III
APPENDIXES



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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop III APPENDIXES

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop Appendix A Biographies of Speakers* BRUCE ALBERTS Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences and chair of the National Research Council, the principal operating arm of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. He is a respected biochemist recognized for his work in both biochemistry and molecular biology and is known particularly for his extensive molecular analyses of the protein complexes that allow chromosomes to be replicated. Alberts joined the faculty of Princeton University in 1966 and after ten years moved to the medical school of the University of California, San Francisco. In 1980, he was awarded an American Cancer Society lifetime research professorship. In 1985, he was named chair of the UCSF department of biochemistry and biophysics. Alberts is one of the principal authors of The Molecular Biology of the Cell, now in its third edition, considered the leading advanced textbook in this field and used widely in U.S. colleges and universities. His most recent text, Essential Cell Biology, is intended to present this subject matter to a wider audience. He is committed to the improvement of science education; he helped to create City Science, a program for improving science teaching in San Francisco elementary schools. *   As of October 2002.

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop ANNE K. ALTMAN Anne Altman is IBM’s Managing Director for the relationship between IBM and the U.S. Federal Government. She has full business management responsibility for all aspects of IBM’s 80+ year relationship with the Federal Government. Ms. Altman leads a team of several thousand professionals around the globe, wherever IBM and the U.S. Government work in partnership on information technology solutions. Prior to this appointment in January 2001, she was Vice President, U.S. Federal Government, with responsibility for the sale of hardware, software and services to the federal market. In 1999, Ms. Altman was named Director of Marketing, IBM Global Government Industry. In this role, she was responsible for the development and deployment of business plans and marketing programs for local, regional, and central government customers around the globe. Prior to 1998, she held a number of executive and management positions, leading IBM’s worldwide software accounts managers, and positions in worldwide software operations, networking and software sales, and business development. Ms. Altman joined IBM in 1981 as a systems engineer working with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Department of Justice, and spent the next 12 years in sales and sales management roles for IBM working with federal government partners. Ms. Altman currently serves on the boards of the Government Electronic Industry Association and the Armed Forces Communication and Electronics Association. She is an active participant in a number of government-related review boards, including the National Academy of Public Administration’s Information Technology Compensation Committee that examined issues related to the retention of IT skills in government. Ms. Altman’s recent work has been focused on the rapid integration of disparate technology-based systems, and secure, effective collaboration across organizational boundaries. She routinely delivers congressional testimony for IBM on topics concerning e-government and national security. She has assumed civic leadership responsibilities as co-chair for the annual Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation fundraiser sponsored by the Federation of Information Processing Councils and the Industry Advisory Council. Throughout her career, Ms. Altman has received numerous awards, including Federal Computer Week’s 2001 Federal 100 Award, presented to leaders who have made a difference in federal information technology, and the CIO Council’s 2002 Azimuth Award for outstanding IT service to federal officials. She has also written several opinion pieces in both national and trade publications, most notably The Washington Times and The Public Manager, on issues surrounding national security, e-government, and human resources trends in the federal government.

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop KATHY BEHRENS Kathy Behrens joined Robertson Stephens Investment Management medical group in 1983, becoming a general partner in 1986 and a managing director in January 1993. As Robertson Stephens Investment Management’s first biotechnology analyst, she expanded the firm’s health care presence by moving into emerging medical technologies. After nine years in research, Dr. Behrens joined the Venture Capital Group in 1988 and has since founded three biotechnology companies: Protein Design Labs, Inc., COR Therapeutics, Inc., and Mercator Genetics, Inc. She has been instrumental in raising over $1 billion in the public and private markets for biotechnology companies. Prior to joining Robertson Stephens Investment Management, Dr. Behrens was a biotechnology analyst at Sutro & Co., Inc. She is a director of Abgenix, Inc. and Oncology.com and represents the interests of RS Investment Management in Mitotix, Inc., Onyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Tularik, Inc. In addition, Dr. Behrens held board seats at Protein Design Labs, Inc., from 1986 to 1992, Cell Genesys, Inc. from 1990 to 1996, InSite Vision, Inc. from 1990 to 1995, COR Therapeutics, Inc. from 1988 to 1995 and Mercator Genetics, Inc. from 1993 to 1997. Dr. Behrens has been a director of the National Venture Capital Association since 1993 and was President of the NVCA from May 1998 through April 1999. She served as Chairman of the National Venture Capital Association through September 1999 and is currently Immediate Past Chairman. She holds a Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of California, Davis, where she performed genetic research for 6 years. ARDEN BEMENT Arden L. Bement, Jr., was sworn in as the 12th director of NIST on December 7, 2001. Bement oversees an agency with an annual budget of about $819 million and an onsite research and administrative staff of about 3,000, complemented by a NIST-sponsored network of 2,000 locally managed manufacturing and business specialists serving smaller manufacturers across the United States. Prior to his appointment as NIST director, Bement served as the David A. Ross Distinguished Professor of Nuclear Engineering and head of the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University. He has held appointments at Purdue University in the schools of Nuclear Engineering, Materials Engineering, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, as well as a courtesy appointment in the Krannert School of Management. He was director of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium and the Consortium for the Intelligent Management of the Electrical Power Grid.

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop Bement came to his position as NIST director well versed in the workings of the agency, having previously served as head of the Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology, the agency’s primary private-sector policy adviser; as head of the advisory committee for NIST’s Advanced Technology Program; and on the Board of Overseers for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. Bement joined the Purdue faculty in 1992 after a 39-year career in industry, government, and academia. These positions included: vice president of technical resources and of science and technology for TRW Inc. (1980–1992); deputy under secretary of defense for research and engineering (1979–1980); director, Office of Materials Science, DARPA (1976–1979); professor of nuclear materials, MIT (1970–1976); manager, Fuels and Materials Department and the Metallurgy Research Department, Battelle Northwest Laboratories (1965–1970); and senior research associate, General Electric Co. (1954–1965). Along with his NIST advisory roles, Bement served as a member of the U.S. National Science Board, the governing board for the National Science Foundation, from 1989 to 1995. He also chaired the Commission for Engineering and Technical Studies and the National Materials Advisory Board of the National Research Council; was a member of the Space Station Utilization Advisory Subcommittee and the Commercialization and Technology Advisory Committee for NASA; and consulted for the Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory and Idaho Nuclear Energy and Environmental Laboratory. Dr. Bement has been a director of Keithley Instruments Inc. and the Lord Corp. and was a member of the Science and Technology Advisory Committee for the Howmet Corp. (a division of ALCOA). He holds an engineer of metallurgy degree from the Colorado School of Mines, a master’s degree in metallurgical engineering from the University of Idaho, a doctorate degree in metallurgical engineering from the University of Michigan, an honorary doctorate degree in engineering from Cleveland State University, and an honorary doctorate degree in science from Case Western Reserve University. He is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering. SHERWOOD BOEHLERT Utica native Sherwood L. Boehlert (R-NY), Chairman of the House Science Committee, was first elected to the House of Representatives in November 1982. He is currently serving in his tenth consecutive term representing Central New York. In the 2000 election, he again won all nine counties and received a convincing 60 percent of the vote in a three-way race. Boehlert has served on the Science Committee since 1983, and was elected Chairman in January 2001. The Committee has jurisdiction over all federal nonmilitary scientific and technology research and development programs, on which the federal government spends more than $30 billion a year. The Committee has jurisdiction over NASA, the National Science Foundation, and research

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop and development initiatives within the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Commerce. In addition, the Committee has jurisdiction over civil aviation research and development and marine research. Boehlert is the third-ranking member of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, serving as Chairman of its Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment from 1995 to 2000. He remains an active member of that Subcommittee. Boehlert also sits on the Subcommittee on Highways and Transit, and the Subcommittee on Railroads. Boehlert was reappointed by House Speaker J. Dennis Hastert as a member of the Select Committee on Intelligence, where he is on the front line of important intelligence decisions faced by Congress. Boehlert is a delegate to the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, also at the appointment of the Speaker, where he serves as chairman of the Assembly’s Scientific and Technology Committee. Born on September 28, 1936, in Utica, New York, Boehlert is a graduate of Whitesboro Central High School and Utica College (Bachelor of Science, 1961). Before serving as Oneida County Executive (1979–1983), he was manager of public relations at Wyandotte Chemical (1961–1964) and served two years in the U.S. Army (1956–1958). Boehlert served as chief of staff for two area Congressmen, Alexander Pirnie (1964–1972) and Donald Mitchell (1973–1979), where he became intimately familiar with the people, places, and issues of the 23rd District. In honor of his former boss, Boehlert was able to secure passage of legislation in 2000 to rename the Veterans’ Outpatient Clinic in Rome as the “Donald J. Mitchell Department of Veterans Affairs Outpatient Clinic.” An avid New York Yankees fan and movie buff, Boehlert and his wife, Marianne (Willey) Boehlert, make their home in New Hartford, New York. They have four grown children and five grandchildren. When Congress is in session, he returns home each weekend to stay in touch with people he feels fortunate to represent in Washington. WILLIAM B. BONVILLIAN William Bonvillian is the Legislative Director and Chief Counsel to Senator Joseph I. Lieberman (D-CT). Prior to his work on Capital Hill, he was a partner at both the law firms of Jenner & Block as well as Brown & Roady. Early in his career, he served as the Deputy Assistant Secretary and Director of Congressional Affairs at the Department of Transportation. His recent articles include, “Organizing Science and Technology for Homeland Security,” in Issues in Science and Technology and “Science at a Cross-roads,” published in Technology in Society this past February. His current legislative efforts at Senator Lieberman’s office include science education, homeland research and development, and nanotechnology legislation.

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop Mr. Bonvillian is married to Janis Ann Sposato and has two children. He received his B.A. from Columbia University; his M.A.R. from Yale University; and his J.D. from Columbia Law School where he also served on the Board of Editors for the Columbia Law Review. He is a member of the Connecticut Bar, the District of Columbia Bar, and the U.S. Supreme Court Bar. MICHAEL BORRUS Michael Borrus is a Managing Director of Petkevich Group, an investment bank focused on the health-care and information technology industries. Before joining the Petkevich Group, Mr. Borrus was a Co-Director of the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE) at the University of California at Berkeley and Adjunct Professor in the College of Engineering, where he teaches Management and Technology. He is the author of two books and over 60 chapters, articles, and monographs on a variety of topics including high-technology competition, international trade and investment, and the impact of new technologies on industry and society. For the last decade, he has served as consultant to a variety of governments and firms in the U.S., Asia, and Europe on policy and business strategy for international competition in high-technology industries. Mr. Borrus is a graduate of Harvard Law School and a member of the California State Bar. GAIL CASSELL Gail Cassell is currently Vice President of Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly and Company. She was previously the Charles H. McCauley Professor and Chairman of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department that ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989 during her leadership. She is a current member of the Director’s Advisory Committee of the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She is a past President of the American Society for Microbiology, a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director’s Advisory Committee, and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of NIH. Dr. Cassell served 8 years on the Bacteriology-Mycology 2 Study Section and as Chair for 3 years. She also was previously chair of the Board of Scientific Councilors of the Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. Dr. Cassell has been intimately involved in establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. She is the chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society for Microbiology; a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences; has served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and has

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop been an invited participant in numerous Congressional hearings and briefings related to infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, and biomedical research. She has served on several editorial boards of scientific journals and has authored over 250 articles and book chapters. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research in infectious diseases. MARYANN FELDMAN Maryann Feldman is currently the Policy Director at the Johns Hopkins University Institute for Information Security (JHUISI) of the Whiting School of Engineering. In addition, she is a Research Scientist for the Program on Entrepreneurship and Management in the Department of Mathematical Sciences and adjunct Associate Professor in the Department of Economics at Johns Hopkins University. Before beginning her work as Policy Director, Dr. Feldman was Research Scientist for the Institute for Policy Studies at Johns Hopkins University. Prior to her work at John Hopkins, she was Visiting Assistant Professor at the H. J. Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University and Assistant Professor of Management and Economics at Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland. As of January 2003, she will be Associate Professor of Business Economics at the Rotman School of Business at the University of Toronto. Dr. Feldman is the author of over 40 referred articles on a variety of topics related to science and technology policy including the economics of science and technology, the location of innovative activity, and university technology transfer activities. Her research has been funded by the National Science Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the Advanced Technology Program. Throughout her career, Dr. Feldman has received numerous fellowships and professional awards. She received a B.A. in Economics and Geography from Ohio State University, a M.S. in Management and Policy Analysis, and a Ph.D. in Economics and Management from Carnegie Mellon University. KENNETH FLAMM Kenneth Flamm is the Dean Rusk Professor of International Affairs at the LBJ School at the University of Texas–Austin. Before this, he worked at the Brookings Institution in Washington, where he served 11 years as a Senior Fellow in the Foreign Policy Studies Program. He is a 1973 honors graduate of Stanford University and received a Ph.D. in economics from M.I.T. in 1979. From 1993 to 1995, Dr. Flamm served as Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Economic Security and Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Dual Use Technology Policy. He was awarded the Department’s Distinguished Public Service Medal by Defense Secretary William J. Perry in 1995 as well.

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop Dr. Flamm has been a professor of economics at the Instituto Tecnológico de México in Mexico City, the University of Massachusetts, and the George Washington University. He has also been an adviser to the Director General of Income Policy in the Mexican Ministry of Finance and a consultant to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Bank, the National Academy of Sciences, the Latin American Economic System, the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Department of Justice, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress. He has played an active role in the National Academies of Sciences’ committee on Government-Industry Partnerships, under the direction of Gordon Moore, and played a key role in that study’s review of the SBIR program at the Department of Defense. Dr. Flamm has made major contributions to our understanding of the growth of the electronics industry, with a particular focus on the development of the computer and the U.S. semiconductor industry. He is currently working on an analytical study of the post-Cold War defense industrial base and has expert knowledge of international trade and the high technology industry issues. STEVE FLYNN Stephen Flynn is a Senior Fellow with the National Security Studies Program at the Council on Foreign Relations, headquartered in New York City. He is also a Commander in the U.S. Coast Guard, and a member of the permanent commissioned teaching staff at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut. Currently at the Council, Commander Flynn is directing a multi-year project on “Protecting the Homeland: Rethinking the Role of Border Controls.” He is author of several book chapters and articles on homeland security, border control, transportation security, and the illicit drug trade. His recent publications include, “America the Vulnerable,” in Foreign Affairs (Jan/Feb 2002), “The Unguarded Homeland” in How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War, PublicAffairs Books (Nov 2001); and “Beyond Border Control” Foreign Affairs (Nov/Dec 2000). He served in the White House Military Office during the George H. W. Bush administration and as a director for Global Issues on the National Security Council staff during the Clinton administration. From August 2000 to February 2001, he served as a consultant on the homeland security issue to the U.S. Commission on National Security (Hart-Rudman Commission). He was a Guest Scholar in the Foreign Policy Studies Program at the Brookings Institution from 1991 to 1992, and from 1993 to 1994 he was an Annenberg Scholar-in-Residence at the University of Pennsylvania. A 1982 graduate of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy, Commander Flynn received the M.A.L.D. and Ph.D. degrees in International Politics from the Fletcher

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, in 1990 and 1991. He has received academic prizes for his undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1991 he became the first Coast Guard officer to be selected as a Council on Foreign Relations’ International Affairs Fellow. Commander Flynn has lectured around the United States and abroad on the homeland security, border control, drugs, and crime issue, has provided testimony on Capitol Hill and before the Canadian House of Commons, and has served as a guest commentator for ABC with Peter Jennings, the Charlie Rose show, 60 Minutes II, CNN, National Public Radio, and BBC Radio. Commander Flynn’s afloat assignments include two tours as commanding officer of the Coast Guard Cutters REDWOOD and POINT ARENA, and one tour as operations officer of the Coast Guard Cutter SPAR. His professional awards include the Legion of Merit, Meritorious Service Medal, the Coast Guard Commendation Medal, and the Coast Guard Achievement Medal. In 1999, he received the Coast Guard Academy’s Distinguished Alumni Achievement award. CHRISTINA GABRIEL Christina Gabriel is Vice Provost for Corporate Partnerships and Technology Development at Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. Gabriel comes to Carnegie Mellon from CASurgica, Inc., a Carnegie Mellon spin-off company focusing on computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, where she was President and CEO. In earlier university positions, Dr. Gabriel has served as Director of Collaborative Initiatives at Carnegie Mellon as well as Vice President for Research and Technology Transfer at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Gabriel spent five years with the National Science Foundation in Washington, D.C., and Arlington, VA, most recently serving as Deputy Assistant Director for Engineering, which is the chief operating officer of the Engineering Directorate, an organization of 140 staff members (half PhD-level) that awards over $300 million to universities and small businesses for engineering research and education. In earlier assignments at NSF, Dr. Gabriel served as program director within several engineering research programs, as well as Coordinator for the $50 million university-industry collaborative Engineering Research Centers program. Dr. Gabriel spent most of the year 1994 at the United States Senate Appropriations Committee, working as one of three majority professional staff members for the Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies, chaired by Senator Barbara Mikulski. This subcommittee was responsible for appropriating about $90 billion annually among 25 federal organizations. Dr. Gabriel was also a researcher for six years at AT&T Bell Laboratories in New Jersey and spent six months in 1990 as a visiting professor at the University of Tokyo in Japan. She received her master’s and doctorate degrees in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her undergradu-

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop ate electrical engineering degree from the University of Pittsburgh. She was an AT&T Bell Laboratories GRPW Fellow and a National Merit Scholar (Richard King Mellon Foundation). Her research publications focus on digital optical switching devices and systems exploiting ultra fast optical non-linearities in fibers and wave guides of glasses, polymers, and semiconductors, and she holds three patents. LARRY KERR Dr. Lawrence D. Kerr (Larry) is Director of Bioterrorism, Research and Development for the Office of Homeland Security (OHS) in the Executive Office of the President. Before joining OHS, he was a National Institutes of Health (NIH) agency representative to the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) in the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). Dr. Kerr joined the Life Sciences division of OSTP in January 2001. He comes from his position as Chief of Transplantation, Transplantation and Immunology Branch at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the NIH to serve as an advisor on science and technology. Prior to his work at the NIH, Dr. Kerr worked in science and health care policy for Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT) on the health subunit of the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 106th Congress. As a Robert Wood Johnson Fellow, he staffed the Senator on a variety of legislative affairs including: NIH reauthorization; medical device coding for Medicare reimbursement; radiation exposure compensation litigation; interagency coordination of counter-bioterrorism efforts; traumatic brain injury act, pediatric AIDS, and Ryan White CARE reauthorization. In his capacity at OSTP, Dr. Kerr assisted the Director and other Executive Office of the President divisions in a variety of science and health care issues including: interagency coordination of chem/bio anti-terrorism technologies; infectious disease topics (HIV/AIDS, foot and mouth disease, etc.); the cloning of human beings; embryonic and adult stem cell biology; and administers the Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). His responsibilities include monitoring legislative activities along these subject areas. As Director of Bioterrorism, R&D, Dr. Kerr assists the Senior Director for R&D and the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security in identifying and fostering policies to meet national objectives. Dr. Kerr represents OHS to other government agencies, participates in the development of short- and long-range policy alternatives, and interfaces with senior officials and staffs of the White House, Executive Office of the President, the Congress, the federal departments and agencies, and individuals from private industry and the academic community on antiterrorism programs that are responsive to the National Strategy on Homeland Security.

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop As an Assistant Professor in Microbiology and Immunology at Vanderbilt School of Medicine in Nashville, Tennessee, Dr. Kerr ran a basic science laboratory devoted to the study of the transcriptional regulation of gene products involved in HIV replication and breast cancer development. He has lectured at the national and international levels and received awards for teaching excellence. He is the author of more than 50 peer-reviewed articles, reviews, and book chapters. He holds a B.S. in Biology and Art History from the University of the South in Sewanee, TN. Dr. Kerr completed his Ph.D. in Cell Biology from Vanderbilt University in 1990 and undertook his post-doctoral work at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California. GORDON MOORE Gordon E. Moore is currently Chairman Emeritus of Intel Corporation. Moore co-founded Intel in 1968, serving initially as Executive Vice President. He became President and Chief Executive Officer in 1975 and held that post until elected chairman and Chief Executive Officer in 1979. He remained CEO until 1987 and was named Chairman Emeritus in 1997. Moore is widely known for “Moore’s Law,” in which he predicted that the number of transistors that the industry would be able to place on a computer chip would double every year. In 1995, he updated his prediction to once every two years. While originally intended as a rule of thumb in 1965, it has become the guiding principle for the industry to deliver ever-more-powerful semiconductor chips at proportionate decreases in cost. Moore earned a B.S. in Chemistry from the University of California at Berkeley and a Ph.D. in Chemistry and Physics from the California Institute of Technology. He was born in San Francisco, California, on Jan. 3, 1929. He is a director of Varian Associates, Gilead Sciences Inc., and Transamerica Corporation. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the IEEE, and a Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the California Institute of Technology. He received the National Medal of Technology in 1990 from President George H. W. Bush. SEAN O’KEEFE Nominated by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the United States Senate, Sean O’Keefe was appointed by the President as the 10th Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on December 21, 2001. As Administrator, O’Keefe leads the NASA team and manages its resources, as NASA seeks to advance exploration and discovery in aeronautics and space technologies.

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop O’Keefe joined the Bush Administration on inauguration day and served as the Deputy Director of the Office of Management and Budget until December 2001, overseeing the preparation, management, and administration of the Federal budget and government wide-management initiatives across the Executive Branch. Prior to joining the Bush Administration, O’Keefe was the Louis A. Bantle Professor of Business and Government Policy, an endowed chair at the Syracuse University Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. He also served as the Director of National Security Studies, a partnership of Syracuse University and Johns Hopkins University, for delivery of executive education programs for senior military and civilian Department of Defense managers. Appointed to these positions in 1996, he was previously Professor of Business Administration and Assistant to the Senior Vice President for Research and Dean of the Graduate School at the Pennsylvania State University. Appointed as the Secretary of the Navy in July 1992 by President George H. W. Bush, O’Keefe previously served as Comptroller and Chief Financial Officer of the Department of Defense since 1989. Before joining Defense Secretary Dick Cheney’s Pentagon management team in these capacities, he served on the United States Senate Committee on Appropriations staff for eight years, and was Staff Director of the Defense Appropriations Subcommittee. His public service began in 1978 upon selection as a Presidential Management Intern. O’Keefe is a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and has served as chair of an Academy panel on investigative practices. He was a Visiting Scholar at the Wolfson College of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, a member of the Naval Postgraduate School’s civil-military relations seminar team for emerging democracies and has conducted seminars for the Strategic Studies Group at Oxford University. He served on the national security panel to devise the 1988 Republican platform and was a member of the 1985 Kennedy School of Government program for national security executives at Harvard University. In 1993, President Bush and Secretary Cheney presented him the Distinguished Public Service Award. He was also the recipient of the Department of the Navy’s Public Service Award in December 2000. Sean O’Keefe was the 1999 faculty recipient of the Syracuse University Chancellor’s Award for Public Service. He is the author of several journal articles, contributing author of Keeping the Edge: Managing Defense for the Future, released in October 2000, and in 1998, co-authored The Defense Industry in the Post-Cold War Era: Corporate Strategies and Public Policy Perspectives. O’Keefe earned his Bachelor of Arts in 1977 from Loyola University in New Orleans, Louisiana, and his Master of Public Administration degree in 1978 from the Maxwell School. His wife Laura and children Lindsey, Jonathan, and Kevin, reside in northern Virginia.

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop RONALD M. SEGA The Honorable Ronald M. Sega, Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E), is the chief technical advisor to the Secretary of Defense and the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD-AT&L) for scientific and technical matters, basic and applied research, and advanced technology development. Dr. Sega also has management oversight for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Dr. Sega has had an extensive career in academia, research, and government service. He began his academic career as a faculty member in the Department of Physics at the U.S. Air Force Academy. His research activities in electromagnetic fields led to a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Colorado. He was appointed as Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs in 1982. In addition to teaching and research activities, he also served as the Technical Director of the Laser and Aerospace Mechanics Directorate at the F. J. Seiler Research Laboratory and at the University of Houston as the Assistant Director of Flight Programs and Program Manager for the Wake Shield Facility. Dr. Sega became the Dean, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs in 1996. Dr. Sega has authored or co-authored over 100 technical publications and was promoted to Professor in 1990. He is also a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers and the Institute for the Advancement of Engineering. In 1990, Dr. Sega joined NASA, becoming an astronaut in July 1991. He served as a mission specialist on two Space Shuttle Flights, STS-60 in 1994, the first joint U.S. Russian Space Shuttle Mission and the first flight of the Wake Shield Facility, and STS-76 in 1996, the third docking mission to the Russian space station Mir where he was the Payload Commander. He was also the Co-Principal Investigator for the Wake Shield Facility and the Director of Operations for NASA activities at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Russia, from 1994 to 1995. Dr. Sega has also been active in the Air Force Reserves. A Command Pilot in the Air Force with over 4,000 hours, he has served in various operational flying assignments, including a tour of duty as an Instructor Pilot. From 1984 to 2001, as a reservist assigned to Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), he held positions in planning analysis and operational activities, including Mission Ready Crew Commander for satellite operations—Global Positioning System (GPS)—Defense Support Program (DSP), and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), etc. He was promoted to the rank of Major General in the Air Force Reserves in July 2001.

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop WILLIAM SPENCER Currently the Chairman of the Board of SEMATECH, Dr. Spencer served as the President and Chief Executive Officer of the consortium from 1990 through 1996. SEMATECH is a research and development consortium based in Austin, Texas jointly funded by the semiconductor industry member companies and the U.S. government. It was established in 1987 to solve the technical challenges required to maintain U.S. leadership in the global semiconductor industry. Before joining SEMATECH, Dr. Spencer was group vice president and senior technical officer at Xerox Corporation in Stamford, Conn. He has also served as Vice President of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Director of Systems Development at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, and Director of Microelectronics at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. He began his career at Bell Telephone Laboratories. Dr. Spencer received an A.B. degree from William Jewell College in Liberty, Missouri, followed by an M.S. degree in Mathematics and a Ph.D. in Physics from Kansas State University. He was awarded the Regents Meritorious Service Medal from the University of New Mexico in 1981, and an honorary doctorate degree from William Jewell College in 1990. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of IEEE, and serves on numerous advisory groups and boards, including the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy. JAMES TURNER James Turner has served on the professional staff of the Committee on Science in the U.S. House of Representatives for approximately 20 years. He currently serves as the Full Committee Chief Democratic Counsel where he works across the board on the Committee’s legislative agenda. For the 10 years prior to the Republican takeover of Congress, Mr. Turner was the Committee’s senior staff member for technology policy including four years as technology subcommittee staff director. He also served as a subcommittee legal counsel. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Mr. Turner worked on the Committee’s Republican staff as Minority Energy Counsel. During his years on the Committee, Mr. Turner has worked on numerous bills, reports, and hearings on a wide variety of topics. These include the international competitiveness of U.S. industry, environmental and energy research and development, trade and technology policy, intellectual property, standards, and technology transfer. Mr. Turner also spent 3 years working for Wheelabrator-Frye, 2 years for Congressman Gary Myers, 2 years for the State of Connecticut, and shorter periods with NASA and FAA. He holds degrees from Georgetown and Yale Univer-

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Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop sities and from Westminster College and attended the Senior Managers in Government Program at Harvard. PATRICK WINDHAM Until April 1997, Patrick Windham served as Senior Professional Staff Member for the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the U.S. Senate’s Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. He helped the Senators oversee and draft legislation for several major civilian R&D agencies with responsibility for science, technology, and U.S. competitiveness; industry-government-university R&D partnerships; state economic development; federal laboratory technology transfer; high-performance computing; and computer encryption. From 1982 to 1984, he served as a legislative aide in the personal office of Senator Ernest Hollings. From 1976 to 1978, he worked as a Congressional fellow with the Senate Commerce Committee, and then returned to California from 1978 to 1982 to pursue further graduate studies in political science at the University of California at Berkeley. Mr. Windham holds a Master’s of Public Policy from the University of California at Berkeley and a B.A. from Stanford University. He is currently an independent, California-based consultant on science and technology policy issues.