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Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Appendix A Committee and Staff Biographic Information PHILLIP A. GRIFFITHS [NAS], Chair, is a faculty member of the School of Mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS). He served as director of IAS from 1991 to 2003. He has worked in a number of fields in mathematics, and is known for introducing the fundamental notion of variation of Hodge structure. He received his BS from Wake Forest University and his PhD in mathematics from Princeton University in 1962. After appointments at Berkeley and Princeton, he taught mathematics at Harvard University from 1972 to 1983, where he was appointed Dwight Parker Robinson Professor of Mathematics in 1983. He was a member in the School of Mathematics at IAS from 1968 to 1970. In 1983, he was named Provost and James P. Duke Professor of Mathematics at Duke University. In 1991, he became the seventh director of IAS. He served on the National Science Board from 1991 to 1996. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a foreign associate of the Third World Academy of Sciences. From 1993 to 1999, he chaired the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. Dr. Griffiths is secretary of the International Mathematical Union and chair of the Science Institutes Group, founded in 1999 to provide scientific guidance for the Millennium Science Initiative. WILLIAM G. AGNEW [NAE] is the retired director of programs and plans at General Motors. His research efforts were combustion in internal combustion engines, but at the General Motors Research Laboratories he directed research in crash injury, the effects of automotive products on health, atmospheric pollution, automotive exhaust emissions, safety, automobile use,
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Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States societal cost effectiveness, socioeconomic studies, engine design, engineering mechanics, fluid dynamics, and fuels and lubricants. In recent years, he has been involved with intelligent transportation systems, accrediting and advising on engineering education, and the development of curricula to teach science and mathematics in an engineering context to K-12 students. JOHN A. ARMSTRONG [NAE] is the former vice president of science and technology and member of the Corporate Management Board at IBM. His expertise is in quantum electronics and laser physics. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Armstrong holds an AB in physics from Harvard College (1956) and a PhD (1961) from Harvard University for research in nuclear magnetic resonance at high pressures. He joined IBM in 1963 as a research staff member. In 1976, he became director of physical sciences for the company and was responsible for a major part of IBM research in physics, chemistry, and materials science. In 1980, he was appointed to the IBM Corporate Technical Committee. A year later, he was made manager of materials and technology development at the IBM East Fishkill, NY, development laboratory, working on advanced bipolar technology and associated packaging. In 1983, Dr. Armstrong was named vice president for logic and memory, in the Research Division. In 1986, he became director of research; in the following year, he was elected IBM vice president and director of research. In 1989, he was elected a member of the Corporate Management Board and named IBM vice president for science and technology. RICHARD B. FREEMAN is Herbert Ascherman Chair of Economics at Harvard University, codirector of the Labor and Worklife Program at the Harvard Law School, and director of the Labor Studies Program at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). He is also senior research fellow in labor markets at the Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of Economics (LSE) and visiting professor at the LSE. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of Sigma Xi. He has served on five panels of the National Research Council, including the Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists. He has published over 300 articles dealing with a wide array of subjects, including the job market for scientists and engineers, the growth and decline of unions, the effects of immigration and trade on inequality, restructuring European welfare states, international labor standards, Chinese labor markets, transitional economies, youth labor-market problems, crime, self-organizing nonunions in the labor market, employee involvement programs, and income distribution and equity in the marketplace. He
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Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States is currently directing the NBER/Sloan Science Engineering Workforce Project (with Daniel Goroff), and an LSE research program on the effects of the Internet on labor markets, social behavior, and the economy. ALICE P. GAST [NAE] is the Robert T. Haslam Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering, and the vice president for research and associate provost of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Until 2001, she was a professor of chemical engineering at Stanford University, professor of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and professor, by courtesy, of chemistry at Stanford. She earned her BS in chemical engineering at the University of Southern California in 1980 and her PhD in Chemical Engineering from Princeton University in 1984. She spent a postdoctoral year on a NATO fellowship at the Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles in Paris. She was on the faculty at Stanford from 1985 to 2001. She returned to Paris for a sabbatical as a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow in 1991 and to Munich as a Humboldt Fellow in 1999. The aim of her research is to understand the behavior of complex fluids through a combination of colloid science, polymer physics, and statistical mechanics. In 1992, Dr. Gast received the National Academy of Sciences Award for Initiative in Research and the Colburn Award of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. She was the 1995 Langmuir Lecturer for the American Chemical Society. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. She served as a member and then as the cochair of the National Research Council Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology and currently serves on the Division on Earth and Life Studies Committee. She also serves on the Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee. JOEL MOSES [NAE] is an Institute Professor, professor of computer science and engineering, and professor of engineering systems at MIT. His prior positions at MIT have included provost, dean of engineering, head of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), and associate director of the Laboratory for Computer Science. He led the development of the Macsyma system for algebraic formula manipulation and is the codeveloper of the knowledge-based systems concept in artificial intelligence. His current research focuses on architecture, complexity, and flexibility of large-scale engineering systems. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, and IEEE. He was also a member of the National Research Council’s Committee on Research Directions for Information Technology and Committee on Human Resources for Information Technology.
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Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States NORMAN NEUREITER received a BS in chemistry from the University of Rochester (NY) in 1952 and a PhD in organic chemistry from Northwestern University in 1957. In 1955-1956, he was a Fulbright Fellow at the Institute for Organic Chemistry at the University of Munich, Germany. He served as science and technology adviser to the secretary of state from 2000 to 2003. As an organic chemist, he has extensive experience in government and industry and a public-policy background that includes close ties to academe. From 1973 to 1996, Dr. Neureiter held a variety of positions in Texas Instruments, including director of east-west business development, manager of international business development, and manager of the TI Europe Division. As vice president for corporate staff, he was the company’s principal spokesperson throughout the world from 1980 to 1989. From 1989 until 1996, he served as a director of TI Japan and vice president of TI Asia. From 1969-1973, Dr. Neureiter worked as international affairs assistant in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, reporting to the president’s science adviser. In this capacity, he was deeply involved in preparing agreements on cooperation in science and technology initiated in 1972-1973 by President Nixon with the leaders of the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. In May 2004, he became the director of the MacArthur Foundation-funded American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology, and Security Policy. The role of the center is to provide an effective interface between the academic science and technology community and the Washington policy world. PREM S. PAUL is vice chancellor for research and dean of graduate studies at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. After earning a BVSc (DVM) at the College of Veterinary Sciences at Panjab Agricultural University in India in 1969 and a PhD in veterinary microbiology and virology at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities (UMTC) in 1975, he served as a research associate for 3 years in the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences at UMTC. From 1978 to 1985, he was veterinary medical officer for swine reproductive diseases at the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Disease Center in Ames, Iowa. He served on the faculty of the College of Veterinary Medicine at Iowa State University from 1985 to 2001 and conducted research on animal viral diseases. Dr. Paul held the positions of director of the interdisciplinary graduate program in immunobiology, director of graduate Education in the Department of Microbiology, associate dean for research and graduate studies in the College of Veterinary Medicine, assistant director of agricultural experiment station and associate vice provost for research at Iowa State University. Dr. Paul currently serves on the Council of Research Policy and Graduate Education of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges and is the vice president of the Conference of Research Workers in
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Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Animal Diseases. He has published 97 refereed journal articles, edited two books, and written several invited book chapters, including the most recent chapter on swine exogenous viruses in a book on xenotransplantation, and is a recipient of the Pfizer Award for Research Excellence. He has also served on National Institutes of Health (NIH) and USDA review panels and on the US Food and Drug Administration’s xenotransplantation advisory subcommittee. His research funding includes grants from NIH, USDA, commodity organizations, and private corporations. SAMUEL H. PRESTON [IOM/NAS] is the Frederick J. Warren Professor of Demography at the University of Pennsylvania. He served as Dean of the School of Arts and Sciences from 1998 to 2004 and has served on the school’s sociology faculty since 1979. He was named Frederick J. Warren Professor of Demography in 1988. He is a demographer whose studies have focused on the causes and consequences of population change, with special attention to mortality. He has been author, coauthor, or editor of 16 books and more than 140 articles. Dr. Preston is a member of the National Academy of Science, Institute of Medicine, and the American Philosophical Society, and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Statistical Association. He is also a member of the Population Council’s Board of Trustees. He served on President Bush’s Committee on the National Medal of Science and is a past president of the Population Association of America and of the Sociological Research Association. Earlier in his career, he was a faculty member at the University of California, Berkeley and the University of Washington. He was acting chief of the Population Trends and Structure Section of the United Nations Population Division from 1977 to 1979. Dr. Preston holds a BA from Amherst College and a PhD in economics from Princeton University. ELSA REICHMANIS [NAE] is Bell Labs Fellow and director of the Materials Research Department at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ. She received her BS (1972) and PhD (1975) in chemistry from Syracuse University and joined Bell Labs in 1978 after completing a postdoctoral fellowship program. Her research interests include the chemistry, properties, and application of materials technologies for photonics and electronics, with a focus on polymeric and nanostructured materials for advanced communication technologies. She has published in a variety of fields from synthetic organic and heteroaromatic chemistry to radiation chemistry of polymeric systems. She is the author of over 150 publications, the holder of several patents, and editor of five books. Dr. Reichmanis received the 1993 Society of Women Engineers Achievement Award; she was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1995 and received
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Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States the American Society for Metals Engineering Materials Achievement Award in 1996. In 1997, she was elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She is the recipient of a 1998 Photopolymer Science and Technology Award, the 1999 American Chemical Society (ACS) Applied Polymer Science Awardee, the Society of Chemical Industry’s 2001 Perkin Medalist, and a 2001 recipient of Syracuse University’s Arents Medal. She is past chair of the Executive Committee of the ACS Division of Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering and was a member of the National Materials Advisory Board and the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. She is an associate editor of Chemistry of Materials and served as the 2003 president of the ACS. ROBERT C. RICHARDSON [NAS] is the F.R. Newman Professor of Physics and the vice provost for research at Cornell University. He attended Virginia Polytechnic Institute in 1954-1960, where he obtained a BS and MS in physics. After a brief time in the US Army, he returned to graduate school in physics at Duke University. His thesis work involved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of solid 3He. He obtained his PhD from Duke in 1966. In fall 1966, he began work at Cornell University in the laboratory of David Lee. Their research goal was to observe the nuclear magnetic phase transition in solid 3He that could be predicted from his thesis work with Horst Meyer at Duke. In collaboration with Douglas Osheroff, a student who joined the group in 1967, they worked on cooling techniques and NMR instrumentation for studying low-temperature helium liquids and solids. In fall 1971, they made the accidental discovery that liquid 3He undergoes a pairing transition similar to that of superconductors. The three were awarded the Nobel prize for that work in 1996. Dr. Richardson has been on the Cornell faculty since 1967. In his more than 35 years at Cornell, he has led an active research program in studies of matter at very low temperatures. In that time, 20 students have earned PhDs while working with him. He has published more than 95 scientific articles in major research journals. He has been active in teaching introductory physics throughout his time at Cornell. LEWIS SIEGEL is professor of biochemistry and vice provost for graduate education and dean of the Graduate School at Duke University. Dr. Siegel has published over 75 articles in bioinorganic chemistry with emphasis on mechanisms of electron transfer in metalloenzymes and on the biochemistry of the nitrogen and sulfur cycles. After receiving his PhD in biology from Johns Hopkins University in 1965, he began a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral fellowship at Duke University School of Medicine. Except for a short visiting research position at the University of Sussex in England, he has remained at Duke University for his entire career. Dr. Siegel has served
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Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States as vice provost for interdisciplinary activities and interim vice provost for research. He is a leader in the national effort to reform PhD education in the United States. He serves as the chairman of the Board of Directors of the Council of Graduate Schools, which is conducting a major project on reducing attrition from PhD programs, and as chair of the Research Committee of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Board, which is overseeing a major restructuring of the GRE General Examination. As dean at Duke, he has been an active participant in the Responsive PhD Program and the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate, both of which are efforts to improve the delivery of doctoral education in the United States. PAULA E. STEPHAN is professor of economics at the Andrew Young School for Policy Studies at Georgia State University. She graduated from Grinnell College with a BA in economics and earned both her MA and PhD in economics from the University of Michigan. Her research interests focus on the careers of scientists and engineers and the process by which knowledge moves across institutional boundaries in the economy. Her other interests include technology transfer and the role that immigrant scientists play in US science. Her research has been supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Andrew Mellon Foundation, the Exxon Education Foundation, the National Science Foundation, NATO, and the US Department of Labor. Dr. Stephan has served on several National Research Council committees, including the Committee on Dimensions, Causes, and Implications of Recent Trends in the Careers of Life Scientists; the Committee on Methods of Forecasting Demand and Supply of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers; and the Committee to Assess the Portfolio of the Science Resources Studies Division of NSF. She is a regular participant in the National Bureau of Economic Research’s meetings in higher education and has testified before the US House of Representatives Subcommittee on Basic Science. She is serving a 3-year term as a member of the National Science Foundation Social, Behavioral, and Economic Advisory Committee. She has published numerous articles in such journals as The American Economic Review, Science, The Journal of Economic Literature, and Social Studies of Science. She was coauthor with Sharon Levin of Striking the Mother Lode in Science, published by Oxford University Press in 1992. MICHAEL S. TEITELBAUM, a demographer at the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation in New York, was educated at Reed College and at Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes scholar. He was a faculty member at Oxford University and Princeton University. Dr. Teitelbaum served as staff director of the US House of Representatives Select Committee on Population. He was a professional staff member of the Ford Foundation and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Dr. Teitelbaum was one of 12 com-
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Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States missioners of the US Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development (1988-1990). He was elected first vice president of the Population Association of America. He served (via appointment by the congressional leadership) as one of nine commissioners of the US Commission on Immigration Reform (known as the Jordan Commission after its late chair, former Congresswoman Representative Barbara Jordan), which completed its work in December 1997. He was elected vice chair by his fellow Commissioners, and served as acting chair for much of 1996. Dr. Teitelbaum is a regular speaker on demographic change and immigration, and a frequent witness before committees of Congress. MARVALEE WAKE is professor of the Graduate School and former chair of the Department of Integrative Biology of the University of California, Berkeley. Her research emphasizes morphology, development, and reproductive biology in vertebrates with the goal of understanding evolutionary patterns and processes. She is interested in many problems in evolutionary, developmental, and functional morphology and in issues of biodiversity. She has served as president of the International Union of Biological Sciences, president of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, and president of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. She is president-elect of the American Institute of Biological Science, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a fellow and honorary trustee (for life) of the California Academy of Sciences. She was a Guggenheim Fellow in 1988-1989. She was elected to membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2003. She is an ex officio member of the National Academies US National Committee for the International Union of Biological Sciences. STAFF LAUREL L. HAAK (Study Director) is a program officer for the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. She received a BS and an MS in biology from Stanford University. She was the recipient of a predoctoral National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Research Service Award and received a PhD in neuroscience in 1997 from Stanford University Medical School, where her research focused on calcium signaling and circadian rhythms. She was awarded a National Academy of Sciences research associateship to work at NIH on intracellular calcium dynamics in oligo-dendrocytes. In 2002, she joined the staff at the American Association for the Advancement of Science and was editor of Science’s Next Wave Postdoc Network. While a postdoctoral scholar, she was editor of the Women in Neuroscience (WIN) newsletter, and served as president of the organization from 2003-2004. She is an ex officio member of the Society for Neuro-
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Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States science Committee on Women in Neuroscience, has served on the Biophysics Society Early Careers Committee, and was an adviser for the National Postdoctoral Association. RICHARD E. BISSELL is executive director of the Policy and Global Affairs Division of the National Research Council and director of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. He took up his positions in 1998, having served as coordinator of the Interim Secretariat of the World Commission on Dams (1997-1998) and as a member and chair of the Inspection Panel at the World Bank (1994-1997). He worked closely with the National Academy of Sciences during his tenure in senior positions at the US Agency for International Development (1986-1993) as head of the Bureau of Science and Technology and head of the Bureau of Program and Policy Coordination. He has published widely in political economy, and he taught at Georgetown University and the University of Pennsylvania. He received his BA from Stanford University (1968) and his MA and PhD from Tufts University (1970 and 1973). PETER HENDERSON is director of the National Academies Board on Higher Education and Workforce (BHEW). His fields of specialization include postsecondary education, the labor market for scientists and engineers, and federal science and technology research funding. He oversees BHEW’s evaluation of the Lucille P. Markey Trust Programs in Biomedical Science and the assessment of NIH Minority research Training Programs; and he supervises BHEW staff working on studies that examine the community-college pathway to engineering careers and the policy implications of international graduate students and postdoctorates. He has previously contributed as study director or staff to Building a Workforce for the Information Economy, Measuring the Science and Engineering Enterprise, Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to K-12 Education, Monitoring International Labor Standards, Trends in Federal Support of Research and Graduate Education, and Observations on the President’s Federal Science and Technology Budget. Dr. Henderson holds a master’s in public policy (1984) from Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and a PhD in American political history from the Johns Hopkins University (1994). He joined the National Academies staff in 1996 and is the recipient of the National Academies Distinguished Service Award (2003). DEBORAH D. STINE is the associate director of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) and director of the Office of Special Projects. She has worked on various projects at the National Academies since 1989. She received a National Research Council group award for her first study for COSEPUP, on policy implications of greenhouse
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Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States warming; a Commission on Life Sciences staff citation for her work in risk assessment and management; and two awards from the Policy and Global Affairs Division for her efforts in dissemination of National Academies reports. Other studies have addressed human reproductive cloning, setting priorities for National Science Foundations’ large research facilities, science and technology presidential appointments, science and technology centers, international benchmarking of US research fields, graduate and postdoctoral education, responsible conduct of research, careers in science and engineering, and many environmental topics. She holds a bachelor’s degree in mechanical and environmental engineering from the University of California, Irvine; a master’s degree in business administration; and a PhD in public administration, specializing in policy analysis, from the American University. Before coming to the National Academies, she was a mathematician for the US Air Force, an air-pollution engineer for the state of Texas, and an air-issues manager for the Chemical Manufacturers Association. JAMES A. VOYTUK is a senior program officer at the National Academies and provides technical support and analysis for projects dealing with the demographics of the science and engineering workforce, career transitions and labor-market issues for scientists and engineers, and graduate education and postdoctoral training. His current projects involve the development of the 2005 Assessment of Research Doctorate Programs; the Study of National Needs for Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Personnel; and the evaluation of the Resident Research Associateship Programs. Dr. Voytuk received a PhD in mathematics from Carnegie Institute of Technology.
Representative terms from entire chapter: