Appendixes



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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation Appendixes

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation A Biographies of Committee Members and Staff ROGER LEVIEN, Chair, is the principal and founder of Strategy & Innovation Consulting, a personal consultancy established to provide strategy and innovation consulting services to the senior managers of public and private organizations. His career has focused on the integrative use of information from social, environmental, and physical science research and technology to analyze and inform the choices faced by public and private institutions. Previously, he was corporate vice president for strategy and innovation at Xerox Corporation; director of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Austria; and department head and deputy vice president with responsibility for system sciences and nonmilitary policy research at the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California, and Washington, D.C. He is the author of three books: The Emerging Technology (McGraw-Hill, 1972), R&D Management (Lexington, 1975), and Taking Technology to Market (Crisp, 1997). He has also written chapters in Systems, Experts and Computers (MIT Press, 2000) and Technology 2001 (MIT Press, 1991). He was awarded the Ehrenkreuz, First Class, in Science and Arts by the Austrian government and is a member of the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, and Tau Beta Pi. Dr. Levien received his Ph.D. (1962) and M.S. (1958) degrees in applied mathematics (computer science) from Harvard University. He also received his B.S. degree in engineering (highest honors) from Swarthmore College in 1956. S. ROBERT AUSTEIN is a software engineer at the Internet Systems Consortium, focused primarily on development and deployment of standards-

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation based Internet protocols. Prior to this, he was vice president of Engineering at InterNetShare, Incorporated, architect for the Epilogue Embedded Products Group at Integrated Systems, Inc., vice president of Engineering at Epilogue Technology Corporation, and a member of the research staff at MIT’s Laboratory for Computer Science. At various times he has served as a member of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), a member of the gTLD-MoU Policy Oversight Committee, as chair of the Internet Engineering Task Force’s (IETF’s) Domain Name System, DNS Operations, IPsec Key, and Intellectual Property Rights working groups, and has helped both to specify extensions to the DNS protocol within the IETF and to implement various portions of the DNS on everything from mainframes to embedded systems since 1985. He holds a B.A. in mathematics from Wesleyan University. STANLEY M. BESEN is a vice president at Charles River Associates, Washington, D.C. Besen has served as a Brookings Economic Policy fellow, Office of Telecommunications Policy, Executive Office of the President (1971-1972); co-director, Network Inquiry Special Staff, Federal Communications Commission (1978-1980); co-editor, RAND Journal of Economics (1985-1988); senior economist, RAND Corporation (1980-1992); and a member of Office of Technology Assessment Advisory Panels on Communications Systems for an Information Age (1986-1988) and Intellectual Property Rights in an Age of Electronics and Information (1984-1985) and on the National Research Council’s Committee on Licensing Geographic Data and Services (2002-2004). He currently serves as a member of the editorial board of Economics of Innovation and New Technology. Dr. Besen has taught at Rice University (1965-1980) where he was the Allyn M. and Gladys R. Cline Professor of Economics and Finance, Columbia University (1988-1989) where he was the visiting Henley Professor of Law and Business, and the Georgetown University Law Center (1990-1991) where he was a visiting professor of law and economics. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Yale University (1964). Dr. Besen has published widely on telecommunications economics and policy, intellectual property, and the economics of standards and has consulted with many companies in the telecommunications and information industries. He is the author of “The Economics of Telecommunications Standards” in R.W. Crandall and K. Flamm (eds.), Changing the Rules: Technological Change, International Competition, and Regulation in Communications (with G. Saloner); “Choosing How to Compete: Strategy and Tactics in Standardization,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 1994 (with J. Farrell); “Intellectual Property,” in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, Macmillan Press, 1998; “Advances in Routing Technologies and Internet Peering Agreements,” American Economic Association Papers and Proceed-

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation ings,” 2001 (with P. Milgrom, B. Mitchell, and P. Srinagesh); and “Vertical and Horizontal Ownership in Cable TV: Time Warner-Turner (1996),” in J.E. Kwoka and L.J. White, The Antitrust Revolution, Scott, Foresman, 1998 (with E.J. Murdoch, D.P. O’Brien, S.C. Salop, and J.R. Woodbury). CHRISTINE L. BORGMAN holds the Presidential Chair in Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where she has been a faculty member since 1983. She spent a sabbatical year (2004-2005) at the Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, U.K. Dr. Borgman’s teaching and research interests include digital libraries, information infrastructure, scholarly communication, social studies of science, and information technology policy. Dr. Borgman has published more than 150 articles, conference papers, reports, and books in the fields of information studies, computer science, and communication; she has lectured or conducted research in more than 20 countries. She is currently a co-principal investigator for the Center for Embedded Networked Systems (CENS) and for the Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype (ADEPT) project, both funded by the National Science Foundation. She currently chairs Section T (Information, Computing, and Communication) of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is a fellow of the AAAS. Her professional responsibilities include current membership on the advisory board to the Electronic Privacy Information Center and on the Association for Computing Machinery Public Policy Committee, and prior membership on the Advisory Committee to the Computer, Information Sciences, and Engineering Directorate of the National Science Foundation (1998-2001), the Board of Directors of the Council on Library and Information Resources (1992-2000), and the International Advisory Board to the Soros Foundation Open Society Institute Regional Library Program (1994-1997). She was program chair for the First Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (ACM and IEEE) in 2001 and continues to serve on program committees for the International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, the Joint Conferences on Digital Libraries, and the European Conference on Digital Libraries. Other international activities include service as a visiting professor at Loughborough University, U.K. (1996-2002), a scholar-in-residence at the Rockefeller Foundation Study and Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy (1994), and as a Fulbright visiting professor in Budapest, Hungary (1993). Her most recent book, From Gutenberg to the Global Information Infrastructure: Access to Information in a Networked World (MIT Press, 2000), won the Best Information Science Book of the Year award from the American Society for Information Science and Technology. She holds the Ph.D. in communication from Stanford University, an M.L.S. from the University of Pittsburgh, and a B.A. in mathematics from Michigan State University.

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation TIMOTHY CASEY is the executive director of the Institute for Innovation and Informatics at the University of Nevada, Reno as of July 1, 2005. Casey was a partner in Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver, and Jacobson’s Washington, D.C., and New York offices, where he was chair of the firm’s Intellectual Property and Technology Law Department. Casey has also been an adjunct professor of law at American University, Washington College of Law, since 2003, where he has taught advanced patent law. Casey joined Fried Frank in 2000 after serving as chief technology counsel, senior vice president, and assistant secretary for MCI since 1995. In addition to managing the worldwide technology law and intellectual property operations of MCI’s predecessors WorldCom and MCI Communications Corporation, Casey played a pivotal role in the development of the U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and the European Union’s E-Commerce Directive. Casey was also an invited, but unpaid, advisor to WIPO leading up to the first WIPO process and an informal mediator between the parties negotiating the terms of the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP). He has been a UDRP panelist and has rendered over 28 decisions. Casey was director of intellectual property for Silicon Graphics from 1992 to 1995, divisional patent counsel for Apple Computer from 1989 to 1992, and in private practice in California from 1986 to 1989. Casey received his J.D. from Santa Clara University School of Law, where he was editor-in-chief of the Computer & High Technology Law Journal and where he was also an adjunct professor of law. He received his B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Nevada, Reno. He is admitted to the bar in California and the District of Columbia and is registered to practice before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. HUGH DUBBERLY is a principal in Dubberly Design Office (DDO), a San Francisco-based consultancy that focuses on making software easier to use through interaction design and information design. At Apple Computer in the late 1980s and early 1990s, Dubberly managed cross-functional design teams and later managed creative services for the entire company. While at Apple, he co-created a technology-forecast film called “Knowledge Navigator” that presaged the appearance of the Internet in a portable digital device. Intrigued by what the publishing industry would look like on the Internet, he next became director of interface design for Times Mirror. This led him to Netscape, where he became vice president of design and managed groups responsible for the design, engineering, and production of Netscape’s Web portal. In 2000, he co-founded DDO. In addition to his practice, Dubberly also teaches. While at Apple, he also served at Art Center College of Design in Pasadena as the first and founding chair of the computer graphics department. He has also taught classes in the Graphic Design Department at San Jose State University, at the In-

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation stitute of Design at IIT, and in the Computer Science Department at Stanford University. He graduated from Rhode Island School of Design with a B.F.A. in graphic design and earned an M.F.A. in graphic design from Yale University. PATRIK FÄLTSTRÖM is a consulting engineer in the Corporate Development section of Cisco Systems. At Cisco, Fältström is involved with many things touching applications, especially the Domain Name System, electronic mail, and Internet telephony. Previously, Fältström was a technical specialist in the Internet Strategies and Coordination group at Tele2, systems manager at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, and a programmer in the Swedish Royal Navy as well as at Bunyip Information Systems in Montréal, Canada. He has been working with Unix since 1985 and has been involved in Internet-related standardization since 1989, both in Sweden and worldwide. Fältström also works with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), was one of two area directors of the applications area between 1998 and 2003, and is the author of several RFCs. Among those are RFCs on how to send Apple Macintosh files with e-mail, on the Whois++ directory service, on global indexing of textual data, on ENUM (the Telephone Number Mapping protocol) on Uniform Resource Names, and on Internationalized Domain Names. Since 2003 he has been a member of the Internet Architecture Board and from September 2003 also an appointed advisor to the IT Minister of Sweden as a member of the Swedish Government IT Policy and Strategy Group. Fältström holds an M.Sc. degree in mathematics from the University of Stockholm. PER-KRISTIAN (KRIS) HALVORSEN is vice president and director of the Solutions and Services Research Center (SSRC) at Hewlett-Packard (HP). The center creates and transfers technology for HP’s services and solutions businesses and it houses HP’s research initiatives for developing markets. There are six research laboratories in the United States, the United Kingdom, and India. SSRC’s research focus is on software and systems that enable secure, inter- and intra-enterprise collaboration, with a particular emphasis on trust, security, and content management. This is complemented by a new and growing activity aimed at bringing the benefits of information technology to large groups of people and enterprises in developing countries through the discovery of new functionalities and design. Prior to joining HP in 2000, Halvorsen was the founding director of the Information Sciences and Technologies Laboratory at Xerox PARC. Under his direction, the lab became a leading center for research on the fundamental forces driving the evolution of the Web and the Internet. Dr. Halvorsen is an inventor on more than 10 patents, and he has published widely in the areas of linguistics, natural language processing, and knowl-

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation edge management and information access. He holds a Ph.D. in theoretical linguistics and he received his education at the University of Oslo, the University Texas at Austin, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has been a professor at the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Oslo, and a consulting professor at Stanford University, as well as a principal at the Center for Study of Language and Information at Stanford. Dr. Halvorsen has been a member of the board of directors of several technology companies (Symantec, Autodesk, Finn and FinnTech), and a member of the National Advisory Board of the College of Computer Sciences at the University of Arkansas. MARYLEE JENKINS is a partner at the law firm of Arent Fox, PLLC and heads the firm’s New York Intellectual Property Group. Ms. Jenkins specializes in intellectual property matters involving computers and the Internet and counsels an array of international companies on domain name disputes and domain name strategy and enforcement and management issues. She is the American Bar Association (ABA) Section of Intellectual Property Law’s representative to the Intellectual Property Constituency of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and is also the Section’s Division Chair on Information Technology. Ms. Jenkins has previously been a member of the Section’s Council and is a former chairperson of the Section’s Special Committee on Trademarks and the Internet. Ms. Jenkins is a member of the ABA Standing Committee on Technology and Information Systems (SCOTIS) and is a domain name panelist to the World Intellectual Property Organization Arbitration and Mediation Center. She is also a member of Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science’s Engineering Council and a member of John Marshall Law School’s Intellectual Property Law Advisory Board. She writes and lectures frequently on computer- and Internet-related intellectual property issues to legal, business, and governmental groups at conferences worldwide. She holds a B.S. in mechanical engineering from Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science, a B.S. in physics from Centre College of Kentucky, and a J.D. from New York Law School. JOHN C. KLENSIN is an independent consultant, focusing primarily on Internet standards, application protocols, and their implementations and deployment. Formerly, he was Internet Architecture vice president at AT&T Labs. He served as a member of the Internet Architecture Board from 1996 to 2002 and as its chair for the last 2 of those years and, before that, as area director for Applications of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), chair of its working group on electronic mail transport extensions, and in several other capacities. Since 2004 he has served as liai-

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation son from the IETF to the ICANN board, a position that gives him some insight into ICANN internal processes but no obligations to, or benefits from, ICANN itself. Prior to joining AT&T, he was distinguished engineering fellow at MCI and then MCI WorldCom. Outside his corporate commitments, he has had significant responsibility for the present generation of Internet applications standards, as well as standards work in other areas. He served as a member of ANSI’s Information Systems Standards Board from 1986 to 2000 and was its vice chair for 2 years. His involvement with what is now the Internet began in 1969 and 1970, when he participated in the working group that created the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and that made the decision to include electronic mail capability in the network’s design. Dr. Klensin was on the permanent research staff at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for about 25 years, participating in or directing a wide variety of projects, many of them involving the application or development of computer networking or related technologies to applied problems including measurement of mass media use and impact, taxation policy, automatic indexing of politically oriented natural language texts, management of statistical databases, statistical computing, and urban development planning. Dr. Klensin has also been involved with international development work with a United Nations University project on food composition data, archives of images in Islamic architecture, and the Network Startup Resource Center. Dr. Klensin served on the CSTB committee that produced the report The Internet’s Coming of Age. He holds a Ph.D. from MIT in computer applications and use in the social and policy sciences. MILTON L. MUELLER is professor and director of the graduate program in telecommunications and network management, Syracuse University School of Information Studies. Since 1982 he has conducted research on the political economy of telecommunications and information, including topics such as monopoly and competition in communication industries, Internet trademarks and domain names, DNS economics, radio-frequency allocation, and telecommunication industry reform in New Zealand, China, and Hong Kong. Two recent publications of import include the book Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace (MIT Press, 2002) and Universal Service: Competition, Interconnection, and Monopoly in the Making of the American Telephone System (MIT Press, 1997). His current research focuses on Internet governance, civil society advocacy, and the impact of digital convergence on market structure. Dr. Mueller founded and directs the Convergence Center at Syracuse University. He is a founder of the Internet Governance Project, a multi-university consortium for research and policy analysis. He participates in the WSIS-Civil Society’s Internet Governance Caucus. He is on

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation the editorial boards of the scholarly journals The Information Society, Telecommunications Policy, and Info: the Journal of Policy, Regulation and Strategy for Telecommunications, Information and Media. Dr. Mueller received the Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, Annenberg School of Communication, in 1989. Dr. Mueller was a founder of, and currently chairs, ICANN’s Noncommercial Users Constituency, a part of the policy-making structure in ICANN’s Generic Names Supporting Organization. As a member of NCUC, he has shaped policy on the .org reassignment, Whois and privacy, and other issues. He served as a Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy panelist for WIPO from 2000 to 2003. SHARON L. NELSON is the senior assistant attorney general serving as chief of the Consumer Protection Division of the Washington State Attorney General’s office. From 2000 to 2003 she served as director of the Shidler Center for Law, Commerce, and Technology at the University of Washington School of Law. Previously, Ms. Nelson served two terms as chair of the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (WUTC), from February 1985 to August 1997. Prior to joining the WUTC, she taught history and anthropology in secondary schools (1969-1973), served as staff counsel to the U.S. Senate Commerce Committee (1976-1978), and served as legislative counsel to Consumers Union of the United States (1978-1981). She has also been a lawyer in private practice (1982-1983) and served as staff coordinator for the Washington State Legislature’s Joint Select Committee on Telecommunications (1983-1985). Ms. Nelson received her B.A. from Carleton College, an M.A.T. from the University of Chicago, and a J.D. from the University of Washington. She is the past president of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (1989-1990). She currently serves as chair of the Board of Directors for Consumers Union and sits on the Board of Trustees for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) and the Board of Directors of the Itron Corporation, and serves as a commissioner on the National Energy Policy Commission (funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation). CRAIG PARTRIDGE is a chief scientist at BBN Technologies (an independent high-tech research company), where he has led a variety of Internet-related research projects. Recent major projects involved building and developing a method for tracing packet attacks across the Internet and designing a high-performance encrypter. In the 1980s, Dr. Partridge developed the rules for how systems use the DNS to route email. Dr. Partridge is the past-chair of the Association for Computing Machinery’s Special Interest Group in Data Communication (one of the two major professional societies in data communications). He is the former editor-in-chief

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation of both ACM Computer Communication Review and IEEE Network Magazine and a consulting editor for Addison-Wesley’s Professional Computing Series. From 1992 to 2001, he was a consulting professor of computer science at Stanford University and in 1991 was a research fellow at the Swedish Institute of Computer Science. Partridge holds A.B., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University. He is a fellow of the IEEE and ACM. WILLIAM J. RADUCHEL is the chair and CEO of Ruckus Network, a digital entertainment network for students at colleges and universities over the university network. He is a director of Chordiant Software and In2Books and serves as chair of PanelLink Cinema Partners PLC and as adviser to its parent company, Silicon Image. Dr. Raduchel is also an adviser to Myriad International Holdings, Hyperspace Communications, and Wild Tangent. Through 2002 he was executive vice president and chief technology officer of AOL Time Warner, Inc., after earlier being senior vice president and chief technology officer of AOL, where he also served as a strategic adviser after leaving AOL Time Warner. In 2001 he was named CTO of the year by Infoworld. Dr. Raduchel joined AOL in September 1999 from Sun Microsystems, Inc., where he was chief strategy officer and a member of its executive committee. In his 11 years at Sun, he also served as chief information officer, chief financial officer, acting vice president of human resources, and vice president of corporate planning and development and oversaw relationships with the major Japanese partners. He was recognized separately as CIO of the year and as best CFO in the computer industry. In addition, Dr. Raduchel has held senior executive roles at Xerox Corporation and McGraw-Hill, Inc. He is a member of the National Advisory Board for the Salvation Army (and chair of its committee on business administration), the Conference of Business Economists, and the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy of the National Research Council. He has several issued and pending patents. Raduchel received his undergraduate degree in economics from Michigan State University and earned his A.M. and Ph.D. degrees in economics at Harvard University. In both the fall and spring of 2003 he was the Castle Lecturer on computer science at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. HAL R. VARIAN is a professor in the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also a professor in the Haas School of Business and in the Department of Economics, and he holds the Class of 1944 Professorship. From 1995 to 2004, Dr. Varian served as dean of the School of Information Management and Systems. He has taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Stanford University, Oxford University, the University of Michigan and other universities around the world. Dr. Varian is a fellow of the

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation Guggenheim Foundation, the Econometric Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has served as co-editor of the American Economic Review and is on the editorial boards of several journals. Dr. Varian has published numerous papers in economic theory, industrial organization, financial economics, and econometrics and information economics. He is the author of two major economics textbooks, which have been translated into 11 languages. His recent work has been concerned with the economics of information technology and the information economy. He has been a consultant and advisor to several technology companies, including IBM and Google. He is the co-author of a best-selling book on business strategy, Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy, and writes a monthly column on economics for The New York Times. He received his S.B. degree from MIT in 1969 and his M.A. (mathematics) and Ph.D. (economics) from the University of California, Berkeley in 1973. STAFF ALAN S. INOUYE, Study Director (through December 2004), is the Coordinator of the President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC), a federal advisory committee that provides advice to the President through the National Science and Technology Council. From 1997 through 2004, Dr. Inouye served as a study director at the National Research Council’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB). His completed CSTB studies include Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity; LC21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress; The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age; and Trust in Cyberspace. In addition, Dr. Inouye served as the staff liaison on projects in other units of the National Academies, resulting in the completion of four reports: National Automated Highway System Research Program: A Review; Advanced Engineering Environments: Achieving the Vision, Phase 1; Advanced Engineering Environments: Design in the New Millennium; and Review of the U.S. Department of Defense Air, Space, and Supporting Information Systems Science and Technology Program. Prior to joining CSTB, Inouye completed a Ph.D. from the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California, Berkeley. In a previous life, Dr. Inouye worked in Silicon Valley as a programmer (Atari Corporation), statistician and programmer/analyst (Verbatim Corporation), and manager of information systems (Amdahl Corporation). Dr. Inouye also completed other degrees—in information systems (M.S.), systems management (M.S.), business administration/finance (M.B.A.), liberal studies (B.S.), and mathematics (B.A.).

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation CHARLES N. BROWNSTEIN is the director of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) of the National Research Council. He is also the study director for the project on improving cybersecurity research in the United States. He joined CSTB in 2004 from the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), where since 1994 he directed the Cross Industry Working Team and did independent research with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and DARPA. His interests are in innovation, applications, and impacts of information technology, Internet performance, and the technology-policy interface. Dr. Brownstein joined CNRI in 1994 after a 20-year career at NSF. There he served in positions including program director for Telecommunications Policy and IT Applications, division director for Information Science and Technology, deputy assistant director and assistant director of NSF for Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE), and director of the Office of Planning and Assessment. At NSF, he led in the creation of CISE, nurtured the development of NSFnet, and set strategic directions for federal information infrastructure. He was a principal in organizing the interagency High Performance Computing and Communications initiative, and he was executive director of the National Science Board Special Committee on the Future of NSF. He presided over information technology and policy working groups at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, was founding chair of the Federal Networking Council, and participated on the Board of Regents of the National Library of Medicine. He organized and co-chaired the White House National Performance Review Working Group for Reinventing Government through Information Technology. He was a founding trustee of the Internet Society, chaired the Association for Computing Machinery public policy activity, USACM, and is currently a director of Fortec, which provides the IETF Secretariat. From 1971 to 1975, Dr. Brownstein taught at Lehigh University and was a founder of the Institute of Social and Behavioral Research. There he was a principal investigator on NSF and industry-supported research awards on telecommunications policy, information industry innovation, two-way cable field experimentation, and interactive learning technologies. He also taught research design at the University of Michigan Inter-university Consortium for Social and Political Research. His Ph.D. is in political science, from Florida State University, 1971. MARGARET MARSH HUYNH, senior program assistant, has been with the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board since January 1999 supporting several projects. She is currently supporting studies on wireless technology prospects and policy options, and biometrics. She previ-

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Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation ously worked on the studies that produced the reports Getting Up to Speed: The Future of Supercomputing; Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity; IT Roadmap to a Geospatial Future; Building a Workforce for the Information Economy; and The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Ms. Huynh also assisted with the project on exploring information technology issues for the behavioral and social sciences (Digital Divide and Digital Democracy). She assists on other projects as needed. Prior to coming to CSTB, Ms. Huynh worked as a meeting assistant at Management for Meetings (April 1998 through August 1998) and as a meeting assistant at the American Society for Civil Engineers (September 1996 through April 1998). Ms. Huynh has a B.A. (1990) in liberal studies with minors in sociology and psychology from Salisbury University, Salisbury, Maryland. KRISTEN BATCH is a research associate with the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council. She is currently involved with projects focusing on wireless communication technologies, biometrics, and privacy in the information age. While pursuing an M.A. in international communications from American University, she interned at the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, in the Office of International Affairs, and at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, in the Technology and Public Policy Program. She also earned a B.A. from Carnegie Mellon University in literary and cultural studies and Spanish, and received two travel grants to conduct independent research in Spain.