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Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation C Biographies of Committee Members and Staff RICHARD A. ANTHES, Co-chair, is president of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado. His research has focused on the understanding of tropical cyclones and mesoscale meteorology and on the radio occultation technique for sounding Earth’s atmosphere. Dr. Anthes is a fellow of the AMS and the AGU, and is a recipient of the AMS Clarence I. Meisinger Award and the Jule G. Charney Award. In 2003 he was awarded the Friendship Award by the Chinese government, the most prestigious award given to foreigners, for his contributions over the years to atmospheric sciences and weather forecasting in China. His National Research Council (NRC) service includes chairing the National Weather Service Modernization Committee from 1996 to 1999 and the Committee on NASA-NOAA Transition of Research to Operations in 2002-2003. BERRIEN MOORE III, Co-chair, is a professor and director of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire. A professor of systems research, he received the university’s 1993 Excellence in Research Award and was named University Distinguished Professor in 1997. Moore’s research focuses on the carbon cycle, global biogeochemical cycles, and global change as well as policy issues in the area of the global environment. He has served on several NASA advisory committees and in 1987 chaired the NASA Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee. Dr. Moore led the IGBP Task Force on Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling (GAIM) prior to serving as chair of the overarching Scientific Committee of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). As chair of the SC-IGBP (1998-2002), Dr. Moore served as a lead author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC’s) Third Assessment Report, which was released in Spring 2001. He chaired the July 2001 Open Science Conference on Global Change in Amsterdam and is one of the four architects of the Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change. Dr. Moore has contributed actively to committees at the NRC; most recently, he served as chair of the NRC Committee on International Space Programs. From 1987 to 1992, he was a member of the NRC Board on Global Change, and he chaired the NRC Committee on Global Change Research from 1995 to 1998. Dr. Moore currently serves on the Science Advisory Board of NOAA and the Advisory Board of the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
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Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation JAMES G. ANDERSON is the Philip S. Weld Professor in the Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Earth and Planetary Sciences, and the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard University. His interests include chemistry, the dynamics and radiation of Earth’s atmosphere in the context of climate, experimental and theoretical studies of the kinetics and photochemistry of free radicals, and the development of new methods for in situ and remote observations of processes that control chemical and physical coupling within Earth’s atmosphere. He has served on the NRC Committee on Global Change Research (1996-2002), the Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry (1992-1995), and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (1986-1989). Dr. Anderson is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. SUSAN K. AVERY is a professor of electrical and computer engineering and the former director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences. Currently, Dr. Avery is the vice chancellor for research and dean of the University of Colorado, Boulder, Graduate School. Her research program utilizes ground-based Doppler radar techniques for observing the neutral atmosphere. Dr. Avery is currently the president of the American Meteorological Society. She has served as chair of the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Radio Science; chair of the National Science Foundation Geosciences Advisory Committee; Scientific Discipline Representative and URSI Representative for SCOSTEP; and commissioner of the American Meteorological Society. She is a fellow of the AMS and the IEEE. Her NRC service includes the Committee on NOAA NESDIS Transition from Research to Operations (vice chair, 2002-2004) and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (1997-2001). She currently serves as a member of the Committee on Strategic Guidance for NSF’s Support of the Atmospheric Sciences. ERIC J. BARRON is dean of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences and a distinguished professor of geosciences at the Pennsylvania State University. Before becoming dean, Barron was director of the EMS Environment Institute. Dr. Barron’s research interests are in the areas of climatology, numerical modeling, and Earth history. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Meteorological Society. He currently serves as chair of the NRC Committee on Metrics for Global Change Research. Dr. Barron’s previous NRC service includes multiple terms on the NRC Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (chair, 2000-2003; co-chair, 1997-1998; member, 1995-1996) and the Committee on Climate Research (member 1987-1990; chair, 1990-1996). Dr. Barron also served on the Committee on Science of Climate Change (2001), the Committee on Grand Challenges in the Environmental Sciences (1998-2000), the Task Group on Assessment of NASA Plans for Post-2000 Earth Observing Missions (1999), the Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change (1991-1997), and the Board on Global Change Research (1990-1994). From 1994 to 1997 Dr. Barron chaired the NASA Earth Observing System, Science Executive Committee and in 1993 chaired the NASA Earth Science and Applications Advisory Committee. OTIS B. BROWN is dean and professor of meteorology and physical oceanography of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami. Dr. Brown’s specialties are satellite oceanography, development of quantitative methods for the processing and use of satellite remotely sensed observations to study ocean variability, focused on ocean color and infrared observations. His experimental focus has been on western boundary current variability for the studies in the Somali Current, Gulf Stream, Agulhas, and Brazil Confluence regions. More recently this effort has expanded to include development of basin-scale climatologies for sea-surface temperature and color fields. Dr. Brown has published widely on the application of satellite observations to the understanding of oceanic processes and has served on numerous national and international scientific committees, including the U.S. Joint Global
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Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation Ocean Flux Study, the Joint Committee on Global Ocean Observing Systems, and the NOAA Advisory Panel on Climate and Global Change. His most recent awards include NASA’s Public Service Group Achievement Award and election as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Brown’s NRC service includes membership on the Ocean Studies Board (1998-2000), the Panel on Near-Term Development of Operational Ocean Observations (1991-1992), the Advisory Panel for the Tropical Ocean/Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program (1985-1991), and the Committee on Earth Studies (1996-1999). SUSAN L. CUTTER is the director of the Hazards Research Laboratory and a Carolina Distinguished Professor of Geography at the University of South Carolina. Dr. Cutter has worked in the risk and hazards fields for more than 25 years and is a nationally recognized scholar in this field. She has provided expert advice to numerous governmental agencies in the hazards and environmental fields, including NASA, FEMA, and NSF. She has also authored or edited 11 books and more than 75 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters. In 1999, Dr. Cutter was elected as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and she was president of the Association of American Geographers in 1999-2000. She currently serves on the NRC Geographical Sciences Committee, the Committee on Disaster Research in the Social Sciences, and the Panel on Social and Behavioral Science Research Priorities for Environmental Decision Making. WILLIAM B. GAIL is vice president of Mapping and Photogrammetric Solutions at Vexcel Corporation, where he leads a global organization responsible for a wide range of systems and services associated with Earth information. Prior to joining Vexcel, he was director of Earth Science Advanced Programs at Ball Aerospace, where he led the development of spaceborne instrument and mission concepts for Earth science and meteorology. Dr. Gail received his undergraduate degree in physics and his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University, focusing his research on the physics of Earth’s magnetosphere. During this period, he spent a year as a field scientist at South Pole Station, managing experiments on cosmic rays and upper atmospheric physics. Dr. Gail is currently on the board of directors of Peak Weather Resources, Inc., a small company formed to transition weather research to the commercial market. He is also a member of the Administrative Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society and founder of its Industry Liaison Group. In addition, he is a member of the NASA Earth Science and Applications from Space Strategic Roadmap Committee. He is currently a member of the NRC Committee on Earth Studies and previously served on the Task Group on Principal Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2001-2003), the Committee on NASA-NOAA Transition from Research to Operations (2002-2003), and the Committee to Review the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (2003). BRADFORD H. HAGER is the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Earth Sciences in the Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Dr. Hager is best known for his research on the physics of geologic processes. He has focused his work on applying geophysical observations and numerical modeling to the study of mantle convection, the coupling of mantle convection to crustal deformation, and precision geodesy. From 1980 until he came to MIT, he was a professor of geophysics at the California Institute of Technology. Dr. Hager has chaired or been a member of several NRC committees concerned with solid-earth science. These include the U.S. Geodynamics Committee, the Geodesy Committee, the Committee for Review of the Science Implementation Plan of the NASA Office of Earth Science, and the Committee to Review NASA’s Solid-Earth Science Strategy. Dr. Hager is a fellow of the AGU. He was the 2002 recipient of the Geological Society of America’s Woollard Award in recognition of distinctive contributions to geology through the application of the principles and
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Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation techniques of geophysics; he also received the AGU’s James B. Macelwane Award for his contributions to understanding the physics of geologic processes. ANTHONY HOLLINGSWORTH has been a staff member of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) since 1975. From 1991 to 2003, he served as the ECMWF’s head of research and deputy director. Currently he is the ECMWF’s Coordinator for Global Earth-system Monitoring. He is the recipient of the 1999 American Meteorological Society’s Jule G. Charney Award for “penetrating research on four-dimensional data assimilation systems and numerical models.” He is a fellow of the American Meteorological Society and of the Royal Meteorological Society, and is a member of the Irish Meteorological Society. Dr. Hollingsworth served on the NRC Panel on Model-Assimilated Data Sets for Atmospheric and Oceanic Research (1989-1991). ANTHONY C. JANETOS has been vice president of the H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment since March 2003; he joined the center as a senior fellow in June 2002. Dr. Janetos also directs the center’s Global Change program. Before coming to the Heinz Center, he served as vice president for science and research at the World Resources Institute and senior scientist for the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Program in NASA’s Office of Earth Science. He was also a program scientist for NASA’s Landsat 7 mission. He has had many years of experience in managing scientific research programs on a variety of ecological and environmental topics, including air pollution effects on forests, climate change impacts, land-use change, ecosystem modeling, and the global carbon cycle. He was a co-chair of the U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, and an author of the IPCC Special Report on Land-Use Change and Forestry, and also of the Global Biodiversity Assessment. Dr. Janetos recently served on the NRC Committee for Review of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan and was a member of the Committee on Review of Scientific Research Programs at the Smithsonian Institution (2002). KATHRYN KELLY is a principal oceanographer at the Applied Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington (UW) and a professor (affiliate) in the School of Oceanography. She is the former chair of the Air-sea Interaction/Remote Sensing (AIRS) Department at APL. Prior to her appointment at UW, Dr. Kelly worked at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), where she was part of the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) Science Working Team and began working with altimetric data. She is currently a member of the NASA Ocean Vector Wind Science Team and the NASA Ocean Surface Topography Science Team. At WHOI, she concentrated on the dynamics and thermodynamics of western and eastern boundary currents. Dr. Kelly’s current scientific interest is primarily in the applications of large data sets, particularly from satellite sensors, to problems of climate, atmosphere-ocean interaction, and ocean circulation. She works in collaboration with numerical modelers and scientists who make in situ measurements to better understand the ocean and to improve the quality of the satellite data. Dr. Kelly has served on numerous NASA advisory committees and was a member of the NRC Panel on Statistics and Oceanography (1992-1993). NEAL F. LANE is the Edward A. and Hermena Hancock Kelly University Professor at Rice University. He also holds appointments as senior fellow of the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, where he is engaged in matters of science and technology policy, and in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and he previously served as university provost. Dr. Lane is a nationally recognized leader in science and technology policy development and application. He has previously served as the president’s assistant for science and technology, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, director of
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Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation the National Science Foundation, and chancellor of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. Dr. Lane is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Association for Women in Science. He currently serves as chair of the NRC Committee on Transportation of Radioactive Waste, and he is also a member of the Policy and Global Affairs Committee. DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER is a professor in the Department of Civil Engineering and the director of the Surface Water Hydrology Research Group at the University of Washington. Dr. Lettenmaier’s interests cover hydroclimatology, surface water hydrology, and GIS and remote sensing. He was a recipient of ASCE’s Huber Research Prize in 1990, is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and American Meteorological Society, and is the author of over 100 journal articles. He is currently chief editor of the American Meteorological Society Journal of Hydrometeorology. Dr. Lettenmaier is a member of the NRC Committee on Hydrologic Science: Studies of Strategic Issues in Hydrology. He has served on other NRC committees and panels, including the Committee on Hydrologic Science: Studies in Land-Surface Hydrologic Sciences (2002-2004) and the Committee on the National Ecological Observatory Network (2003-2004). ARAM M. MIKA1 was vice president and general manager of the Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, California, where he led research and development for Lockheed Martin Space Systems. The Advanced Technology Center is Lockheed Martin’s primary multidisciplinary R&D laboratory, with a technology portfolio that encompasses optics and electro-optics; precision control systems; guidance and navigation; materials and structures; RF, photonics, and telecommunications; cryogenics and thermal sciences; space-science instrumentation; and modeling, simulation, and information science. The Advanced Technology Center also produces payload instrumentation for space-science missions and provides technology consulting for other operating units throughout the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Prior to his career at Lockheed Martin, he was vice president of GM-Hughes Electronics (formerly Hughes Aircraft) and president of its Space Electro-Optics Business Unit, where he directed the design, development, and production of spaceborne electro-optical sensors and associated signal/data processing systems for civil space and DOD applications. These products included sensors and systems for Earth remote sensing, meteorology, planetary-exploration missions, and defense applications such as missile warning and tracking. Previously at Hughes, Mr. Mika served as vice president of the Santa Barbara Research Center and general manager of its systems division, where he led the development of space-instrument payloads for NASA, NOAA, and international customers. Mr. Mika has also been extensively engaged in numerous advisory panels, review boards, committees, and conferences on space remote sensing, including the NRC Task Group on Technology Development in NASA’s Office of Space Science (1998) and the Committee on Earth Studies (1995-1998). WARREN M. WASHINGTON is a senior scientist and head of the Climate Change Research Section in the Climate and Global Dynamics Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). After completing his doctorate in meteorology at Pennsylvania State University, he joined NCAR in 1963 as a research scientist. Dr. Washington’s areas of expertise are atmospheric science and climate research, and he specializes in computer modeling of Earth’s climate. He serves as a consultant and advisor to a number 1 The committee notes with deep regret Aram Mika’s death on May 18, 2005.
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Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation of government officials and committees on climate-system modeling. From 1978 to 1984, he served on the President’s National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere. In 1998, he was appointed to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Science Advisory Board. In 2002, he was appointed to the Science Advisory Panel of the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy and the National Academies’ Coordinating Committee on Global Change. Dr. Washington’s NRC service is extensive and includes membership on the Board on Sustainable Development (1995-1999), the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources (1992-1994), and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (1985-1988), and his service as chair of the Panel on Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (1986-1987). He is a member of the National Science Board and currently serves as the chair. Dr. Washington is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. MARK L. WILSON is a professor of epidemiology, director of the Global Health Program, and professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Michigan. His research and teaching cover the broad area of ecology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. After earning his doctoral degree from Harvard University in 1985, he worked at the Pasteur Institute in Dakar, Senegal (1986-1990), was on the faculty at the Yale University School of Medicine (1991-1996), and then joined the University of Michigan. Dr. Wilson’s research addresses the environmental determinants of zoonotic and arthropod-borne diseases, the evolution of vector-host-parasite systems, and the analysis of transmission dynamics. He is an author of more than 120 journal articles, book chapters, and research reports and has served on numerous governmental advisory groups concerned with environmental change and health. Dr. Wilson served on the NRC Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century (2001-2003), the Committee on Review of NASA’s Earth Science Applications Program Strategic Plan (2002), and the Committee on Climate, Ecosystems, Infectious Diseases, and Human Health (1999-2001). MARY LOU ZOBACK is a senior research scientist with the U.S. Geological Survey’s Earthquake Hazards Team, Menlo Park, Calif. She is a respected geophysicist recognized for her work on the relationship between earthquakes and the state of stress in Earth’s crust. From 1986 to 1992, Dr. Zoback created and led the World Stress Map project, an effort that actively involved 40 scientists from 30 different countries, with the objective of interpreting a wide variety of geologic and geophysical data on the present-day tectonic stress field. Dr. Zoback was awarded the American Geophysical Union’s Macelwane Award in 1987 for “significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by a young scientist of outstanding ability,” and a USGS Gilbert Fellowship Award (1990-1991). She is a former president of both the Geological Society of America and AGU’s Tectonophysics Section and was a member of the AGU Council. Dr. Zoback has extensive Academies-wide service and currently serves on the NAS Council and the National Academies’ Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. She served as a member of the Board on Radioactive Waste Management (1997-2000) and of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources (1998-2000). Dr. Zoback is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Staff ARTHUR CHARO, study director, received his Ph.D. in physics from Duke University in 1981 and was a postdoctoral fellow in chemical physics at Harvard University from 1982 to 1985. Dr. Charo then pursued his interests in national security and arms control at Harvard University’s Center for Science and International Affairs, where he was a fellow from 1985 to 1988. From 1988 to 1995, he worked in the International Security and Space Program in the U.S. Congress’s Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). He has been a senior program officer at the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the National Research Council (NRC)
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Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation since OTA’s closure in 1995. Dr. Charo’s principal responsibilities at the SSB are to direct the activities of the NRC Committee on Earth Studies and the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics. Dr. Charo is a recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in International Security (1985-1987) and was the American Institute of Physics’ 1988-1989 AAAS Congressional Science Fellow. In addition to directing studies that have resulted in some 22 reports from the NRC, he is the author of research papers in the field of molecular spectroscopy; reports to Congress on arms control and space policy; and the monograph Continental Air Defense: A Neglected Dimension of Strategic Defense (University Press of America, 1990). ANNE M. LINN, senior program officer, received her Ph.D. in geology from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1991. Following a postdoctoral research position in geochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, and a visiting research position at the Carnegie Institution of Washington for one year, she joined the National Academies’ Board on Earth Sciences and Resources in 1993. There she has worked on a wide variety of studies in geophysics, Earth observing systems, and data, culminating in 19 National Research Council reports. Dr. Linn also volunteers for two committees under the International Council for Science (ICSU). She is the secretary of the ICSU Panel on World Data Centers and a member of the ICSU ad hoc Committee on Data and Information. THERESA M. FISHER is a senior program assistant with the Space Studies Board. During her 25 years with the National Research Council (NRC) she has held positions in the executive, editorial, and contract offices of the National Academy of Engineering, as well as positions with several NRC boards, including the Energy Engineering Board, the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, and the Marine Board. CATHERINE A. GRUBER is an assistant editor with the Space Studies Board. She joined SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and has also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Academy of Sciences-Smithsonian Institution’s National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland.
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