ratios (to promote leaching of surfactant into the water column). Periods of wave-induced turbulence should be followed by periods of relative calm to allow droplets to resurface. The surfactant concentration remaining in the resurfaced oil should be measured, and its dispersibility should be measured (by introducing more wave turbulence) to evaluate the ultimate fate of resurfaced oil. Alternatively, oil dispersion should be measured after dispersant is applied and incubated with floating oil under calm conditions to determine the effect of surfactant leaching from a surface oil film on dispersant effectiveness.
Although careful and controlled research in the laboratory or test tank will be important to developing tools to support decisionmaking, the results of dispersant application during real spills will be the most important indicator of whether or not the dispersant application was effective. Field data are essential to a better understanding of the spill-specific conditions that affected the dispersant operation, and they should be used to validate model predictions. To improve the quality of field data collected during dispersant applications, more robust monitoring capabilities should be implemented. Specific attention should be given to:
Developing an environmental monitoring guidance manual for dispersant application monitoring with suggested sampling and analytical techniques, sampling methods, and QA/QC to ensure cost effectiveness and maximum utilization of the data
Developing a detailed standard operating procedure (including instrument calibrations and data quality objectives) for each sampling and analytical module (SMART is guidance only)
Developing a definition of field effectiveness
Measuring dispersed oil droplet and dissolved-phase TPH and PAH concentrations with grab samples of filtered and unfiltered water (these data can then be compared to model predictions and toxicity data for both dissolved and particulate/oil-phase components) as a function of location and time.