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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science OPPORTUNITIES IN HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD SCIENCE Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Solid State Sciences Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. DMR-0318562 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09582-4 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-54847-0 (PDF) Library of Congress Control Number: 2005924159 Cover (clockwise from left): Axial MRI scan of the human brain; decoherence of electron spins near a quantum phase transition by a nuclear spin bath, imaged by inelastic neutron scattering as a function of magnetic field, courtesy H.M. Ronnow, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique at Grenoble, France; Meissner-effect levitation of a high-temperature superconductor over a rare-earth magnet, courtesy F. Kraehenbuehl, Cables Cortaillod S.A.; ribbon representation of a large protein complex composed of two copies of the E. coli histidine phosphocarrier protein (in green) and two copies of subunit A of the enzyme II mannose protein (in red and blue), courtesy M. Clore and D.C. Williams, National Institutes of Health. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science 1939-2004 The Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science dedicates this report to a dear friend and valued colleague, Jack E. Crow. His vision, enthusiasm, and energy helped to move high magnetic field research forward, and his strong voice helped bring it to the attention of the nation. The committee was honored to hear from Jack at its December 2003 meeting at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory; his words were as wise, patient, and humorous as always. Photo courtesy of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science COMMITTEE ON OPPORTUNITIES IN HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD SCIENCE PETER B. MOORE, Yale University, Chair GABRIEL AEPPLI, University College London MEIGAN ARONSON, University of Michigan PAUL M. CHAIKIN, Princeton University PAUL D. ELLIS, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PETER F. GREEN, University of Texas at Austin DAVID C. LARBALESTIER, University of Wisconsin at Madison J. DAVID LITSTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOSEPH MINERVINI, Massachusetts Institute of Technology J. MICHAEL ROWE, National Institute of Standards and Technology JOHN M. ROWELL, Arizona State University MANSOUR SHAYEGAN, Princeton University ROBERT TYCKO, National Institutes of Health VALERII VINOKUR, Argonne National Laboratory Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director TIMOTHY I. MEYER, Program Officer MAUREEN MELLODY, Program Officer (August 2003-December 2003) DAVID B. LANG, Research Assistant PAMELA A. LEWIS, Program Associate VAN AN, Financial Associate
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science SOLID STATE SCIENCES COMMITTEE MARC A. KASTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair PETER F. GREEN, University of Texas at Austin, Vice Chair DAVID D. AWSCHALOM, University of California at Santa Barbara ANGELA M. BELCHER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ROBERT J. CAVA, Princeton University JOHN CLARKE, University of California at Berkeley DUANE B. DIMOS, Sandia National Laboratories JAMES P. EISENSTEIN, California Institute of Technology PETER C. EKLUND, Pennsylvania State University PATRICK D. GALLAGHER, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Center for Neutron Research SHARON C. GLOTZER, University of Michigan BARBARA JONES, IBM Almaden Research Center STEVEN A. KIVELSON, Stanford University HERWIG KOGELNIK, Bell Laboratories and Lucent Technologies, Inc. ANTHONY J. LEGGETT, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign M. BRIAN MAPLE, University of California at San Diego SIDNEY R. NAGEL, University of Chicago ARTHUR P. RAMIREZ, Lucent Technologies, Inc. A. DOUGLAS STONE, Yale University CHRIS G. VAN DE WALLE, University of California at Santa Barbara Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director TIMOTHY I. MEYER, Program Officer DAVID B. LANG, Research Assistant VAN AN, Financial Associate
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY BURTON RICHTER, Stanford University, Chair ANNEILA L. SARGENT, California Institute of Technology, Vice Chair ELIHU ABRAHAMS, Rutgers University JONATHAN BAGGER, Johns Hopkins University GORDON A. BAYM, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign RONALD C. DAVIDSON, Princeton University WILLIAM EATON, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases RAYMOND J. FONCK, University of Wisconsin at Madison ANDREA M. GHEZ, University of California at Los Angeles LAURA H. GREENE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign FRANCES HELLMAN, University of California at Berkeley ERICH P. IPPEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARC A. KASTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE, University of California at Berkeley JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories THOMAS M. THEIS, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center C. MEGAN URRY, Yale University CARL E. WIEMAN, JILA/University of Colorado Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director TIMOTHY I. MEYER, Program Officer BRIAN D. DEWHURST, Senior Program Associate DAVID B. LANG, Research Assistant PAMELA A. LEWIS, Program Associate VAN AN, Financial Associate
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Elihu Abrahams, Rutgers University, Jack Bass, Michigan State University, W.F. Brinkman, Princeton University, Frances Hellman, University of California at Berkeley, Franz Himpsel, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Gottfried Landwehr, University of Wuerzburg, M. Brian Maple, University of California at San Diego, Peter Schiffer, Pennsylvania State University, Gerhard Wagner, Harvard Medical School, and Albert Zeller, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science We also wish to thank the following individuals for their review of the committee’s interim letter report: Shirley Chiang, University of California at Davis, Linda J. (Lee) Magid, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Thomas Mareci, University of Florida, and Peter Wanderer, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Mildred S. Dresselhaus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Acknowledgments The members of the Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science wish to thank the nonmembers who made formal presentations at its meetings (their names appear in Appendix D). Their presentations and the ensuing discussions were extremely informative and had a major impact on the committee’s deliberations. The committee also thanks those who sent in letters and e-mail messages in response to its public request for input from the very large community of scientists who use high-field magnets. The committee is particularly grateful to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee both for its hospitality when the committee met there and for its willingness to discuss with the committee every aspect of its operations. It would be impossible for the members of a National Research Council committee to produce a useful report without the help of NRC staff. Timothy Meyer and Donald Shapero of the Board on Physics and Astronomy guided us through the entire process. Their wise advice helped shape our report, and their hard work ensured its timely production.
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 The Importance of Magnetism in the Modern World, 7 The Significance of High Magnetic Field Research, 8 The Task of the Committee, 9 Definition of High Magnetic Field, 10 High-Field Magnets, 10 2 SCIENTIFIC CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES WITH HIGHER FIELDS 14 Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics, 15 High-Temperature Superconductivity, 18 Heavy Fermion Systems, 28 Low-Dimensional Semiconductors, 34 Organic Conductors and Superconductors, 38 Combining High Fields with X-Ray and Neutron Scattering, 40 Future Needs, 44 High-Field Facilities for Materials Research, 46 Magnetic and Ion Cyclotron Resonance: Applications of High Fields to Biology, Chemistry, and Materials Research, 46 Introduction to NMR, 47 The Role of Field Strength in NMR, 50
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Recent Developments in Solution NMR, 52 Solid-State NMR, 53 NMR in Condensed-Matter Physics, 54 Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 56 Prospects for Improvements with Still Higher Fields, 57 Strategic Considerations for Higher Field NMR, 61 Ion Cyclotron Resonance, 62 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, 63 Importance of Ancillary Technological Development, 64 Other Scientific Uses of High-Field Magnets, 66 3 TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPING HIGHER FIELDS 69 What Is the Challenge?, 69 Resistive DC Magnets, 73 Present Status, 74 Outlook for Resistive DC Magnets, 75 Pulsed Magnets, 75 Advantages and Disadvantages, 78 The Potential for Expanding the Use of Pulsed Magnets, 81 Outlook for Pulsed Magnets, 8 Superconducting Magnets, 82 Superconductors Used for Magnet Construction, 83 Economic Considerations, 84 Additional Conductor Requirements: Hirr, 85 Critical Current Densities, 88 Existing Conductor Materials, 88 Emerging Superconducting Materials, 93 Superconducting Magnet Design, 96 Outlook for Superconducting Magnets, 98 Hybrid Magnets, 98 Design Challenges, 100 Outlook for Hybrid Magnets, 101 Coordination of Magnet Development, 102 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 103 Conclusions, 103 Current State and Future Prospects, 103 U.S. High-Field Efforts in the International Context, 104
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Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science Promising Multidisciplinary Areas for Research and Development, 105 Major Construction Initiatives for the Coming Decade, 106 Recommendations, 106 APPENDIXES A Nobel Prizes for Research That Used or Significantly Affected the Development of High Magnetic Fields 115 B High-Field Magnet Facilities Around the World 116 C Glossary 138 D Meeting Agendas 147 E Input from the Community 151 F Biographies of Committee Members and Staff 154 G Tutorial on High-Temperature Superconductivity 162 H Tutorial on Frontiers in Vortex Physics 166
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