gory 2, Benign Finding(s); Category 3, Probably Benign Finding—Short Interval Follow-Up Suggested; Category 4, Suspicious Abnormality—Biopsy Should Be Considered; Category 5, Highly Suggestive of Malignancy—Appropriate Action Should Be Taken; and Category 6, Known Biopsy—Proven Malignancy—Appropriate Action Should be Taken.

Breast imaging specialist

—specializes in interpreting the results of mammographic and non-mammographic imaging examinations of the breast, and performs interventional procedures including image-guided biopsies of the breast.

Breast MRI

—a magnetic resonance image taken of the breast. See also Magnetic resonance imaging.

Breast ultrasound

—an ultrasound image of the breast. See also Ultrasound.


Cancer

—a general term for more than 100 diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body. There are several main types of cancer. Carcinoma is cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. Sarcoma is cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia is cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream. Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the cells of the immune system.

Cancer detection rate

—the number of women identified as having breast cancer per 1,000 women examined.

Cancer outcome

—as defined in this report, the presence or absence of cancer as determined by the results of a biopsy.

Cancer staging

—performed after a cancer is diagnosed and generally derived from pathology reports; used in conjunction with other tumor prognostic indicators (such as tumor grade, hormone receptor status, and other factors) to determine the patient’s prognosis and treatment options.

Cancer status

—as defined in this report, the presence or absence of cancer in a given individual.

Centralized interpretation

—expert interpretation at one central location of either films or digitized data collected at multiple remote locations.

Certification

—as defined by MQSA regulations, the process of approval of a facility by FDA or a certification agency to provide mammography services.

Clinical image

—as defined by MQSA regulations, a mammogram. See also Mammogram.

Clinical trial

—a formal study carried out according to a prospectively defined protocol that is intended to discover or verify the safety and effectiveness of procedures or interventions in humans. The term may refer to a controlled or uncontrolled trial. Randomized controlled clinical trials are considered the gold standard for clinical evidence.

Cohort study

—an observational study in which outcomes in a group of patients that received an intervention are compared with outcomes in a similar group, that is, the cohort, either contemporary or historical, of patients that did not receive the intervention. In an adjusted- (or matched-) cohort study, investigators identify (or make



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