybrid)] 8 T − 54 mm (sc) [45 T] England Bristol Wills Physics Laboratory 20 T 60 T − 50 ms − 12 mm Oxford Nicholas Kurti Magnetic Field Laboratory 21.5 T − 40 mm (sc) 60 T − 10 ms − 150 kJ − 12 mm 50 T − 20 ms − 250 kJ − 20 mm France Grenoble Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory 7 + 15 magnets: 30 T − 50 mm (resistive) 40 T − 34 mm (hybrid) 18 T − 50 mm (sc) Toulouse National Laboratory of Pulsed Magnetic Fields 73 T − 10 ms − 8.5 MJ − 15 mm 61 T − 150 ms − 1.25 MJ − 11 mm 58 T − 282 ms − 3.30 MJ − 19 mm 45 T − 500 ms − 8.1 MJ − 120 mm Germany Berlin Humboldt High Magnetic Field Center 51 T - 3.5 ms − 42 kJ − 10 mm 60 T - 8.1 ms − 400 kJ − 18 mm Braunschweig High Field Magnet Laboratory 4 + 1 magnets: 18 T − 32 mm (resistive) 11 T − 37 mm (sc) 27 T − 40 ms − 20 kJ − 12 mm Dresden High Field Laboratory 50 T − 13 ms − 450 kJ − 24 mm 40 T − 120 ms − 1,100 kJ − 24 mm [100 T − 10 ms − MJ − 20 mm] [70 T − 100 ms − MJ − 24 mm] [60 T − 1,000 ms − MJ − 50 mm] Frankfurt Institute of Physics 36 T − 600 ms − 800 kJ − 22 mm 50 T − 24 ms − 390 kJ − 20 mm Ireland Dublin Trinity College 26 T − 700 ms − 200 kJ − 26 mm
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Location Name DC Fields and Magnets Pulsed Fields and Magnets Italy Parma Institute of Electronic and Magnetic Materials 60 T − 60 ms − 760 kJ − 27 mm 50 T − 65 ms − 880 kJ − 45 mm Japan Kashiwa MegaGauss Laboratory 20 T (sc) 50 T − 50 ms − 22 mm 50 T − 20 ms − 200 kJ − 20 mm 50 T − 18 ms − 200 kJ − 20 mm Kobe High Field Magnet Laboratory 10 T (sc) 30 T − 11 ms − 24 kJ -15.4 mm 36 T − 9 ms − 34 kJ - 16.5 mm Okayama Okayama University 35 T − 3 ms − 60 kJ − 17 mm 30 T − 1 ms − 60 kJ − 31 mm Osaka Kyokugen 60 T − 7 ms - 240 kJ − 18 mm 70 T − 7 ms − 240 kJ − 10 mm 60 T − 22 ms − 570 kJ − 18 mm Sendai High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials 3 + 12 magnets: 20 T − 32 mm (resistive) 31 T − 32 mm (hybrid) 20 T − 52 mm (sc) 40 T − 10 ms − 70 kJ − 17 mm 30 T − 5 ms − 45 kJ − 22 mm Tsukuba Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory 4 + 9 magnets: 29 T − 32 mm (resistive) 35 T − 32 mm (hybrid) 23 T − 13 mm (sc) 48 T − 20 ms − 500 kJ − 16 mm 50 T − 15 ms − 300 kJ − 20 mm Netherlands Amsterdam University of Amsterdam 40 T 40 T − 1,500 ms − 6 MW − 20 mm Nijmegen High Field Magnet Laboratory 6 + 3 magnets: 33 T − 32 mm (resistive) [40 T − 32 mm (hybrid)] 33 T − 40 mm (sc) 60 T − 5 ms − 2 MJ − 23 mm Poland Wroclaw International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures 3 + 3 magnets: 20 T − 25 mm (resistive) 15 T − 20 mm (sc) 47 T − 35 ms − 70 kJ − 10 mm Portugal Porto Centro de Fisica at the University of Porto 25 T − 2,000 ms − 600 kJ − 30 mm Russia Moscow Kurchatov Institute 18.3 T − 28 mm (resistive) 24.6 T − 28 mm (hybrid) 17.7 T − 40 mm (sc) 55 T − 9.5 ms − 180 kJ − 15 mm Sarov VNIIEF 2,800 T − 5 mm St. Petersburg Ioffe Institute and State Technical University 35 T − 22 mm
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Location Name DC Fields and Magnets Pulsed Fields and Magnets Spain Zaragoza Long Pulse Magnet Facility 31 T − 2,000 ms − 1,200 kJ − 30 mm United States Cambridge, Mass. Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory 24 T − 32 mm (resistive) 35.2 T − 32 mm (hybrid) 65 T − 7.3ms − 110 kJ − 13 mm 60 T − 9.4ms − 180 kJ − 20 mm Los Alamos, N. Mex. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory 1 + 3 magnets: 20 T − 52 mm (sc) 60 T − 35 ms − 565 kJ − 15 mm 50 T − 350 ms − 1,400 kJ − 15 mm Tallahassee and Gainesville, Fla. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory 10 + 33 magnets: 33 T − 32 mm (resistive) 45 T − 32 mm (hybrid) 20 T − 52 mm (sc) Worcester, Mass. Clark University 51 T − 80 ms − 296 kJ − 18 mm 42 T − 150 ms − 180 kJ − 18 mm NOTE: The column listing DC magnets shows the total number of continuous-field magnets available, separated into resistive/hybrid plus (+) superconducting magnets and then lists parameters for a representative of each type of magnet available (resistive, hybrid, and superconducting). Magnets currently under construction have parameters enclosed by brackets ([ ]). Regional or national facilities (several worldwide) 25-35 T DC resistive magnets (10-20 MW) 40 T DC hybrid magnets (20 MW) 40-60 T pulsed-field magnets of 10-1,000 ms duration International facilities (a few worldwide) 35-40 T DC resistive magnets (20-40 MW) 50 T DC hybrid magnets (40 MW) 80-100 T pulsed-field magnets of 0.1-1.0 s duration AUSTRALIA The Australian National Magnet Laboratory (NML), established in 1991 at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, provides Australian scientists interested in condensed-matter physics facilities for doing cutting-edge research at high magnetic fields and low temperatures. Experiments involving electrical, optical, and far-infrared studies of low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, organic layered structures, and conventional and high-Tc superconductors are all possible at this facility. NML offers pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T at temperatures down to 70 mK for research in correlated-electron phenomena.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science TABLE B.2 Description of Major User Facilities Not Specifically Dedicated to the Pursuit of High Fields, Inside and Outside the United States Scope of Facility Use and Availability of High Magnetic Fields Facility Users per Year Operating End Stations Experiments per Year Fraction of Experiments Using >5T United States Synchrotron sources National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory 2,206 87 (94 max) 1,145 0.50% Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory 2,700 41 (68 max) 2,172 “few %” Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1,662 36 200 1 series out of 200 Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Stanford University 1,000 27 1,000 18 out of 900 Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University 500 12 >100 Rare
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Use and Availability of High Magnetic Fields Future Plans for High Magnetic Fields Existing Capabilities How Owned and Maintained Foresee Greater Need Field Strength for New Opportunities Availability of Support 15 T, vertical, 25 mm D sample 13 T, vertical, 20 mm D sample 10 T, horiz., split pair, 25 mm 9 T, parallel thru bore, 3 in D 5 T split pair, vertical, 3.5 cc By PIs; available to users by outside proposal or collaboration. Limited support. Yes. Demand is there, but instruments and support are not. 25 T, large bore, 3-300 K sample temperatures. “No field is high enough.” Requires additional resources. Present arrangement will not allow widespread use. 4 T, horiz., 1 cubic inch 7 T, horiz. 10 T vertical 4 T vertical 7 T horiz. 7-8 T horiz. Owned and maintained by individual teams. Accessible to general users by proposal. Workshop upcoming. Users believe that 10-20 T needed steady. Pulsed not well matched. 15-17 T Not sure of support level required, but it is not available now. 6 T Magnet is owned and maintained by PI. Yes, but no proposals have yet been declined. Not specified. Higher is better, but size and complexity are traded off. No. Would require additional resources. 13 T, split coil, 2 cm D Owned and operated by local user group. General users by proposal. New field at SSRL but growing. Need likely to grow. 20 T (study of correlated electron materials). No. Additional resources required. None NA Users have not requested. Will respond to demand No plans. No. Neither space nor staff.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Scope of Facility Use and Availability of High Magnetic Fields Facility Users per Year Operating End Stations Experiments per Year Fraction of Experiments Using >5T Neutron sources High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge National Laboratory 51 now; 750 at end of upgrades 3 now; 15 planned 58 now; 450 predicted 10% Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, Argonne National Laboratory 229 15 370 9%, <5 T Spallation Neutron Source (now under construction), Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1,000 predicted in 2008 (10 in 2008) 400 predicted for 2008 20% anticipated Lujan Center at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory 280 8 user; 3 limited access 221 3% NIST Center for Neutron Science, National Institute of Standards and Technology 800 24 (18 scattering) 1,100 5%
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Use and Availability of High Magnetic Fields Future Plans for High Magnetic Fields Existing Capabilities How Owned and Maintained Foresee Greater Need Field Strength for New Opportunities Availability of Support 7 T vertical, 30 mm; 1.5-300 K 5 T vertical, 50 mm; 1.5-300 K 5 T horiz., 40 mm; 1.5-300 K Facility technicians maintain. Scientific staff help fill, mount samples. Substantial demand from users (cf Europe). 15 T to start; go to 20 T when possible. Would require additional resources. None at this time Facility technical staff and scientific staff. Available by proposal. Yes; 7 T on order Any field > current opens up new opportunities. Would have to be operated by facility scientific personnel. Plan: 2-9 T vertical; 50 mm D, 20 mm high 1-7 T horiz., 100 mmD, 20 mm high 2-5 T large bore (100 mm) 1-14 T vertical; 1 “XYZ” Facility plans to have 9-person staff with help from scientists. Yes 30 T would open up new opportunities. No. Very high field would require more staff. 11 T, vertical, split coil, 35 mm D sample, 2-300 K Beam line scientists. Accessed by proposal. Yes Planning (with NHFML) 30-T pulsed, 50-mm bore No. Require more staff if successful. 7 T, vertical; 71 mm D; 4.1-300 K 9 T vertical; 28 mm D; 0.3-300K 9 T horiz., 28 mm D; 2.7-300 K 11.5 T vertical; 50 mm D; 0.02-4 K (13 T vertical; 25 mm D; 0.3-300 K)a Facility owned and operated; technicians and beamline scientists. Access by proposal with NIST staff. Yes, current limit is staff to maintain >15 T No. Cannot support current inventory.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Scope of Facility Use and Availability of High Magnetic Fields Facility Users per Year Operating End Stations Experiments per Year Fraction of Experiments Using >5T Europe and Japanb Synchrotron sources European Synchrotron Research Facility, Grenoble, France 2,206 50 (64 possible) 1,116 5-6% Neutron sources Berlin Neutron Scattering Center (BENSC), Hahn-Meitner Institute, Berlin, Germany 600 20 300 >25% Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, France >2,000 40 750 ISIS, UK Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 1,700 19 neutron 4 muon 800 8% FRM-II, Munich, Germany Just beginning operation. 20 No data No data, but expect 6-7 instruments.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Use and Availability of High Magnetic Fields Future Plans for High Magnetic Fields Existing Capabilities How Owned and Maintained Foresee Greater Need Field Strength for New Opportunities Availability of Support 7 T, 1.5 K 7 T, low temperature Facility owned and operated. Yes, are planning for 10 T magnet in 2004. Future 20 T pulsed magnet Two 14.5 T, 1.5-300 K, 20 mm D, vertical 7 T, 1.5-300 K, 50 mm D, vertical 5 T, 1.5-300 K, 50 mm D, vertical 5.5 T, 1.5-300 K, 50 mm D, vertical 6 T, 1.5-300 K, 50 mm D, horiz. 4 T, 1.5-100 K, 40 mm D, horiz. 2 dilution inserts, 25 mK Facility owned and operated. User access by proposal. Yes. Have proposal for 40 T magnet to study HTS and quantum critical phenomena. 20-40 T All vertical field, 1-300 K 5.5 T, 300 cc 6 T, 260 cc 6 T, 360 cc 7 T, 50 cc 10 T, 7 cc 10 T, 150 cc 12 T, 80 cc 15 T, 40 cc Some capable of dilution insert Some facility staff, some research groups. Mostly operated by facility. Accessed by proposal. Yes. Resources limit ability to pursue. Limited for new capability. 7.5 T, vertical, 50 mm D 10 T, vertical, 50 mm D Facility owned and operated. Access through user proposal. Yes, if resources available. At least 20+ T to match local user capabilities. More capability will require more resources to support. 15 T vertical, 50 mm D, low temperature 10 T vertical, 100 mm D, warm Facility owned and operated. Access by proposal or collaboration. Yes 25 T or more. Require staff beyond 20 T.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Scope of Facility Use and Availability of High Magnetic Fields Facility Users per Year Operating End Stations Experiments per Year Fraction of Experiments Using >5T JRR-3M, JAERI, Tokai, Japan 350 11 113 10% Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto, Japan 30 7 30 15% aBeing repaired if possible. bSelected facilities. AUSTRIA The Austromag facility at the Institute for Experimental Physics at the Vienna University of Technology is a small laboratory that was established in 1975 to develop pulsed magnetic field instrumentation. The instruments available today can generate 40 T fields in long pulses (1 s), and work is under way to modify them so that fields up to 70 T can be produced. The design calls for superimposing a short (about 5 ms) 30-T pulse on longer 40-T pulses. The device will be used primarily to study the magnetic properties of materials over broad temperature ranges. BELGIUM The Pulsed Field Facility at the Laboratory of Solid State Physics and Magnetism at the Catholic University in Leuven, Belgium, operates a pulsed-field facility that has five parallel measuring stations. User magnets are designed to work reliably up to 70 T with a pulse duration about 20 ms. The Leuven group has been active in coordinating the European Community-sponsored initiative for the development of strong conductor materials and associated coil designs. A new type of pulsed magnet with optimized fiber composite reinforcement was developed at Leuven, resulting in record fields of 75 T. Research is being done on
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Use and Availability of High Magnetic Fields Future Plans for High Magnetic Fields Existing Capabilities How Owned and Maintained Foresee Greater Need Field Strength for New Opportunities Availability of Support 10 T vertical, 150 mK-300 K, 30 mm D 5 T vertical, 20 mK-6 K, 76 mm D 5 T horizontal, 2-300 K 13.5 T vertical, 150 mK-300 K, 30 mm D By facility. Access by collaboration after proposal. Yes 15-20 T 50 T breakthrough. Pulsed at 20T? Require additional for new opportunities. 5 T vertical By beam line. Access by collaboration. Future uncertain. Shutdown likely. high-temperature superconductors, quantum dots, the normal state properties of high-temperature superconductors, the magnetic properties of spin-Peierls compounds, magnesium dioxide CMR materials and iron oxide garnet compounds, and the photoluminescent properties of low-dimensional semiconductor structures such as self-assembled quantum wells. CHINA The Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Plasma Physics maintains a high magnetic field facility in Hefei focused on developing technologies for its tokamak fusion program, the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Research into the physical properties, processes, and mechanisms of condensed matter at high magnetic fields is being conducted at the institute in cooperation with scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics and the University of Science and Technology of China. Additional research is being conducted on the effects of high magnetic field on chemical reactions and biological processes and on industrial applications of high-field magnet technology. Using magnets and power supplies from Grenoble, the facility provides 11-T fields to users and it plans to upgrade in stages to hybrid magnets of 23 T and 26 T. A long-pulse magnet of 45 T is also under development.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science ENGLAND Oxford University The Nicholas Kurti Magnetic Field Laboratory at Oxford University, which opened in April 2002, builds on the expertise of the Clarendon Magnet Laboratory, which dates back to the 1930s and has a long history of research with water-cooled and hybrid magnets. It currently maintains several DC superconducting magnets (18 T and 21.5 T), which will be upgraded using high-Tc inserts. Clarendon and the group at Leuven formed the nucleus of the European collaboration EUROMAGTECH, which has been working on pulsed-field magnet design and materials development. The new Kurti Laboratory houses a three-station, pulsed-field laboratory, which will generate nondestructively the highest fields available in the U.K. (>60 T). The devices at the Kurti Laboratory will be used by several research groups. Research will be done on transport current superconductivity and in areas such as biophysics, nanostructures, and engineering technology. Magnetization of bulk high-temperature superconductors is another focus. University of Bristol In 1988, the Wills Physics Laboratory at the University of Bristol acquired some pulsed magnets, superconducting coils, and dilution refrigerators. The facility there now hosts two 52-T pulsed magnet devices and two continuous magnets with strength over 20 T. Research focuses on heavy fermion compounds, superconductors, and mesoscopic systems. FRANCE Grenoble The Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory (GHMFL) is a French-German laboratory jointly funded by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (MPG) and run partly as a user facility. It operates seven different magnets that produce DC magnetic fields up to 30 T, and a new 40-T hybrid magnet is under construction. A 60-T pulsed coil is also available. Along with the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, GHMFL is developing instrumentation that will enable scientists to use x rays to study materials in high pulsed magnetic fields. Since 1992, GHMFL has been open to users from the rest of the European Union and associated states on the same basis as French and MPG users. Research is also performed by a resident scientific staff. Primary research
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science activities include work with 2D electron systems, nanostructures, bulk semiconductors, and there is some work with biological and inorganic systems using electron paramagnetic resonance. Toulouse The Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Pulsés (LNCMP) in Toulouse is the European leader in long-pulse magnetic fields, offering field strengths up to 62 T and pulse durations up to 0.2 s. The three missions of the laboratory are (1) to serve as a user facility for the French and European scientific communities, (2) to develop techniques for pulsed magnetic field production, and (3) to develop innovative research activities in pulsed magnetic fields. The primary research interests using the high fields are high-Tc superconductors, organic conductors, quantum magnetism, and low-dimensional (semi)conductors. LNCMP has seven pulsed magnets ranging in field strength from 38 to 77 T and one 16-T superconducting magnet; its high-voltage generator can store 14 MJ at 24 kV. The lab is planning to build three more pulsed magnets (the lab has 10 magnet sites) and to upgrade its 38-T magnets to higher fields or bigger magnet bores—for example, to make a 14-MJ magnet with 700 ms duration. The European ARMS project magnet, which will use a two-coil system to deliver 80 T, will also be sited at Toulouse. GERMANY Berlin Humboldt University in Berlin houses the Megagauss Facility, which specializes in the production of high pulsed fields of up to 300 T. It was the first laboratory to employ the single-turn coil technique systematically for megagauss experiments. The lab focuses on the generation and application of strong magnetic fields using semidestructive single-turn-coils, although nondestructive pulsed magnets (50 T, 60 T) and continuous-field magnets (18 T, 20 T) are also available. The primary area of research is semiconductor spectroscopy in high magnetic fields to characterize microscopic parameters that cause conductivity, especially DC-magnetotransport and FIR-magnetospectroscopy in low-dimensional materials. Braunschweig Established in 1963, the High-Field Magnet Laboratory at the Braunschweig Technical University provides research opportunities for faculty, students, and visiting scientists. The facility includes four Bitter magnets (up to 18.T with a
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science 32-mm bore) with substantial power supplies; it is also equipped with a 27-T pulsed-field magnet. Magnetoresistance measurements can be made over wide temperature ranges at the lab. Topics of research include low-dimensional quantum systems. Dresden The Institute for Solid State and Materials Research at Dresden is a joint venture of five research institutes in the area. The laboratory manages a 50-T pulsed-field facility, which has become the pilot facility for the design and development of magnets for the High Field Laboratory of Dresden (HLD) at Rossendorf. The institute’s three coils—50 T/24 mm, 60 T/15 mm, and 40 T/24 mm—and its 1-MJ capacitor bank are prototypes for the HLD’s planned devices. HLD is part of the Rossendorf Research Center in Germany and is presently under construction. When complete, in 2006, it will be the largest pulsed-field laboratory in Europe, with five measuring stations for pulsed magnets and two stations for superconducting magnets. The lab will feature an unprecedented 50-MJ capacitor bank power supply that energizes its planned 100 T/10 ms/200 mm, 70 T/100 ms/24 mm, and 60 T/1 s/50 mm coils. The main research topics will be superconductivity, highly correlated electron systems, semiconductors, and magnetism. The HLD facility will be adjacent to a free-electron laser facility generating radiation in the near and mid-infrared that will offer unique high-resolution capabilities for spectroscopy that greatly increases the science potential of both facilities. University of Frankfurt The Institute of Physics at the University of Frankfurt facility is relatively recent, having been founded in 1994. The laboratory focuses on new experimental techniques, ESR measurements, and attenuation of sound velocities; it operates two pulsed magnets of 36 T and 50 T and offers continuous fields of up to 15 T. The primary research focus is on low-dimensional spin systems and unconventional ordering phenomena. IRELAND Dublin The magnetism and spin electronics group in the Physics Department of Trinity College at Dublin is dedicated to the research and development of new magnetic materials. A pulsed-field device of 26 T is one of the tools used to characterize materials.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science ITALY The Istituto dei Materiali per l’Elettronica ed il Magnetismo (IMEM) was formed from a merger of the Istituto Materiali Speciali per l’Elettronica e Magnetismo (formerly known as MASPEC) in Parma, the Centro per la Fisica delle Superfici e delle Basse Temperature in Genoa, and the Centro di Studio per la Strutturistica Diffrattometrica in Parma. IMEM carries out research in the physics and technology of materials used for electronics and optoelectronics. The main activities of the new laboratory are III-V epitaxial and bulk growth and characterization, high-temperature superconductors, magnetic and ferroelectric materials (at Parma), and surface physics, superconductivity, low-temperature physics, and related theoretical models (in Genoa). The high magnetic field facility employs single-point-detection techniques with the pulsed magnetic fields to measure magnetocrystalline anisotropies in materials. The laboratory primarily operates pulsed-field magnets: 60 T with 40-100 ms duration and 81.5 T with 0.3 ms (10-mm bore) duration. JAPAN Kashiwa The MegaGauss Laboratory (MGL) of the Institute for Solid State Physics at the University of Tokyo was started in 1972. Researchers at MGL study properties of matter in very high magnetic fields—that is, at several hundred tesla. MGL offers two foreign visiting professorships. All external users are required to collaborate with staff researchers and to obtain the approval of the facility’s directors. Three different approaches for generating very high pulsed fields have been pursued: (1) electromagnetic flux compression, (2) single-turn coil techniques, and (3) nondestructive, long-pulse magnets. The electromagnetic flux compression method has produced useful magnetic fields of up to 622 T, and single-turn coil approaches have produced fields up to 300 T. These fields have been used to study magnetic substances, semiconductors, superconductors, organic conductors, and the like. MGL has five separate measuring stations with advanced infrastructure, such as optical multichannel analyzers, far-infrared optics, and helium-3 refrigerators. Activities include study of the origin of the magnetism in magnetic materials and the mechanisms underlying magnetically induced properties. Interesting phenomena observed at high fields and high pressures are studied using cyclotron resonance, far-infrared and millimeter-wave spectroscopy, magneto-optical spectroscopy, Faraday rotation, magnetization, and transport measurements. Materials under investigation include semiconductors, semimetals, superconductors, organic conductors, magnetic materials, and low-dimensional spin systems.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Kobe The High Field Magnet Laboratory at Kobe University studies the magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions of magnetic field, temperature, and pressure. It employs the experimental techniques of electron spin resonance and magnetoptics (using cyclotron resonance) to measure the magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and magnetoresistance of organic conductors, low-dimensional magnets, and other semiconductors. The laboratory specializes in pulsed fields; a new capacitor bank has been installed that energizes magnets that deliver up to 42 T. Okayama The facility at Okayam University is a relatively new facility housing two capacitor banks, one for single-shot experiments and the other for the generation of repetitive pulsed fields of 30-35 T. Techniques include magnetoresistance measurements and ESR as well as a far-infrared laser; researchers study magnetic domain formation and chaotic phenomena. Osaka The High Magnetic Field Lab at the Research Center for Materials Science at Extreme Conditions (Kyokugen) is located at Osaka University. The lab specializes in developing nondestructive pulsed magnets that generate some of the highest magnetic fields in the world. A combination of a pulsed magnet, a Be-Cu high-pressure cell, and a plastic dilution refrigerator permits research at extremely high magnetic fields, ultralow temperatures, and very high pressure. The research being pursued ranges from magnetism at high magnetic fields, development of nondestructive pulse magnets, and low-dimensional quantum spin systems to highly sensitive susceptibility measurements of photosynthesis and magnetization measurements under high pressures (60 T and 2 GPa) or at millikelvin temperatures. The laboratory has achieved a record 80.3 T. Sendai The High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials at the Institute for Materials Research at Tohoku University was established in April 1981 to provide facilities for research into superconducting materials for the construction of the superconducting magnets needed for fusion reactors. In addition to a hybrid magnet of 31 T and a water-cooled magnet, the laboratory has several superconducting cryogen-free magnets (up to 15 T). Planning for a similar 19-T magnet
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science is in progress. Cooperative research programs are under way nationwide. Basic research and high-temperature superconductor development are the most important research areas at this laboratory. Tsukuba The Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory (TML) is located at the National Institute for Materials Science. TML has been a user facility since 1998, and it provides domestic and international users access to 17 different magnet systems, including DC magnets with fields up to 35 T and long-pulse 30- to 50-T magnets as well as limited access to explosive pulsed fields of up to 220 T. The in-house research program at TML includes a variety of subjects, such as magnet development for 1-GHz NMR, magnetic separation, protein crystal growth, and studies on chemical and metallurgical reactions in high fields. TML is also a base for the international standardization of superconducting materials; a Cu-Ag wire codeveloped at TML has held the world record for nondestructive pulsed magnetic field strength. Outside users come primarily from universities, and they prefer the high-field superconducting magnets, closely followed by the high-field resistive magnets. NETHERLANDS Amsterdam The facility at the University of Amsterdam, in existence since 1959, primarily operated a 40-T magnet for magnetization and magnetotransport measurements until the magnet was dismantled in late 2003. Nijmegen The High Field Magnet Laboratory (HFML) at Nijmegen University reopened in June 2003 after a substantial upgrade to provide both continuous and pulsed high-field magnets for users. A key feature of the upgrade was the construction of a 20-MW power supply. The laboratory has six resistive magnets, with two providing fields of 33 T. Construction is under way on magnets that will offer 55-T fields in a 23-mm bore and advanced coils that will generate peak fields of up to 80 T. HFML serves as a European user facility and receives yearly some 50-70 researchers from external institutions. The local research program centers on nanoscience (local probes, confocal microscopy, single-molecule spectroscopy), with emphasis on quantum phenomena (correlated low-dimensional electron systems, high field:temperature ratio) and the manipulation of molecular matter. Other topics
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science include magnetospectroscopy and high-field NMR (>10–6 resolution at 30 T, 1.3 GHz). POLAND The International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures (ILHMFLT), in Wroclaw, was founded n 1968. The participating organizations are the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Russian Academy of Sciences, and some support is provided by the European Union. ILHMFLT includes three continuous-field magnets operating at 10 T, 15 T, and 20 T, three DC magnets that are being tested, and 40-T, 50-T, and 60-T magnets that deliver pulses of 0.1-1.0 s. Research is being carried out on techniques for generating high magnetic fields, on superconductors, on magnetics, and on the electronic structure of metals, their compounds, and conductive organic substances. A specialty of the lab is research under high pressure. PORTUGAL The Centro de Fisica at the University of Porto maintains a pulsed-magnet installation that was designed and constructed at Toulouse and provides up to 26 T over 2 s at 4 to 300 K. The primary research areas are magnetic thin films and nanostructured materials. RUSSIA Moscow The Division of Superconducting Magnets and Cryogenics at the Institute of Superconductivity and Solid State Physics at the Russian Research Center (a.k.a. the Kurchatov Institute) has a long tradition of work with pulsed magnets (up to 55 T) as well as with superconducting magnets. Over the last several years, the division has developed, manufactured, and tested superconducting magnets for use at other institutions, including devices for nonneutral plasma studies at Berkeley, the Chinese synchrotron source, and the tokamak fusion program in India. Research covers various applications of large-scale superconductivity such as superconducting wires, cables, conductors, and other specific features of HTS magnet technology.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Sarov The Institute for Fundamental and Applied Physics Research at the All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) in Sarov specializes in explosive flux compression techniques to achieve pulsed high magnetic fields. Efforts at the Institute since 1952 have addressed the conversion of explosion energy into magnetic energy and the use of this concept to design magnetic-cumulation or explosive-magnetic generators. The magnetic-cumulation generator is a device that can produce magnetic fields as high as 1,000 T in an active volume 9 mm in diameter and 100 mm long. The world record of 2,800 T was achieved with a 170-kg explosive-driven, magnetic flux compression device. Research with these magnets ranges from weapons applications to detailed magnetic analyses of molecules. St. Petersburg Established in 1964, the laboratory of the Ioffe Institute and State Technical University specializes in magnetotransport measurements for samples with high resistance using pulsed fields of up to 35 T. At the nearby State Technical University, research on high-field production using destructive means is pursued. Capacitor-driven single-turn coils have been developed extensively; fields of over 70 T have been achieved. SPAIN Zaragoza The long-pulse magnet facility of the University of Zaragoza, part of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, was established in 1994 and produces fields up to 31 T, with a pulse duration of 2.2 s. The inner bore of the helium-4 cryostat is 22.5 mm. Research topics include colossal magnetoresistance, magnetoelastic stresses and strains, and magnetic thin films. UNITED STATES Cambridge, Massachusetts The Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is one of the oldest pulsed-field laboratories in the world. This laboratory opened up many of the areas of magnet science and technology that are still active today, ranging from the fractional quantum Hall effect to far-infrared cyclotron
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science resonance and the construction of high-performance magnets using high-strength conductors. Its long-pulse magnets, which operate at 60 T and 65 T, are still in use. The National Magnet Laboratory was located at the Francis Bitter lab from 1960 to 1995. Since the opening of NHMFL, the focus of the Cambridge facility has shifted to magnetic resonance. It now offers users 25 NMR and EPR spectrometers, and two new 900-MHz spectrometers are under development. Los Alamos, New Mexico The Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is one of the three campuses of NHMFL, the other two being at Florida State University in Tallahassee (continuous fields, magnetic resonance, and general headquarters) and the University of Florida in Gainesville (ultralow temperatures at high magnetic fields). NHMFL is sponsored primarily by the National Science Foundation, Division of Materials Research, with additional support from the state of Florida and the U.S. Department of Energy. The Pulsed Field Facility is the only facility of its kind in the country because of its 1.4-GW motor generator. The facility operates both short- and long-pulse magnets and a broad library of programmable waveform shapes in between; a record 80 T was achieved in 1999. A unique 100-T nondestructive pulsed hybrid magnet is under construction. The flagship 60-T long-pulse magnet failed catastrophically in 2000 but is being returned to operation. Users also have limited access to the high fields generated using destructive pulsed magnets. Supporting instrumentation at the LANL facility is also extensive and state of the art. Richland, Washington High-field NMR instruments and high-performance ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) instruments are available at a national user facility housed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). EMSL was organized in 1997. The NMR facility includes 900-, 800-, and 750-MHz devices (along with nine other NMR spectrometers) and an EPR spectrometer. The science topics investigated by users include structural and functional genomics and biological imaging as well as instrumentation development. The mass spectrometry facility incorporates several ion trap mass spectrometers and four Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers, including an 11.5-T instrument and a new 9.4-T instrument. Much of the work conducted using these spectrometry facilities concerns proteomics, cell signaling, high-molecular-weight systems, and cellular molecular machines.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Tallahassee and Gainesville, Florida The NHMFL was established in 1990 with support from the National Science Foundation and the state of Florida and is a collaboration between the University of Florida, Florida State University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The laboratories in Florida provide users access to continuous field magnets, including a 45-T hybrid magnet; they constitute the world’s largest magnet laboratory. In addition to an active research program in static high magnetic fields, there is an extensive program in NMR, ICR, EMR, and other advanced high-field magnetic resonance research. The continuous-field magnet facility, the Center for Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance, and the geochemistry facilities are located on the main campus in Tallahassee; the high B/T (magnetic field/temperature) and the magnetic resonance/imaging spectroscopy facilities are located in Gainesville. Worcester, Massachusetts The laboratory at Clark University focuses on organic conductors and the effects of high magnetic fields on their properties. On-campus magnets include 5-T continuous-field magnets and a 50-T (11-ms) pulsed-field facility. The focus of the instrumentation available is cryogenic equipment that can be used in high pulsed field environments, such as plastic cryostats.
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