Sadler, P., and Tai, R. (2001). Success in introductory college physics: The role of high school preparation. Science Education, 85(111), 136.

Shavelson, R.J., and Ruiz-Primo, M.A. (1999). On the psychometrics of assessing science understanding. In J. Mintzes, J.H. Wandersee, and J.D. Novak (Eds.), Assessing science understanding (pp. 304-341). Educational Psychology Series. San Diego: Academic Press.

Smith, M. (2004). High school laboratories: A view from earth and space. Presentation to the Committee on High School Science Laboratories: Role and Vision. March 29. Available at: [accessed Jan. 2005].

Smith, P.S., Banilower, E.R., McMahon, K.C., and Weiss, I.R. (2002). The national survey of science and mathematics education: Trends from 1977 to 2000. Chapel Hill, NC: Horizon Research. Available at: [accessed May 2005].

Sommerville, J., and Yi, Y. (2002). Aligning K-12 and postsecondary expectations: State policy in transition. Washington, DC: National Association of System Heads.

Spillane, J.P. (2004). Standards deviation: How schools misunderstand education policy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Spillane, J.P., and Zeuli, J.S. (1999). Reform and teaching: Exploring patterns of practice in the context of national and state mathematics reforms. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 21(1), 1-27.

Stecher, B., Barron, S., Chun, T., and Ross, K. (2000). The effects of the Washington state education reform on schools and classrooms. (Technical Report No. 525.) Los Angeles: University of California, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.

The Education Trust. (1999). Ticket to nowhere: The gap between leaving high school and entering college and high-performance jobs. Thinking K-16, 3(2), 3-9.

Turner, H. (2004). CLASS: Creating laboratory access for science students. Dayton, OH: Wright State University. Available at: [accessed Dec. 2004].

Tushnet, N.C., Millsap, M.A., Abdullah-Welsh, N., Brigham, N., Cooley, E., Elliott, J., Johnston, K., Martinez, A., Nierenberg, M., and Rosenblum, S. (2000). Final report on the evaluation of the National Science Foundation’s Instructional Materials Development Program. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

U.S. Department of Education. (2001). Digest of education statistics: Tables and figures. Table 153: State requirements for high school graduation, in Carnegie units: 2001. Washington, DC: Author. Available at: [accessed April 2005].

U.S. Department of Education. (2003). Digest of educational statistics 2003. Washington, D.C: Author. Available at: [accessed Dec. 2004].

Valverde, G.A., and Schmidt, W.H. (1997, Winter). Refocusing U.S. math and science education. Issues in Science and Technology Online. Available at: [accessed Oct. 2005].

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement