D
Definitions and Unit Conversions

Conversions reported in the text conserve the number of significant figures of the original reported value using rules consistent with the NRC report on Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates and Effects (NRC, 2003) and available on the following Massachusetts Institute of Technology website: http://web.mit.edu/10.001/Web/Course_Notes/Statistics_Notes/Significant_Figures.html.

We are reporting everything in metric units except where common or regular usage requires that values be reported in English units. In these cases, metric equivalents are provided in parenthesis.


barrels × 42 = US gallons

liters × 0.264 = US gallons

cubic meters × 264.2 = US gallons

cubic feet × 7.481 = US gallons

liters × 0.0009 = tonnes*

(note tonnes = metric tons)

tonnes × 294 = US gallons*

tonnes × 7.33 = barrels

US gallons × 0.0034 = tonnes*

US gallons × 3.785 = liters

*  

NOTE: The gallon is a volume measurement. The tonne is a weight measurement. For truly precise conversions between gallons and tonnes, it is important to take into account that equal volumes of different types of oil differ in their densities. The specific gravity (sp gr), or density in relation to pure water is generally less than 1.0. Specific gravity of petroleum products varies from about 0.735 for gasoline to about 0.90 for heavy crude to 0.95 for Bunker C (No. 6 fuel). In some cases the oil is even heavier than water, especially with some of the heavy No. 6 fuels. These oils can sink. The volume that a particular weight of oil takes up varies with temperature and atmospheric pressure.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 353
Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects D Definitions and Unit Conversions Conversions reported in the text conserve the number of significant figures of the original reported value using rules consistent with the NRC report on Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates and Effects (NRC, 2003) and available on the following Massachusetts Institute of Technology website: http://web.mit.edu/10.001/Web/Course_Notes/Statistics_Notes/Significant_Figures.html. We are reporting everything in metric units except where common or regular usage requires that values be reported in English units. In these cases, metric equivalents are provided in parenthesis. barrels × 42 = US gallons liters × 0.264 = US gallons cubic meters × 264.2 = US gallons cubic feet × 7.481 = US gallons liters × 0.0009 = tonnes* (note tonnes = metric tons) tonnes × 294 = US gallons* tonnes × 7.33 = barrels US gallons × 0.0034 = tonnes* US gallons × 3.785 = liters *   NOTE: The gallon is a volume measurement. The tonne is a weight measurement. For truly precise conversions between gallons and tonnes, it is important to take into account that equal volumes of different types of oil differ in their densities. The specific gravity (sp gr), or density in relation to pure water is generally less than 1.0. Specific gravity of petroleum products varies from about 0.735 for gasoline to about 0.90 for heavy crude to 0.95 for Bunker C (No. 6 fuel). In some cases the oil is even heavier than water, especially with some of the heavy No. 6 fuels. These oils can sink. The volume that a particular weight of oil takes up varies with temperature and atmospheric pressure.

OCR for page 353
Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects Some common metric unites and their english equivalents: miles × 1.609 = kilometers miles × 1.1 = nautical miles nautical miles × 1.852 = kilometers feet × 0.304 = meters nautical miles per hour (knots) × 1.852 = kilometers per hour miles per hour × 1.609 = kilometers per hour gallons/acre × 9.35 = liters/hectare acre × 0.404 = hectare inches × 25.4 = millimeters fathom × 1.8288 = meters     The conversion factor of 294 gallons per tonne is derived from an average specific gravity of 0.83, which corresponds to an API gravity or degree API of 39. Note that API gravity and specific gravity are inversely proportional as per the formulae below. The 294 gallons/tonne conversion unit is also convenient because it happens that 294 gallons = 7 barrels. API = (141.5/sp gr) − 131.5 sp gr = 141.5/(API + 131.5)