AMERICA’S LAB REPORT

Investigations in High School Science

Committee on High School Laboratories: Role and Vision

Susan R. Singer, Margaret L. Hilton, and Heidi A. Schweingruber, Editors

Board on Science Education

Center for Education

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science AMERICA’S LAB REPORT Investigations in High School Science Committee on High School Laboratories: Role and Vision Susan R. Singer, Margaret L. Hilton, and Heidi A. Schweingruber, Editors Board on Science Education Center for Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. ESI-0102582 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data America’s lab report : investigations in high school science / Committee on High School Science Laboratories—Role and Vision, Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; Susan R. Singer, Margaret L. Hilton, and Heidi A. Schweingruber, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-09671-5—ISBN 0-309-55100-5 (pdf) 1. Science—Study and teaching (Secondary)—United States. 2. Education, Secondary—Curricula—United States. 3. Laboratories—Curricula—United States. I. Singer, Susan R. II. Hilton, Margaret L. III. Schweingruber, Heidi A. IV. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on High School Science Laboratories: Role and Vision. Q183.3.A1A44 2006 507'.1273—dc22 2005026110 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2006). America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Committee on High School Science Laboratories: Role and Vision, S.R. Singer, M.L. Hilton, and H.A. Schweingruber, Editors. Board on Science Education, Center for Education. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science COMMITTEE ON HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE LABORATORIES: ROLE AND VISION SUSAN R. SINGER (Chair), Department of Biology, Carleton College HUBERT M. DYASI, School of Education, City College of the City University of New York ARTHUR EISENKRAFT, Center of Science and Mathematics in Context, University of Massachusetts, Boston PAMELA J. HINES, Science/American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC MICHAEL LACH, Chicago Public Schools DAVID PAUL LICATA, Pacifica High School, Garden Grove, CA NANCY PELAEZ, Department of Biological Science, California State University, Fullerton WILLIAM A. SANDOVAL, Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles JAMES P. SPILLANE, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University CARL E. WIEMAN, Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder MARGARET L. HILTON, Study Director HEIDI A. SCHWEINGRUBER, Program Officer JEAN MOON, Director, Board on Science Education MARY ANN KASPER, Senior Program Assistant

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION CARL E. WEIMAN (Chair), Department of Physics and JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder PHILIP BELL, Cognitive Studies in Education, University of Washington, Seattle KATHLEEN COMFORT, WestEd, San Francisco DAVID T. CONLEY, Center for Educational Policy Research, University of Oregon, Eugene BARBARA L. GONZALEZ, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, Fullerton LINDA D. GREGG, TERC, Cambridge, MA JENIFER V. HELMS, Education Consultant, Denver, CO JOHN R. JUNGCK, Biology Department, Beloit College ISHRAT M. KHAN, Department of Chemistry, Clark Atlanta University OKHEE LEE, Department of Teaching and Learning, University of Miami, Coral Gables SHARON LONG, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University RICHARD A. McCRAY, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder LILLIAN C. McDERMOTT, Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle MARY “MARGO” MURPHY, Georges Valley High School, Thomaston, ME CARLO PARRAVANO, Merck Institute for Science Education, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ MARY JANE V. SCHOTT, The Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas, Austin SUSAN R. SINGER, Department of Biology, Carleton College CARY SNEIDER, Boston Museum of Science JEAN MOON, Director HEIDI A. SCHWEINGRUBER, Program Officer ANDREW SHOUSE, Program Officer LaSHAWN SIDBURY, Senior Program Assistant

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Foreword It will soon be 25 years since Terrell H. Bell, Secretary of Education in the Reagan administration, commissioned a task force to examine the state of education in the United States. The work of this commission resulted in the 1983 report A Nation at Risk: An Imperative for Educational Reform, which detailed what was then a shocking report card on American education. The report became not only a rallying cry for an improved and equitable system of education but also an early framework for education reform. Regarding high school science education, A Nation at Risk made the following recommendation: The teaching of science in high school should provide graduates with an introduction to: (a) the concepts, laws, and processes of the physical and biological sciences; (b) the methods of scientific inquiry and reasoning; (c) the application of scientific knowledge to everyday life; and (d) the social and environmental implications of scientific and technological development. Science courses must be revised and updated for both the college-bound and those not intending to go to college. (p. 25) In the science education community, we continue to be challenged by the goals for science education set out in A Nation at Risk. The call for students to be familiar with the methods of science inquiry and reasoning and to understand the concepts and processes of the sciences remains a visible, but largely unmet, national educational goal. Indeed, this book describes what we know and do not know about the potential of laboratories to serve as effective science learning environments. The book defines

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science such environments as places in which students can practice scientific inquiry and reasoning, come to understand different kinds of knowledge claims that scientists make, and build their knowledge of science content. Since A Nation at Risk was released, the remarkable advances in science and technology have produced even greater public concern over the quality of science education. One has only to think about the human genome project. Completed in April 2003, it provides the complete genetic blueprint for humans. It is hard to comprehend the long-term effects of this kind of scientific advancement. In educational terms, however, such discoveries raise local, state, and national expectations for science education. Today a majority of policy makers, scientists, educators, and parents agree that high school graduates must have a sophisticated grasp and appreciation of science and technology to participate fully in the work place, to understand their everyday decisions on matter ranging from health to energy resources to climate, and to participate as informed citizens in the civic realm. Interest in science education is shared around the world, whether the country is industrialized or developing. It seems universally understood that effective science education is a critical component for advancing scientific and societal development. In the United States, laboratories have been a part of science education since the late 1800’s. Though educational goals for labs have shifted over time as have instructional materials and laboratory equipment, their presence as part of high school science has been consistent. Given the long history of laboratories in school science, the absence of consistent and well-grounded research on high school labs is troubling. America’s Lab Report begins to fill this important void. America’s Lab Report is the first consensus study to be completed under the guidance of the Board on Science Education. On behalf of the board, we want to thank the ten experts who served on the study committee. Each study committee member brought a wealth of knowledge about the nature and enterprise of science, the teaching and learning of science, and the institutions of schools and schooling to their deliberations. It was a very thoughtful group of committee members who took their charge very seriously. Chair of the study committee, Susan Singer, warrants special acknowledgment. Being chair for a National Research Council study is a timeconsuming commitment and one that invites patience. Susan’s persistence and insight into the process engendered a great deal of respect. The entire committee process was helped by the skillful work of Margaret Hilton, study director, and program officer Heidi Schweingruber. Each brought a unique set of talents to their work for which I am very grateful. Finally, on behalf of the Board on Science Education, we want to thank the National Science Foundation staff for their initial conversations on this

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science very challenging topic, their turning to the board to undertake this work, and recognition of the board as the right oversight group, and their support of this study. America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science is born of hours of sustained examination of a broad body of evidence by a diverse and uniquely qualified group of experts. The result is a previously unavailable synthesis of research that supports a compelling discussion of the evolving role of laboratories in advancing the goals of science education. Our hope for the report is that, in the spirit of A Nation at Risk, it will catalyze informed debate about laboratories and school science that leads to improvement of science education for our nation’s high school students. Carl E. Wieman Chair Board on Science Education Jean Moon Director Board on Science Education

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Acknowledgments The committee and staff thank the many individuals and organizations without whom this study could not have been completed. First, we acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF). We particularly thank NSF program officer Janice Earle, who consistently supported and encouraged the study committee and staff during the past year and a half. We are also grateful to James Lightbourne, who organized discussions among the NSF staff, which led to the request for the study. Individually and collectively, members of the committee benefited from discussions and presentations by the many individuals who participated in our three fact-finding meetings. At the first meeting, the following individuals informed the committee about key issues affecting teaching and learning in high school science laboratories: David Hammer, associate professor of physics and of curriculum and instruction, University of Maryland; Sean Smith, senior research associate, Horizon Research, Inc.; Gerald F. Wheeler, executive director, National Science Teachers Association; Warren W. Hein, associate executive director, American Association of Physics Teachers; Angela Powers, senior education associate, teacher training, American Chemical Society; Michael J. Smith, former education director, American Geological Institute. We also thank Janet Carlson Powell, associate director, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study; Robert Tinker, president, The Concord Consortium; Jo Ellen Roseman, director, Project 2061; and George De Boer, deputy director, Project 2061, American Association for the Advancement of Science, for briefing the committee on the role of science curriculum materials and technology in high school science laboratory activities.

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science At its second meeting, the committee learned about a variety of factors influencing high school science laboratories, ranging from the nature of science to technology to state science assessments. We are grateful to each of the presenters, including: Jane Maienschein, professor and director of the Center for Biology and Society, Arizona State University; Robin Millar, professor of science education, University of York; Arthur Lidsky, president, Dober, Lidsky, Craig and Associates; Adam Gamoran, professor of sociology, University of Wisconsin; Marcia Linn, professor of development and cognition, University of California, Berkeley; Kefyn Catley, assistant professor of science education, Vanderbilt University; Mark Windschitl, associate professor, College of Education, University of Washington; Audrey Champagne, professor, Department of Educational Theory and Practice and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Albany; Thomas Shiland, science department chair, Saratoga Springs High School, NY; and Arthur Halbrook, senior project associate, Council of Chief State School Officers. We also thank the individuals who participated in panels addressing how financial and resource constraints and school organization influence laboratory teaching and learning. The panelists include: Daniel Gohl, principal, McKinley Technical High School, Washington, DC Public Schools; Shelley Lee, science education consultant, Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction; Lynda Beck, former assistant head of school, Phillips Exeter Academy; and Kim Lee, science curriculum supervisor, Montgomery County Public Schools, VA. We thank the following individuals who shared their expertise on student science learning with the committee at its final fact-finding meeting: Philip Bell, associate professor, College of Education, University of Washington; Richard Duschl, professor of science education, Rutgers University; Norman Lederman, professor of mathematics and science education, Illinois Institute of Technology; Okhee Lee, professor, School of Education, University of Miami; Sharon Lynch, professor of secondary education, George Washington University; Kenneth Tobin, professor of urban education, Graduate Center of City College, NY; Samuel Stringfield, principal research scientist, Johns Hopkins University Center for the Social Organization of Schools; Ellyn Daugherty, lead teacher, San Mateo High School Biotechnology Careers Pathway Program; Elaine Johnson, director, Bio-Link, City College of San Francisco; Robert Tai, assistant professor of science education, University of Virginia. At its last open session, the committee talked with a panel of master science teachers to learn about their approaches to laboratory teaching. We are grateful to each member of the panel, including Nina Hike-Teague, Curie High School, Chicago; Gertrude Kerr, Howard High School, Howard County, MD; Margot Murphy, George’s Valley High School, ME; Phil Sumida, Maine West High School, Des Plaines, IL; and Robert Willis, Ballou High School, Washington, DC.

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Many individuals at the National Research Council (NRC) assisted the committee. The study would not have been possible without the efforts of Jean Moon, who quickly wrote the initial proposal in response to NSF’s request. Patricia Morison offered valuable suggestions at each committee meeting and during the review process, as well as providing helpful comments on several drafts of the report. Eugenia Grohman helped to focus the final committee meeting on the key messages and conclusions emerging from the study. We thank Kirsten Sampson Snyder, who shepherded the report through the NRC review process, Christine McShane, who edited the draft report, and Yvonne Wise for processing the report through final production. At an early stage in the study, Barbara Schulz invited us to a meeting with the Teacher Advisory Council, which provided practical insights into high school science laboratories. Brenda Buchbinder managed the finances of the project, and Viola Horek provided important organizational and administrative assistance. We are grateful to LaShawn Sidbury who arranged logistics for the first committee meeting. Finally, we would like to thank Mary Ann Kasper for her able assistance in supporting the committee at every stage in its deliberations and in preparing numerous drafts and revisions of the report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the NRC. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Brian Drayton, Science Education, TERC, Cambridge MA; Kevin Dunbar, Department of Education, Dartmouth College; James W. Guthrie, Department of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, Vanderbilt University; David G. Haase, Physics and The Science House, North Carolina State University; Thomas E. Keller, Science Education, Maine Department of Education, Augusta, ME; Vincent N. Lunetta, Science Education, and Science, Technology, Society (emeritus), Pennsylvania State University; Arlene A. Russell, School of Education and Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles; James H. Stewart, Center for Biology, University of Wisconsin–Madison; Phil Sumida, Science Department, Maine West High School, Des Plaines, IL; and Ellen Weaver, Department of Biology (emeritus), San Jose State University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science and recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Michael E. Martinez, Department of Education, University of California, Irvine, and May Berenbaum, Department of Entomology, University of Illinois. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction, History, and Definition of Laboratories   13 2   The Education Context   42 3   Laboratory Experiences and Student Learning   75 4   Current Laboratory Experiences   116 5   Teacher and School Readiness for Laboratory Experiences   138 6   Facilities, Equipment, and Safety   168 7   Laboratory Experiences for the 21st Century   193     Appendixes         A  Agendas of Fact-Finding Meetings   205     B  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff   215

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America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science AMERICA’S LAB REPORT

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