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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research Appendix B Workshop Information Agenda BRIDGES TO INDEPENDENCE: FOSTERING THE INDEPENDENCE OF NEW INVESTIGATORS IN THE LIFE SCIENCES Keck Center of the National Academies, Room 100 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 Wednesday, June 16, 2004 8:30 am Welcome and Introductions Thomas R. Cech (Committee Chair) 9:00 am Charge from Sponsor Elias A. Zerhouni, Director, National Institutes of Health 9:30 am Data on funding of new investigators Overview of data on NIH funding to new investigators Norka Ruiz Bravo, Deputy Director for Extramural Research, NIH Unpacking the data: Factors contributing to the increasing age of first grant Paula Stephan, Professor of Economics, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University Questions and discussion 10:15 am Break
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research 10:30 am Current opportunities for funding new investigators Overview of NIH programs and the history of R29 FIRST Awards Alan I. Leshner, Chief Executive Officer, American Association for the Advancement of Science NIH study section and review process Brent B. Stanfield, Acting Director, Center for Scientific Review, NIH NSF experience (why does it differ from NIH?) Mary E. Clutter, Assistant Director for Biological Sciences, NSF Success of career transition awards Martin Ionescu-Pioggia, Senior Program Officer, Burroughs Wellcome Fund Questions and discussion 11:40 am A University President’s Perspective James R. Gavin III, President, Morehouse School of Medicine 12:20 pm Introduction to breakout sessions 12:30 pm Box lunches available 12:45 pm Breakout sessions during lunch (please sign up at registration table; topics enclosed) 1:45 pm Reporting back on breakout sessions 2:15 pm Academic panel addressing impact of funding on hiring decisions; startup packages; institutional commitment to unfunded researchers; challenges for new faculty, staff scientists, and postdoctoral fellows: David Hirsh, Executive Vice President for Research, Columbia University Robert D. Goldman, Stephen Walter Ranson Professor and Chair, Department of Cell & Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University William G. Kelly, Assistant Professor of Biology, Emory University Peter Espenshade, Assistant Professor of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Questions and discussion 3:20 pm Break
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research 3:35 pm Fostering success of new investigators Career development programs for postdoctoral fellows Melanie Sinche, Director, Office of Postdoctoral Services, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Junior faculty mentoring programs Dorothy F. Bainton, Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs and Professor, University of California, San Francisco Laboratory management skills: BWF/HHMI Lab Management Course Peter J. Bruns, Vice President for Grants and Special Programs, Howard Hughes Medical Institute FASEB Individual Development Plan Philip S. Clifford, Associate Dean for Postdoctoral Education and Professor of Anesthesiology and Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin Questions and discussion 4:30 pm Summary 5:00 pm Adjourn for reception in the foyer BREAKOUT GROUP TOPICS In Tom Cech’s opening remarks, a proposal for revised R01 grant application and review policies for beginning investigators was put forth. Would these revisions be useful, and what other revisions would you suggest? How would not considering preliminary data for new investigators encourage researchers to seek new areas of investigation or be willing to pursue riskier lines of research? What types of awards would enable transitions to independence? What are the benefits and drawbacks of career transition awards (e.g., R29, BWF, NMSS)? Are there different issues for different populations of scientists? For example, are there special concerns regarding the transition to independence for women? For international postdocs? For faculty at medical schools as compared with arts and science faculty? For clinical research as compared with basic research faculty? Should certain postdocs or non-tenure-track scientists be allowed to compete for R01 grants? What would be the ramifications of having senior postdocs, staff scientists, and non-tenure-track faculty apply for independent awards for universities? for NIH? Would it encourage new areas of investigation or riskier lines of research?
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research How can we better prepare postdocs to be successful independent investigators? What skills and competencies are important for successful transitions to independence? How can training in these skills be offered? What are the responsibilities and opportunities of the various stakeholders (funding agencies, institutions, mentors, senior faculty, junior faculty, postdocs)? What data should be gathered with regard to transition for independence to help guide policy decisions? Which already exists and how can other data be collected? Which specific questions or issues need data collected? SPEAKER BIOGRAPHIES Dorothy F. Bainton is vice chancellor, academic affairs and professor of pathology at the University of California, San Francisco. In 1963 she came to UCSF as a fellow in the Department of Pathology, has been a member of the faculty since 1972, and was chair of the department from 1987–1994, when she became vice chancellor. Dr. Bainton is recognized for her research on the structural and functional relationships of hematopoietic cells in bone marrow. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. As vice chancellor of academic affairs she works with the deans of the various schools, and has been responsible for the planning and review of all teaching programs at UCSF. She chairs the Chancellor’s Council on Faculty Life and has had a long-term commitment to mentoring junior faculty. Peter J. Bruns, PhD, is the vice president for grants and special programs at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). He manages the largest privately funded science education program in U.S. history, with a grant program of over $100 million annually. A native of Syracuse, New York, he received his bachelor’s degree from Syracuse University and his doctorate from the University of Illinois before joining the Cornell University faculty as an assistant professor of genetics in 1969. His research is in the genetics and molecular biology of the one-celled pond organism Tetrahymena thermophila, with a special interest in its chromosomal organization. He has been active in numerous professional organizations and as a reviewer for scientific journals. Dr. Bruns has earned a national reputation for his efforts to improve science education for students at all levels. He established the Cornell Institute for Biology Teachers, which brings New York State high school teachers together each summer for lectures, field
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research trips, hands-on laboratories, and computer training to improve their teaching. He also took the lead in expanding opportunities for Cornell students interested in doing original laboratory research in biology and related disciplines. Philip S. Clifford is associate dean for postdoctoral education and professor of anesthesiology and physiology at the Medical College of Wisconsin. His interest in postdoctoral issues began while he was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in Dallas and continued as he became an advocate for postdoctoral fellows in his own laboratory. He was tapped by the Medical College of Wisconsin to create the Office of Postdoctoral Education in 2001 just prior to the publication of the COSEPUP report Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience. He has participated in discussions on postdoctoral training as a member of the Advisory Board of the National Postdoctoral Association, the AAMC GREAT Group Committee on Postdoctoral Issues, and FASEB’s Science Policy Committee on Training and Careers. In surveys by The Scientist in 2003 and 2004, the Medical College of Wisconsin ranked as one of the top 10 institutions for postdoctoral training. Dr. Clifford heads an active research program investigating the physiological mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise. His research laboratory has been funded by the NIH since 1988 and has received additional funding from the American Heart Association and the Department of Veterans Affairs. He is a fellow of the American Heart Association and the American College of Sports Medicine and serves on the editorial boards of several physiological journals. He is also a consultant in the medical device industry. Mary E. Clutter is assistant director of the National Science Foundation (NSF). She is responsible for the Biological Sciences Directorate that supports all major areas of fundamental research in biology. Dr. Clutter came to NSF from the department of biology at Yale University to be program director of developmental biology. She has held a number of positions at NSF including division director of cellular biosciences, senior science advisor to the director, and acting deputy director, NSF. Dr. Clutter is the U.S. chair of the U.S.-European Commission Task Force on Biotechnology, a member of the Board of Trustees of the international Human Frontiers Science Program, a member of the Board of Regents of the National Library of Medicine, chair of the Biotechnology Subcommittee of the Committee on Science of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), co-chair of the Subcommittee on Ecological Systems of the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources/NSTC, co-chair of the NSTC Committee on Science’s Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomes and
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research sits on the National Interagency Genomics Sciences Coordinating Committee. She is also a member of numerous professional societies, and has served on the Board of Directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She is a Fellow of the AAAS and the Association for Women in Science. Dr. Clutter received the bachelor of science degree in biology from Allegheny College and her master’s and doctoral degrees from the University of Pittsburgh. She received honorary doctorates of science from Allegheny College and Mount Holyoke College and the Bicentennial Medallion of Distinction from the University of Pittsburgh. She has received numerous Senior Executive Service Awards, including the Meritorious and Distinguished Executive Presidential rank awards from President Ronald Reagan, President George H.W. Bush and President William Clinton. Peter Espenshade graduated from Princeton University in 1990 with a degree in molecular biology. Following a year as a research technician, he began a PhD at Massachusetts Institute of Technology with Dr. Chris Kaiser. Upon completion of his doctorate in 1997, he joined the laboratory of Dr. Michael Brown and Dr. Joseph Goldstein at UT-Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas where his research focused on the mechanisms of cholesterol homeostasis. In 2002, Dr. Espenshade joined the department of cell biology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine as an assistant professor, where his laboratory uses fission yeast as a genetic model for understanding sterol homeostasis in mammalian cells. During his career, his studies and research have been supported by NSF predoctoral and NIH postdoctoral fellowships. Currently, his research is funded by a Career Award in the Biomedical Sciences from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund and the National Institutes of Health, R01 HL-77588. James R. Gavin III, MD, PhD, graduated from Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina, in 1966 with a degree in chemistry. He earned his PhD in biochemistry from Emory University in 1970 and his MD degree from Duke University School of Medicine in 1975. Dr. Gavin began his current position as president of the Morehouse School of Medicine on July 1, 2002. Prior to that, he was senior scientific officer at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) from 1991–2002 and director of the HHMI-National Institutes of Health Research Scholars Program from 2000–2002. Before joining the senior staff of HHMI, he was on faculty at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center as a professor and as chief of the Diabetes Section; acting chief of the Section on Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension; and William K. Warren Professor for Diabetes Studies. He previously served as associate professor of medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. He was a lieuten-
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research ant commander in the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) from 1971–1973 and continues to serve as a reserve officer in the USPHS. He has published more than 180 articles and abstracts. Among the many honors Dr. Gavin has received are the Daniel Hale Williams Award, the E.E. Just Award, the Herbert Nickens Award, the Daniel Savage Memorial Award, the Emory University Medal for Distinguished Achievement, the Banting Medal for Distinguished Service from the American Diabetes Association, the Distinguished Alumni Award from the Duke University School of Medicine, and the Internist of the Year from the National Medical Association. Robert D. Goldman is the Stephen Walter Ranson Professor and chair of the department of cell and molecular biology at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. He received his PhD at Princeton University and has spent his entire career in the field of cell biology. His specific interests are focused on the structure and function of cytoskeletal systems, emphasizing the role of intermediate filaments in regulating both cytoplasmic and nuclear architecture. He has been an active member of the Corporation of the Marine Biological Laboratory where he has served as a member of the board of trustees, director of the physiology: cell and molecular biology course, co-director of the Science Writer’s Fellowship Program, and now serves as director of the Whitman Center for Visiting Scientists. Goldman has also served as a member of the Council of the American Society for Cell Biology, the board of directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and as president of the Anatomy, Cell Biology and Neuroscience Chairpersons Association. He was the founder of the Public Information Committee of the American Society for Cell Biology, and is a member of the Committee on the Public Understanding of Science and Technology of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation Stem Cell Advisory Board. He is presently funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health and the Muscular Dystrophy Foundation. David Hirsh is the executive vice president for research at Columbia University. From 1990 until 2003, he was chairman of the department of biochemistry and molecular biophysics in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. He served as interim dean for research in the Faculty of Medicine from January 2000 to February 2001. Prior to Columbia he served as executive vice president and director of research at Synergen, Inc., and held an academic appointment at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He received his BA from Reed College and his PhD from Rockefeller University in 1968, and was a postdoctoral fellow at the
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research MRC laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England. He was one of the first investigators to use C. elegans as an experimental organism to answer basic molecular genetic questions. His early studies identified the close sequence homology between genes of C. elegans and vertebrates. These findings led to studies on the arrangement of genes within the C. elegans genome, their timing of expression, and their tissue specificity. More recently, his research has been in the area of innate immunity in mammals and the regulation of the activity of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1, during inflammation and infection. Dr. Hirsh is a member of the boards of Rockefeller University and the Agouron Institute, is a director of Zymogenetics, Inc., and chairs the Lifesciences Advisory Board of Warburg Pincus. Martin Ionescu-Pioggia joined the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in September 1994 and is responsible for Career Awards in the Biomedical Sciences, and for initiatives in outcome evaluation, postdoctoral, and faculty career development, reproductive science, and the history of medicine. Dr. Ionescu-Pioggia received his PhD in clinical psychology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1985. He completed his pre- and postdoctoral research fellowships at McLean Hospital and Harvard Medical School, where he served as associate project director for substance abuse research. He taught psychology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 1980 to 1983. From 1983 to 1994, he worked at the pharmaceutical firm Burroughs Wellcome Co. as a clinical research scientist in the neurosciences and as a medical liaison to marketing, and worked primarily on the clinical development of bupropion, an antidepressant. Dr. Ionescu-Pioggia currently holds faculty appointments at McLean Hospital-Harvard Medical School and Duke University Medical School and serves on the advisory board of Science’s Next Wave. Interested in practical and policy-level career development issues, he collaborated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and AAAS to launch the Career Development Center, an online resource for postdocs and junior faculty on the Science Next Wave web site (http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cdc/). Most recently, with HHMI, he co-developed and co-directed the BWF-HHMI Comprehensive Course in Laboratory Management for Advanced Postdocs and New Faculty. A publication summarizing the course is available online (http://www.hhmi.org/labmanagement/). William G. Kelly is an assistant professor in the biology department at Emory University in Atlanta and has been so for 4 years. He maintains an active lab (currently 4 grad students, 3 post-docs, and 2 technicians) in addition to participating in undergraduate and graduate teaching. Prior to this position, Dr. Kelly was a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research Dr. Andrew Fire at the Carnegie Institution of Washington Department of Embryology in Baltimore (6 yrs). His PhD work was in Dr. Gerald Hart’s lab in the Department of Biological Chemistry at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. He also has an MS in biology from the University of Maryland Baltimore County and a BS in biology from Belmont Abbey College in North Carolina. Alan I. Leshner is chief executive officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and executive publisher of its journal, Science. From 1994–2001, Dr. Leshner was director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and from 1988–1994 he was deputy director and acting director of the National Institute of Mental Health. Prior to that, he spent 9 years at the National Science Foundation, where he held a variety of senior positions, focusing on basic research in the biological, behavioral, and social sciences; on science policy; and on science education. Dr. Leshner began his career at Bucknell University, where he was professor of psychology. His research has focused on the biological bases of behavior, particularly the role of hormones in the control of behavior. Dr. Leshner has been elected a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science, and a fellow of AAAS and the National Academy of Public Administration. He has received numerous awards form both professional and lay groups for his national leadership in science, mental illness and mental health, substance abuse and addiction, and public engagement with science. He received an AB in psychology from Franklin and Marshall College and MS and PhD in physiological psychology from Rutgers University. Norka Ruiz Bravo was appointed NIH deputy director for extramural research in November 2003. She started at NIH in 1990 as a scientific review administrator in the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). Since then, she has held a number of positions such as program director for the NIGMS Division of Genetics & Development Biology, deputy director and then acting director for the Division of Cancer Biology at the National Cancer Institute, and most recently associate director for extramural activities at NIGMS. After earning a PhD in biology from Yale University, Dr. Ruiz Bravo completed an NIH postdoctoral fellowship in biochemistry and molecular biology at M.D. Anderson Cancer Research Center. Before coming to NIH, Dr. Ruiz Bravo was an assistant professor in the departments of urology and cell biology at Baylor College of Medicine. Melanie Sinche has served as director of the Office of Postdoctoral Services (OPS) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill since the
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research office opened in October 2001. Ms. Sinche prepares postdocs for successful careers through individual counseling sessions and group seminars on career-related issues. Ms. Sinche has also assisted in developing a university postdoc policy, designed a campus-wide database to track UNC postdocs, established a postdoc orientation program, developed an online employment survey for outgoing postdocs, and provided services to faculty, including a training program on effective mentoring. Prior to serving postdocs, Ms. Sinche worked closely with graduate students as assistant director of university career services at UNC. She has also served as a recruiter for a diversity recruiting firm. Ms. Sinche earned a bachelor’s degree from Colgate University and a master’s degree from the University of Michigan. In 2004, she will complete a second master’s degree in counseling at North Carolina State University and will work towards a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) credential. Brent B. Stanfield is presently the acting director of the National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review (CSR). Dr. Stanfield received the BS degree in biological sciences from the University of California, Irvine in 1973, and the PhD degree in neurobiology from Washington University, St. Louis in 1978. After a period of postdoctoral training, first at Washington University, then at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, he was appointed to the faculty in the Developmental Neurobiology Laboratory at the Salk Institute in 1981 and, in addition, appointed assistant adjunct professor in the Department of Neurosciences at the School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego in 1982. In 1987 Dr. Stanfield moved his lab to the intramural program of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) where he ran the Unit on Developmental Neuroanatomy in the Laboratory of Neurophysiology. In 1996 Dr. Stanfield worked in the Office of Science Policy at NIH and later that year was appointed acting deputy director of the Division of Intramural Research in NIMH. In 1997 he briefly moved to the CSR, where he helped implement the reorganization of the study sections that review NIH neuroscience grant applications. Dr. Stanfield moved back to NIMH in March 1998 to serve as director of the Office of Science Policy and Program Planning. He has been deputy director of CSR since July 2000, and was appointed acting director in October 2003. Paula E. Stephan is professor of economics at the Andrew Young School for Policy Studies, Georgia State University. Dr. Stephan graduated from Grinnell College with a BA in economics and earned both her MA and PhD in economics from the University of Michigan. Her research interests focus on the careers of scientists and engineers and the process by which knowledge moves across institutional boundaries in the economy. Her
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research other interests include technology transfer and the role that immigrant scientists play in U.S. science. Her research has been supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Andrew Mellon Foundation, the Exxon Education Foundation, the National Science Foundation, NATO, and the U.S. Department of Labor. Dr. Stephan has served on several National Research Council committees, including the Committee on Dimensions, Causes and Implications of Recent Trends in the Careers of Life Scientists; Committee on Methods of Forecasting Demand and Supply of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers; and the Committee to Assess the Portfolio of the Science Resources Studies Division of NSF. Dr. Stephan is a regular participant in the National Bureau of Economic Research’s meetings in higher education and has testified before the U.S. House Subcommittee on Basic Science. She currently is serving a 3-year term as a member of the Social, Behavioral and Economic Advisory Committee, National Science Foundation. She has published numerous articles in journals such as the American Economic Review, Science, Journal of Economic Literature, and Social Studies of Science. Dr. Stephan co-authored with Sharon Levin Striking the Mother Lode in Science, published by Oxford University Press, in 1992. Elias A. Zerhouni began his tenure as the 15th director of the National Institutes of Health On May 20, 2002. Dr. Zerhouni initiated the creation of a new research vision for the NIH, which focuses the attention of the biomedical research community on new pathways of discovery, research teams for the future, and the re-engineering of the clinical research enterprise. Among his noteworthy achievements since becoming director, Dr. Zerhouni named directors for five institutes: National Institute of Mental Health (Thomas R. Insel, MD), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Ting-Kai Li, MD), National Institute on Drug Abuse (Nora D. Volkow, MD), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (Story C. Landis, PhD) and National Institute of General Medical Sciences (Jeremy M. Berg, PhD). He also named a new NIH deputy director (Raynard S. Kington, MD, PhD), a new director of the Office of Technology Transfer (Mark L. Rohrbaugh, PhD, JD), a new deputy director for extramural research (Norka Ruiz Bravo, PhD), a new associate director for budget (Richard Turman) and a new associate director of communications (John T. Burklow). He has also overseen the completion of the doubling of the NIH budget. Prior to joining the NIH, Dr. Zerhouni served as executive vice dean of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, chair of the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, and Martin Donner Professor of Radiology and professor of biomedical engineering. His research in imaging led to advances in Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT scanning) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that resulted in 157 peer-reviewed publications and 8 pat-
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research ents. Since 2000, he has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Medicine. He served on the National Cancer Institute’s Board of Scientific Advisors from 1998–2002. REGISTERED WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS1 Ahmed Abdullai Alexandra Achen, Science Technician, Division of Science Resource Statistics, NSF Barbara M. Alving, Acting Director, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH Irwin M. Arias, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Cindy Arrigo, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School Suresh Arya, Senior Investigator & Program Director, National Cancer Institute, NIH Constance Atwell, Office of Extramural Research, NIH Jim Austin, North American Editor, Science’s Next Wave Joel Bader, Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University Dorothy F. Bainton, Vice Chancellor of Academic Affairs, University of California, San Francisco Robin Barr, Deputy Associate Director, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Aging, NIH James Battey, Director, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, NIH Shannon Bayer, Recruiter/Coordinator of PostDoctoral Programs, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Beryl Benderly, Science’s Next Wave Jeremy M. Berg, Director, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH Diane Bernal, Executive Officer, National Institute of Nursing Research, NIH Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, Science Magazine Henning Birkedal-Hansen, Acting Deputy Director, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH 1 This list includes those registered to participate in the workshop and may differ slightly from the actual workshop participation. Affiliations are as provided by participants at the time of the workshop.
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research Barney Bishop, Assistant Professor of Chemistry & Biochemistry, George Mason University Terry Bishop, Training and Careers Program Director, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH James Biswas, Medications Research Grants Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Chris Blagden, Postdoctoral Fellow, Molecular Neurobiology, NYU School of Medicine Brendan Bradley, Board on Life Sciences, The National Academies Eileen Brantley, Postdoctoral Fellow, Biological Testing Branch, NCI-Frederick, NIH Phil Brantley, Professor and Director of Education, Pennington Biomedical Research Center Kerry Brenner, Board on Life Sciences, The National Academies Kenneth Bridbord, Director, Division of International Training and Research, Fogarty International Center, NIH Peter J. Bruns, Vice President for Grants and Special Programs, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Cherie Butts, Postdoctoral Fellow, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH Thomas R. Cech, President, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Ida Chow, Executive Officer, Society for Developmental Biology Philip S. Clifford, Associate Dean for Postdoctoral Education and Professor of Anesthesiology and Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin Mary E. Clutter, Assistant Director for Biological Sciences, National Science Foundation Timothy Coetzee, Director, Research Training Programs, National Multiple Sclerosis Society Debbie Cohen, Office of Intramural Training and Education, NIH Sandra Colombini-Hatch, Medical Officer, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH Michael Commarato, Health Scientist Administrator, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH Joshua Corbin, Assistant Professor of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Belinda Davis, Intramural Administrative Specialist, National Eye Institute, NIH Mary DeLong, Director, Graduate Partnerships Program, NIH Daniel Denecke, Director of Best Practices, Council of Graduate Schools Claude Desjardins, Dean for Research, University of Illinois Medical Center
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research Nancy Desmond, Director, Research Training & Career Development Office, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH Aaron DiAntonio, Assistant Professor, Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine Yuliya Dobrydneva, Eastern Virginia Medical School Janice G. Douglas, Professor of Medicine and Physiology & Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University Sidney Draggan, Senior Science and Science Policy Advisor, U.S. EPA Peter Espenshade, Assistant Professor, Department of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Chris Espy, Manager, LTE Programs, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Adam P. Fagen, Board on Life Sciences, The National Academies Di Fang, Manager of Demographic and Workforce Studies, Association of American Medical Colleges Maryrose Franko, Senior Program Officer, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Crina Frincu, Georgetown University Howard Garrison, Director, Office of Public Affairs, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology James R. Gavin III, President and Professor of Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine Susan A. Gerbi, George Eggleston Professor of Biochemistry, Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology & Biochemistry, Brown University Robert D. Goldman, Stephen Walter Ranson Professor and Chair, Department of Cell & Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University Walter Goldschmidts, Acting Research Training Officer, NIH Michael Gottesman, Deputy Director for Intramural Research, NIH Bettie Graham, Associate Director, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH Eric Haag, Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park Laure Haak, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, The National Academies Shirley Haley, Washington Fax Terri Hall, University of Notre Dame Iqbal Hamza, Assistant Professor of Animal & Avian Sciences, Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park Della Hann, Director, Office of Science Policy & Program Planning, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research Kevin Hardwick, Office of International Health, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH Sandra Hatch, Medical Officer, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH Peter Henderson, Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce, The National Academies David Hirsh, Executive Vice President for Research, Columbia University Sharon Hrynkow, Acting Director, Fogarty International Center, NIH Zoe Huang, Health Scientist Administrator, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH Martin Ionescu-Pioggia, Senior Program Officer, Burroughs Wellcome Fund Sunita Jones, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine Jocelyn Kaiser, Science Magazine Sheila Keilholz, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH William G. Kelly, Assistant Professor of Biology, Emory University Henry Khachaturian, National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, NIH Ruth Kirschstein, Senior Advisor to the Director, NIH Cheryl Kitt, Director of Extramural Programs, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, NIH Susan Knoblach, Research Assistant Professor, Georgetown University Medical Center Peter J. Kozel, The National Academies Lisa Kozlowski, Assistant Dean of Postdoctoral Affairs and Recruitment, Thomas Jefferson University Charlotte Kuh, Deputy Executive Director, Policy and Global Affairs, The National Academies June M. Kwak, Assistant Professor of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland Story Landis, Director, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH Natalie Lenard, Postdoctoral Fellow, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport Alan I. Leshner, Chief Executive Officer, AAAS and Executive Publisher, Science Bruce R. Levin, Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Biology, Emory University Evangeline Loh, Executive Secretary, GREAT Group, Association of American Medical Colleges
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research Linda MacArthur, Research Assistant Professor, Georgetown University Medical Center Carol L. Manahan, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Richard McGee, Director of Graduate Student Affairs, Graduate Partnerships Program, NIH Shelia McClure, Health Scientist Administration, National Center for Research Resources, NIH Sidney McNairy, Director, Division of Research Infrastructure, National Center for Research Resources, NIH Keith Micoli, Postdoc, University of Alabama-Birmingham Helena O. Mishoe, Associate Director for Minority Health Affairs, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH Susan R. Morrissey, Associate Editor, Chemical & Engineering News Milton Muldrow, Board on Life Sciences, The National Academies Garry Myers, Staff Scientist, Microbial Genomics Group, The Institute for Genomic Research Neal Nathanson, Associate Dean, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Maile Neel, Assistant Professor, University of Maryland, College Park Sarah Parks, Office of Research on Women’s Health, NIH Mary Frances Picciano, Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH Georgine M. Pion, Research Associate Professor, Department of Psychology & Human Development, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University Joseph Pitula, Assistant Professor, Department of Natural Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore Jonathan D. Pollock, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Laura Pomerance, Reporter, Research USA Mahboob Rahman, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University Louise Ramm, Deputy Director, National Center for Research Resources, NIH Michele Rankin, Postdoc, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH Samara Reck-Peterson, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, San Francisco Alyson Reed, Executive Director, National Postdoctoral Association Robert Rich, Program Officer, Office of Research Grants, American Chemical Society Emilda Rivers, Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Science Foundation
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research Dean Rosenthal, Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Georgetown University Joyce Rudick, Director, Programs and Management, Office of Research on Women’s Health, NIH Norka Ruiz Bravo, Deputy Director for Extramural Research, NIH Wendy Sanders, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions William Sansalone, Associate Director, Research Development; Adjunct Professor of Biochemistry, Georgetown University Medical Center Walter Schaffer, Acting Director, Office of Extramural Programs, NIH Joan P. Schwartz, Assistant Director, Office of Intramural Research, NIH Yvette Seger, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, The National Academies Rekha Seshadri, The Institute for Genomic Research Fran Sharples, Director, Board on Life Sciences, The National Academies Zaki Sherif, Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Georgetown University Susan Shetzline, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Pennsylvania Cynthia Simbulan-Rosenthal, Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Georgetown University School of Medicine Melanie Sinche, Director, Office of Postdoctoral Services, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Patricia Sokolove, AAAS/NIH Science Policy Fellow, Office of Science Policy & Public Liaison, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, NIH Susan Spence, National Cancer Institute, NIH Robert Star, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH Brent B. Stanfield, Acting Director, Center for Scientific Review, NIH Paula E. Stephan, Professor of Economics, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University Susan Streufert, Extramural Policy Officer, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Andrea Stith, Science Policy Analyst, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Jane M. Sullivan, Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington School of Medicine Sandra Talley, National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, NIH W. Fred Taylor, Health Scientist Administrator, Division of Research Infrastructure, National Center for Research Resources, NIH Olga Tcherkasskaya, Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Georgetown University School of Medicine Michael Teitelbaum, Program Director, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
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Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research Julie A. Theriot, Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine Kenetia Thompson, Program Associate, National Postdoctoral Association Gonzalo Torres, Research Associate, Duke University Monique van Hoek, George Mason University James Voytuk, Board on Higher Education and Workforce, The National Academies Shengchun Wang, Natural Resources and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland Steven Wendell, Postdoc, University of Pittsburgh Jonathan Wiest, Associate Director for Training and Education, National Cancer Institute, NIH David Wilde, Medical Officer, Division for Clinical Research Resources, National Center for Research Resources, NIH Martin Wu, The Institute for Genomic Research Keith R. Yamamoto, Professor of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology and Executive Vice Dean, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Laurie Yelle, Freelance Writer and Editor Dong Yu, Princeton University Elias A. Zerhouni, Director, National Institutes of Health Eleni Zika, Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy and Science, Technology, and Law Program, The National Academies Eric Zimmerman, Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy, The National Academies
Representative terms from entire chapter: