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### D Definitions and Unit Conversions

Conversions reported in the text conserve the number of significant figures of the original reported value using rules consistent with the NRC report on Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates and Effects (NRC, 2003) and available on the following Massachusetts Institute of Technology website: http://web.mit.edu/10.001/Web/Course_Notes/Statistics_Notes/Significant_Figures.html.

We are reporting everything in metric units except where common or regular usage requires that values be reported in English units. In these cases, metric equivalents are provided in parenthesis.

barrels × 42 = US gallons

liters × 0.264 = US gallons

cubic meters × 264.2 = US gallons

cubic feet × 7.481 = US gallons

liters × 0.0009 = tonnes*

(note tonnes = metric tons)

tonnes × 294 = US gallons*

tonnes × 7.33 = barrels

US gallons × 0.0034 = tonnes*

US gallons × 3.785 = liters

 * NOTE: The gallon is a volume measurement. The tonne is a weight measurement. For truly precise conversions between gallons and tonnes, it is important to take into account that equal volumes of different types of oil differ in their densities. The specific gravity (sp gr), or density in relation to pure water is generally less than 1.0. Specific gravity of petroleum products varies from about 0.735 for gasoline to about 0.90 for heavy crude to 0.95 for Bunker C (No. 6 fuel). In some cases the oil is even heavier than water, especially with some of the heavy No. 6 fuels. These oils can sink. The volume that a particular weight of oil takes up varies with temperature and atmospheric pressure.

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