IMPLEMENTING HEALTH-PROTECTIVE FEATURES AND PRACTICES IN BUILDINGS

WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS

Federal Facilities Council Technical Report #148

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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Implementing Health-Protective Features and Practices in Buildings: Workshop Proceedings IMPLEMENTING HEALTH-PROTECTIVE FEATURES AND PRACTICES IN BUILDINGS WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Federal Facilities Council Technical Report #148 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Implementing Health-Protective Features and Practices in Buildings: Workshop Proceedings NOTICE The Federal Facilities Council (FFC) is a continuing activity of the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of the FFC is to promote continuing cooperation among the sponsoring Federal agencies and between the agencies and other elements of the building community in order to advance building science and technology—particularly with regard to the design, construction, acquisition, evaluation, and operation of Federal facilities. The sponsor agencies are the: Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Department of the Air Force, Air National Guard Department of the Air Force, Office of the Civil Engineer Department of the Army, Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management Department of the Army, Army Corps of Engineers Department of Commerce, Office of Real Estate Department of Defense, Defense Facilities Directorate Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Department of Energy, Office of Engineering and Construction Management Department of Energy, Office of Science Department of Health and Human Services, Indian Health Service Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Border Protection Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Administration Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Department of the Interior, Office of Managing Risk and Public Safety Department of Justice, Facilities and Administrative Services Department of the Navy, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Department of State, Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Facilities Management Architect of the Capitol Environmental Protection Agency General Services Administration, Public Buildings Service National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Facilities Engineering and Real Property Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Building and Fire Research Laboratory National Science Foundation Smithsonian Institution, Facilities Engineering and Operations U.S. Postal Service, Engineering Division As part of its activities, the FFC periodically publishes reports that have been prepared by committees of government employees. Because these committees are not appointed by the NRC, they do not make recommendations, and their reports are considered FFC publications rather than NRC publications. For additional information on the FFC program and its reports, visit the Web site at www.nationalacademies.org/ffc; write to Director, Federal Facilities Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room 944, Washington, DC 20001; or call 202-334-3374. Printed in the United States of America 2005

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Implementing Health-Protective Features and Practices in Buildings: Workshop Proceedings FEDERAL FACILITIES COUNCIL Lt. Gen. Henry J. Hatch, Chair, P.E., U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Retired) William W. Brubaker, Vice Chair, Facilities Engineering and Operations, Smithsonian Institution Patrick Barry, P.E., Agricultural Research Service, Department of Agriculture Tony Clifford, Division of Engineering Services, National Institutes of Health Will Colston, Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations, Department of State Capt. José Cuzme, P.E., Division of Facilities Planning and Construction, Indian Health Service Jesus de la Garza, Ph.D., Division of Civil and Hazard Mitigation, National Science Foundation David Eakin, P.E., Office of the Chief Architect, Public Buildings Service, General Services Administration Ramon Garcia, Facilities Engineering Division, Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security James Hill, Ph.D., Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology Eugene Hubbard, P.E., Facilities Engineering and Real Property Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Michael Kastle, P.E., Office of Managing Risk and Public Safety, U.S. Department of the Interior Ben Lawless, Facilities Division, Air National Guard Readiness Center Raymond Lynn, Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Capt. Jay Manik, Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard Robert L. Neary, Jr., Office of Facilities Management, Department of Veterans Affairs John Nerger, Facilities and Housing Directorate, Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management, U.S. Department of the Army Ralph Newton, Defense Facilities Directorate, Department of Defense Dale Olson, Office of the Civil Engineer, U.S. Air Force Wade Raines, Engineering Division, U.S. Postal Service James Rispoli, Office of Engineering and Construction Management, Department of Energy Bruce Scott, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy Stan Walker, Shore Facilities Capital Asset Management, U.S. Coast Guard Jim Woods, Office of Real Estate, Department of Commerce James Wright, Chief Engineer, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, U.S. Navy John Yates, Office of Science, Department of Energy Staff Lynda Stanley, Director, Federal Facilities Council Richard Little, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

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Implementing Health-Protective Features and Practices in Buildings: Workshop Proceedings BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT Paul Gilbert, Chair, Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade, & Douglas, Seattle, Washington Massoud Amin, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Rachel Davidson, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Reginald Desroches, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Dennis Dunne, California Department of General Services (Retired), Sacramento Paul Fisette, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Lucia Garsys, Hillsborough County, Florida William H. Hansmire, Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade, & Douglas, San Francisco, California Henry J. Hatch, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Retired), Oakton, Virginia Amy Helling, Georgia State University, Atlanta Theodore Kennedy, BE&K Engineers, Birmingham, Alabama Sue McNeil, University of Illinois, Chicago Derek Parker, Anshen+Allen, San Francisco, California Henry G. Schwartz, Jr., Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri David Skiven, General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Michigan Michael Stegman, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill William Wallace, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York Craig Zimring, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Staff Richard Little, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Lynda Stanley, Director, Federal Facilities Council Michael Cohn, Program Officer Dana Caines, Financial Associate Pat Williams, Senior Project Assistant

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Implementing Health-Protective Features and Practices in Buildings: Workshop Proceedings Acknowledgments The Federal Facilities Council thanks the workshop participants for giving generously of their time and for sharing their expertise, views, and opinions through briefings and discussions. Mr. Bill Brodt of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mr. Richard McCrone of the Department of Veterans Affairs, Dr. James Woods of the Building Diagnostics Research Institute, Dr. Craig Zimring of the Georgia Institute of Technology, Mr. Derek Parker of Anshen+Allen, and Mr. Dennis Dunne of the California Department of General Services (retired) deserve special recognition for their efforts in planning, organizing, and bringing the workshop to fruition.

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Implementing Health-Protective Features and Practices in Buildings: Workshop Proceedings Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Workshop Summary   7      Definitions, Standards, and Metrics for Indoor Environmental Quality,   8      State of Knowledge: What Do We Know About How Building Design and Operations Affect the Health of Nonindustrial Indoor Workers, Hospital Patients, Students, and Others?,   8      Barriers to Knowledge Dissemination: Why Do Organizations Fail to Implement Building Features and Practices That Have Been Shown to Improve Indoor Environmental Quality?,   9      Methods for Improving Knowledge Dissemination: What Methods, Strategies, and Practices Could Be Used to Overcome Barriers to Implementing Health-Protective Features and Practices in Buildings?,   11      Practical Actions That Could Be Implemented by Those in the Building, Health Care, and Other Industries to Improve Indoor Environmental Quality,   13 2   Indoor Environments and Occupants’ Health: What Do We Know?   15      What Do We Know About the Relationship of IEQ to the Health of Building Occupants? How Certain Are We of These Relationships, That Is, What Is the Source of This Knowledge?,   15      About the Presenter,   20 3   Health-Protective Features and Practices in Buildings   21      Introduction and Problem Statement,   21      Current State of Knowledge About Building Systems and Environmental Controls,   28      Barriers to Improved Building Performance,   33      About the Presenter,   35      References,   36 4   Lighting: Research and Findings   39      About the Presenter,   43

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Implementing Health-Protective Features and Practices in Buildings: Workshop Proceedings 5   Environmental Issues in Health Care Design   44      Children’s Hospital Health Center,   46      Convalescent Care Hospital,   48      Bronson Methodist Hospital,   48      Clarian Methodist Hospital,   49      About the Presenter,   51 6   Implementing Health-Protective Features in Buildings: Practical Actions—Case Studies   52      Federal Courthouse and Office Building,   52      Renovation and Addition to an Existing High School,   53      Corporate Headquarters,   54      Office Building,   54      Residential High-Rise,   55      Building Program Approaches for Implementing Health-Protective Features,   56      Organizational Learning,   56      About the Presenter,   56     Appendixes         A  Workshop Agenda   59     B  Workshop Participants   61