Index

A

Accommodations, 8, 12, 138-140, 168, 208

Accountability

California system, 151

classroom-based assessment, 33, 167

in content standards, 62

CRESST quality standards, 149, 157

designing assessments for, 35, 78

equity and resource issues, 136, 141, 143

and inclusion, 168

instructionally supportive tests, 32-33, 63

monitoring effects of, 157

NCLB goals, 11, 16, 158

use of assessments for, 19, 61, 120

Achieve, Inc., 56, 153

Achievement standards.

See also Science achievement

alternate, 138

content standards and, 68

cut scores, 72, 73-74, 75

funding tied to, 141-142

importance, 72

key characteristics, 72-73

methods for setting, 76, 170

NCLB requirements, 2, 12, 54-55, 72, 74, 75, 141-142, 146, 167

performance levels, 72-73, 74, 76, 99, 156, 170

recommendations, 170

supplementary data, 75

validation of, 75-76

variability in, 74-75

Adequacy. See Equity and adequacy issues

Administration of tests, 119-120, 194

frequency, 12

Alaska, 57

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 17, 19, 38, 111, 133, 153

American Chemical Society, 17

American College Testing Program, 151

American Educational Research Association, 148

American Federation of Teachers, 56, 58-59, 64, 128

American Physics Society, 17

American Psychological Association, 148

Ancillary skills, 139-140

Assessment, 3-4.

See also Classroom assessment;

Designing science assessments;

Implementing science assessment systems;

Interpretation of assessment results;

Performance assessments;

Quality of assessments;

Reporting assessment results;

Science assessment systems;

Systems approach to assessment



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Systems for State Science Assessment Index A Accommodations, 8, 12, 138-140, 168, 208 Accountability California system, 151 classroom-based assessment, 33, 167 in content standards, 62 CRESST quality standards, 149, 157 designing assessments for, 35, 78 equity and resource issues, 136, 141, 143 and inclusion, 168 instructionally supportive tests, 32-33, 63 monitoring effects of, 157 NCLB goals, 11, 16, 158 use of assessments for, 19, 61, 120 Achieve, Inc., 56, 153 Achievement standards. See also Science achievement alternate, 138 content standards and, 68 cut scores, 72, 73-74, 75 funding tied to, 141-142 importance, 72 key characteristics, 72-73 methods for setting, 76, 170 NCLB requirements, 2, 12, 54-55, 72, 74, 75, 141-142, 146, 167 performance levels, 72-73, 74, 76, 99, 156, 170 recommendations, 170 supplementary data, 75 validation of, 75-76 variability in, 74-75 Adequacy. See Equity and adequacy issues Administration of tests, 119-120, 194 frequency, 12 Alaska, 57 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 17, 19, 38, 111, 133, 153 American Chemical Society, 17 American College Testing Program, 151 American Educational Research Association, 148 American Federation of Teachers, 56, 58-59, 64, 128 American Physics Society, 17 American Psychological Association, 148 Ancillary skills, 139-140 Assessment, 3-4. See also Classroom assessment; Designing science assessments; Implementing science assessment systems; Interpretation of assessment results; Performance assessments; Quality of assessments; Reporting assessment results; Science assessment systems; Systems approach to assessment

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Systems for State Science Assessment content standards aligned with, 30, 35, 57, 58, 68, 69 defined, 16 district-level, 31, 45, 49 triangle concept, 81, 86-87, 89 Atlas for Science Literacy, 69, 133 Atomic-molecular theory, 18, 42, 95, 106-110 Augmented norm-referenced assessments, 12 Australia, 36, 124 B Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 42-43, 55, 93-94, 133 Big ideas in science and assessment design, 79, 81, 106-112 curriculum framework, 109-110 knowledge organized around, 39-40 content standards organized around, 3, 40, 56-57, 65, 66, 69-71, 110-112 Bundling activities, 29 Buros Center for Testing, 153 C California, 30, 64, 151 Center for Research on Education, Standards, and Student Testing, 149, 157 Check sheets, 49 Classroom assessment, 26 for accountability purposes, 33, 167 design considerations, 33-35, 86-87, 91, 95, 120 inquiry, 45 practice and feedback opportunities, 49-50, 120, 132, 158 of prior knowledge, 48-49 professional development and, 126-127 quality standards, 148-149 sample, 33-35 of science literacy, 48-50, 52 Classroom Focused Multi-Level Assessment Model, 34 Colorado, 151-152 Commission on Instructionally Supportive Assessments, 32 Competency standards, 130 Concept mapping, 29, 40, 49, 111 Connecticut, 45, 46-47, 120 Consortium for Policy Research in Education, 65 Constitutional concerns, 142 Construct modeling approach, 86, 87-88, 89-90 specification, 87, 90, 91-94, 111 Constructed-response items, 33, 94 Content knowledge advisory groups, 6, 112, 116-117 context-bound, 40-41 improving, 166-167 organizing around big ideas, 39-40, 57, 65, 66, 69-71, 79, 81, 106-112 research needs, 166-167 transfer of, 40, 50, 52 Content standards accountability component, 62 and achievement standards, 68 assessment-related information in, 30, 35, 57, 58, 68, 69 clarity, detail, and completeness, 2, 3, 57-58, 63-65, 156, 169 cognitive validity, 105 conceptual framework, 2, 65, 67, 69 curriculum aligned with, 57, 63, 65, 67, 68-69, 105 district-level models, 31 and instructional planning, 67, 68-69 key features, 57, 62-68 learning performances and, 3, 91-94, 111 lesson support materials, 68-69 as model of learning, 2, 67 NCLB requirements, 54, 56, 146, 167 organizing around big ideas, 3, 40, 56-57, 65, 66, 69-71, 110-112 performance expectations, 2, 68 review and revision, 2, 9, 19, 61-62 rigor and scientific correctness, 65, 67 scientific terminology as, 57, 60-61 scope, 65, 66 state variation in, 55-61 supplementary guidance material, 68-71 Core assessment, 31 Council for Basic Education, 58-59 n.4 Council of Chief State School Officers, 55, 137, 188 Creative writing, 29 Criterion-referenced assessments, 12, 33, 115 Curriculum. See also Instruction assessment design linked to, 109-110, 206 big ideas in science as framework, 109-110

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Systems for State Science Assessment content standards aligned with, 57, 63, 65, 67, 68-69, 105 system perspective, 22, 24 Cut scores, 72, 73-74, 75 D Data management, 133 Delaware, 57, 99, 104, 105 Designing science assessments accommodations, 139-140 accountability component, 32-33, 35, 63, 78 activity selection process, 89 ancillary skills identified in, 139-140 approaches, 17-18, 27-31, 77, 78-81, 82-85, 106-112, 153, 207 assessment triangle concept, 81, 86-87, 89 backward design process, 95-98, 100-103 bias and sensitivity reviews, 140, 155 building blocks, 89-90, 91-104 classroom assessments, 86-87, 91, 95, 120 cognitive validity, 104-105 collaboration in, 112 competency standards, 130 computerized system for, 34-35, 89, 131 conceptual framework, 88-89, 205-209 construct modeling approach, 86, 87-88, 89-90 construct specification, 87, 90, 91-94, 111 curriculum linked to, 109-110, 190, 206 developmental approach, 78-81, 82-85, 106-112 distractors, 95, 100-101 evaluation and monitoring, 140, 154-156, 158 evidence-centered approach, 77, 87-89 evolutionary biology example, 110-112 field testing, 140, 155 influences on committee thinking, 81, 86-90 instructionally supportive accountability tests, 32-33, 63 item design, 90, 94-98, 100-103, 108, 109, 110 language and vocabulary considerations, 140 learning performances and, 3, 91-94, 95-98, 100-103, 108, 109 learning progression and, 3, 18, 77, 78, 79-80, 82-85, 106-112 learning theory and, 110-112, 150 matter and atomic-molecular theory example, 18, 106-110 measurement models, 17, 86-87, 89, 90, 95, 99, 102-103, 139, 167 outcome space, 90, 98-99 presentation process, 89 program evaluation context, 89 purpose of assessment and, 3-4, 5, 86-87, 91, 95, 191 questions for states, 52-53, 112-113, 162, 163 research needs, 159, 166, 167 response processing, 89, 109, 110 rotating key concepts, 32-33 sample designs, 31-35 science literacy and, 1, 50-53 standards aligned in, 89, 91, 109, 110, 154-156, 158, 167, 191 summary scoring process, 89 systems approach, 4, 21, 32-35, 77, 87, 150, 153, 161, 206 target skills identified in, 139-140 task selection, 94-98 technology support, 34-35 test delivery architecture, 89; see also individual formats time limits, 140-141 universal design, 139 Diagnostic assessments, 33, 89 Disabilities, students with, 137, 138, 168. See also Accommodations; Inclusion Distractors, 95, 100-101 District-level assessments, 31, 45, 49 content standards, 31 E Editorial Projects in Education, 56 Education administrators, 128, 130 Education journalists, 129 Education Leaders Council, 121 Elementary and Secondary Education Act. See Improving America’s Schools Act England, 36 English language learners, 137, 138, 148, 168. See also Accommodations; Inclusion Equity and adequacy issues accountability and, 136, 141, 143 children’s equity, 142 inclusion, 136, 138-141, 145, 165, 168 interpreting assessment results, 7-8, 136, 137

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Systems for State Science Assessment opportunity to learn, 7-8, 24, 136-138, 142, 145, 165 questions for states, 145, 165 resources, 141-144, 145, 165 school finance burdens, 141-142, 143-144 taxpayer equity, 142 Evaluation and monitoring. See also Quality of assessments accountability effects, 8, 157 achievement standard-setting methods, 170 alignment of assessment and standards, 152-154 assessment development, 140, 154-156, 158 challenges, 158-159 consequences and uses of assessment systems, 150-154, 157-158 as feedback, 22, 147 questions for states, 159-160, 165 reliability of scores, 151-152 reporting of results, 156 research needs, 152, 153 standards review and revision, 2, 19, 61-62, 169 systems approach, 150, 154-158, 170 validity of gains, 150-151, 157 Evolutionary biology example, 110-112 F Fieldwork, 29 Finance issues, 141-142, 143-144 Florida, 57 Force Concept Inventory, 94 Fordham Foundation, 56, 58, 59 Formative assessment, 26 France, 36 G Germany, 36 Guidance material with content standards, 68-71 H High-stakes testing, 27, 32, 137, 138, 141, 144, 150, 157, 159 Hybrid tests, 31, 35 I Illinois, 57 Implementing science assessment systems. See also Test development/developers administration of tests, 12, 119-120, 194 advisory groups, 6, 112, 116-117 continuous improvement plan, 115 contractor issues, 112, 121, 123, 195-196 data management, 133 deadlines for, 1, 12, 13, 17 developing the structure, 117-121; see also Designing science assessments documentation, 117-118 example, 122 frequency of administration, 120 identification of purposes, 117, 118-119 needs analysis, 114-116 online administration, 132 professional development, 119, 125-130, 135, 164-165, 168-169 questions for states, 134, 163-164 reporting results, 19, 115, 123-125, 135, 164-165, 194 scoring, 132, 194-195 support system for, 133 technology support, 131-133 Improving America’s Schools Act, 11 Inclusion accommodations, 8, 12, 138-139, 168, 208 advice to states, 139-141 equity issues, 136, 138-141, 145, 165, 168 questions for states, 145, 165 research needs, 168 Indiana, 57 Inquiry. See Scientific inquiry Instruction assessment design linked to, 4, 138, 155, 190, 206 content standards and, 67, 68 lesson support materials, 68-69 teaching to the test, 26-27, 150 systems perspective, 22, 24, 119, 141, 206 Instructionally supportive accountability tests, 32-35, 63 International influences, 23 Interpretation of assessment results accommodations and, 8, 138-139, 168 equity and adequacy issues, 7-8, 136, 137 identifying strategies for, 116 validity, 7-8, 26, 148, 149, 150-151, 168

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Systems for State Science Assessment Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium, 128 Item design, 90, 94-98, 108, 109, 110. See also individual formats Item response theory, 99, 102, 103 J Japan, 36 K Kentucky, 30, 150-151 Kinetic molecular theory, 79, 81 Knowledge. See also Content knowledge; Prior knowledge and misconceptions declarative, 105 procedural, 105 schematic, 105 strategic, 105 L Laboratory experiments, 50 Large-scale standardized tests, 86-87, 91, 94, 95, 103, 115, 118, 120, 121, 125, 126, 131 Learning. See also Science learning assessment linked to, 48, 49, 110-112, 150 content standards as model of, 2, 67 theory, 48, 110-112, 150 Learning performances on atomic-molecular theory, 95 designing science assessments, 3, 91-94, 95-98, 100-103, 108, 109 differential survival example, 93-94 item creation from, 95-98, 100-103, 108 scientific practices that serve as basis for, 92-93 standards elaborated through, 3, 91-94, 111 Learning progressions defined, 48 designing assessments with, 3, 18, 77, 78, 79-80, 82-85, 106-112 developing, 48 errors and misconceptions identified through, 98, 100-101 matter and atomic-molecular theory, 18, 106-110 reporting results, 123, 124 research needs, 48, 125-126, 166 standards elaborated through, 3, 69-71 Literacy. See Science literacy M Maine MeCAS, 117, 118, 119, 132 Maryland, 30 Mathematics, 19, 57, 59, 139, 141, 143, 151-152, 153, 157 Matrix-sample tests, 30, 31, 35 Measurement models, 17 assessment triangle, 86-87, 90 evidence-centered design principles, 89 item response theory, 99, 102, 103 large-scale assessments, 103 multidimensional item response theory, 95, 102 reliability, 99, 167 Memorization, 50, 51 Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning, 55-56 Milwaukee school system, 115 Minority and low-income populations, 144 Misconceptions. See Prior knowledge and misconceptions Modeling/simulations, 29, 34 Monitoring. See Evaluation and monitoring Multiple-choice formats, 33, 44, 49, 52, 94, 95, 98, 99, 100-101, 118, 152 N National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 3, 12-13, 35, 75-76, 120, 151 National Association of Secondary School Principals, 129 National Center for Education Statistics, 137 National Center on Educational Outcomes, 139 National Conference of State Legislatures, 129 National Council on Measurement in Education, 128, 148 National Education Association, 128 National Education Goals Panel, 58-59 National Research Council, 19, 38, 86, 111, 168 National Science Board, 38 National Science Education Standards, 1, 31, 42-43, 55, 136, 137, 148 National Science Foundation, 1

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Systems for State Science Assessment National Science Teachers Association, 17, 38 Nebraska STARS, 33, 45, 119 Nevada, 57 New Jersey, 57 New York, 45, 120 New Zealand, 36 No Child Left Behind Act, 118, 170 achievement standards, 2, 12, 54-55, 72, 74, 75, 141-142, 146, 167 access to teachers, 137, 141 content standards, 54, 56, 146, 167 deadlines for implementing assessments, 12, 13, 17 evaluation and monitoring requirements, 146, 169 goals, 4, 7, 11, 16, 45, 136, 141, 157, 158 inclusion requirements, 8 Peer Review Guidance, 147 professional development requirements, 168 reporting requirements, 19, 123 science requirements, 1, 4-5, 11, 12-16, 27, 31, 157, 161, 204-205 validation of assessments, 155 Norm-referenced assessments, 12, 115 O Observing students, 29, 45, 127 Open-ended items, 52, 115, 118, 124, 132, 139 Opportunity to learn, 7-8, 24, 136-138, 142, 145, 165 Oral examination, 49 Ordered Multiple Choice, 95, 98, 100-101 Oregon, 132 Outcome space, 90, 98-99 P PADI (Principled Assessment Design for Inquiry), 89, 131 Paper-and-pencil tests, 29, 44, 115, 124, 131 Peer assessments, 29, 32 Performance assessments, 52 achievement standards and, 72 applications, 94 buoyancy concept example, 99, 102-103 classroom-administered, 115-116 open-ended tasks, 118 scoring rubrics, 45, 49, 99, 102-103, 131 Performance categories, 33 Performance expectations, 2, 68 Performance standards, 72-73, 74, 76, 99, 156, 170 Physical science, 32 Plate tectonics theory, 41, 64 Porter, Andrew C., 153 Practical investigations, 29, 50 Practical tests, 29 Presentations, 29 Prior knowledge and misconceptions, 48-49, 67, 68-69, 77, 95, 98, 99, 100-101, 127, 128 Problem solving, 29 Professional development alignment with standards, 2, 152 assessment literacy, 33, 119, 125-130, 158, 168-169, 208 certification standards and, 7, 128, 129, 169 education administrators, 128, 130 in-service programs, 7, 126, 128 NCLB requirements, 168 preservice programs, 7, 126, 169 questions for states, 135, 164-165 recommendation, 169 systems approach, 2, 24, 152 teachers, 6-7, 125-128, 166, 168, 169, 208 and use of assessment results, 125-127, 129, 130 Program evaluation, 89 Programme for International Student Assessment, 23 Progress maps, 124 Project 2061, 17, 153 Q Quality of assessments AERA/APA/NCME, 148, 209 continuous improvement plan, 115 CRESST accountability standards, 149, 157 deeper conception of quality, 150 NSES, 148-149, 209 validity of inferences, 147, 167 R Reading, 19, 141, 143, 151-152, 153, 155, 157 Reporting assessment results, 208 comparison groups, 124 computerized data management, 133 disaggregated group, 139

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Systems for State Science Assessment format, 123-124, 125 for inquiries, 45 interpretive material, 124-125 as learning progressions, 123, 124 monitoring plan for, 156 NCLB requirements, 19, 123 needs analysis, 6, 115 progress maps, 124 public availability, 19, 24 questions for states, 135, 164 research needs, 125 samples of student work, 124, 133 standard-specific, 123 for subgroups, 136, 157-158 subscores, 67, 124 test development questions, 194-195 uncertainty and error information, 125 use of results and, 123 validity of interpretations, 124-125 Requests for proposals authority, 189 background and contextual information, 190 budget, 189 contract period, 189 eligible offerers, 189 laws, rules, and guidelines, 189 ownership of test items, 189-190 questions to be addressed, 189-190, 191-192 specification of products, 190 test development, 190 timeline, 190 Research needs, 9, 18-19, 48, 125-126, 152, 153, 159, 166-167, 168 Resource allocation, 24 equity and adequacy issues, 8, 141-144, 145, 165 minority and economically disadvantaged districts, 143 school finance burdens, 141-142, 143-144 teacher demand and supply, 8, 141, 143, 144, 157 use of assessment results for, 129 Response processing, 89, 109, 110 Rhode Island, 57, 58 S Sanctions, 11 Scaling, vertical, 35 Science achievement multiple measures of, 30-31, 115, 119, 167 Science assessment systems. See also Designing science assessments; Implementing science assessment systems classroom-based, 26, 33-34 coherence in, 5-9, 25-27, 75, 122, 126, 152, 158, 161 constructs, 38; see also Science achievement; Science literacy; Scientific inquiry economic issues, 132 feasibility studies, 157 federal support of, 9, 170 feedback in, 25, 26, 49, 120, 147 goals for learning aligned with, 30, 44 high-quality, 28, 167 instructionally supportive accountability tests, 32-33, 63 international examples, 35-36 intrastate collaboration, 34-35 multiple measures and measurement approaches, 5, 12, 17, 27-31, 119, 125, 147, 167 NCLB requirements, 1, 4-5, 11, 12-16, 27, 31, 157, 161, 204-205 psychometric and practical considerations, 35 questions for states, 36-37, 162 sample designs, 31-35 science literacy and, 49-52, 69-71 statutory requirements, 11, 12-16 Science education system coherence in, 24-25, 54 effects of science assessment, 21 goal of, 22, 54 influences on, 23-24 standards and, 22 Science for All Americans, 136 Science learning developmental nature of, 45, 48-49, 77, 106-112, 150, 166-167 evolutionary biology, 110-112 learning progression and, 46, 77, 106-112 matter and atomic molecular theory, 42, 106-110 measurement approaches, 30, 86 prior knowledge and misconceptions, 48-49, 67, 68-69, 77, 95, 99 professional development needs, 166 progress maps, 78, 79-80, 82-85, 124 research recommendations, 166-167 standards as a model of, 2, 67 Science literacy assessment of, 48-52, 91, 112

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Systems for State Science Assessment coherence in science education system and, 24 common elements, 38-39 content knowledge, 1, 39-41 defined, 38-39 inquiry and, 1, 17, 42-45, 46-47, 167-168 memorization and, 50, 52 national priority, 1, 11, 38 questions for states, 52-53, 162 science literacy and, 1, 50-53 understanding science as a way of knowing, 1, 41-42, 50-51 Science standards. See also Achievement standards; Content standards; State science standards alignment with science assessments, 89, 91, 109, 110, 154-156, 158, 167 NCLB requirements, 54-55, 56 role of, 54-55 validity of methods used to set, 153, 167 Scientific inquiry, 32 abilities associated with, 44 approaches to, 43-44, 131 assessment methods, 9, 17, 44-45, 91, 120, 131, 167-168 content standards, 1, 43-44, 144, 167-168 defined, 42 research needs, 168 soapy water experiment, 46-47 Scoring/scores accommodations and, 168 combining two years of, 152 comparability across years and formats, 153, 156 computerized, 132 evaluation and monitoring, 151-152 implementing, 132, 194-195 multiple-choice formats, 98 open-ended items, 132 performance tasks, 98-99, 124 reliability from year to year, 151-152 rubrics, 45, 49, 99, 102-103, 104, 120, 131, 132 subscores, 67, 124 summary scoring process, 89 test development questions, 194-195 validity of interpretations, 124, 151, 157 Self-assessments, 29, 49 Southern Regional Education Board, 129 Special needs students, 116. See also Inclusion Standards. See Science standards; State science standards Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 78 State Coalition for Assessment of Learning Environments Using Technology (SCALE Tech), 34 State science assessment programs. See also individual states status of, 13 n.4 strategies, 26, 27-31 State science standards. See also Achievement standards; Content standards; Science standards AFT evaluation of, 58-59, 61 elaborating for practitioners, 68-71 Fordham Foundation evaluation, 58, 59, 61 high-quality elements, 2, 54, 59, 60-68, 167, 169 inquiry component, 42-43, 45, 91 questions for states, 76, 163 review and revision, 60-62, 104, 169 specificity, 3, 24-25, 91, 147-148, 152, 169 variations among states, 56-58 Strand maps, 69, 70-71, 133 Student portfolios, 29 Student profiles, 29 Subgroups, reporting results for, 136, 157-158 Summative assessment, 26 Sweden, 36 Systems approach to assessment, 4-5 challenges, 33 characteristics of systems, 21-22 design stage, 4, 21, 32-35, 77, 87, 150, 153, 161 evaluation and monitoring component, 150, 154-158, 170 feedback loops, 22 fundamental issues, 36, 153 instruction and, 22, 24, 119, 141 rationale for, 16 science assessment system, 25-27 science education system, 22-25 T Target skills, 139-140 Taxpayer equity, 142

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Systems for State Science Assessment Teachers. See also Classroom assessment; Professional development assessment competence, 6-7, 23, 24, 124-128, 129, 132 certification and licensure, 128 evaluating assessment design, 2, 155, 208 quality and availability, 8, 137, 138, 141, 143, 144, 157 salaries, 144 scoring and evaluating test responses, 132 Teaching to a test, 26-27, 150 Technical Advisory Councils implementing assessments, 116-117 Technology support data management, 133 designing assessment systems, 34-35, 89, 131, 209 implementing assessment systems, 131-133 item banks, 133 learning environments, 34 online administration, 132 research needs, 131 scoring, 132 Test administration, 194 Test development/developers. See also Designing science assessments commercial test publishers, 91, 121, 123, 187-201 curriculum standards, 190 grade levels, 190 industry characteristics, 187 interface with current program, 191-192 perspectives from test publishers, 200-201 practical tips, 187-201 prime contractor vs. multiple vendors, 188 quality standards, 148 questions to be addressed, 192-193 relationship with contractor, 121, 197-200 requests for proposals, 69, 121, 123, 188-192 responsibility for, 121, 122 score scales, 72 supplementary guidelines with content standards, 69 technical and quality standards, 190 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 23, 99 Third International Mathematics and Science Study—Repeat, 105 Time limits for tests, 140-141 U Universal design, 139 U.S. Department of Education, 61-62, 125, 168, 169, 170, 187 Use of assessments, 16 for accountability purposes, 19, 61, 120, 209 administration level and, 120 coherence in assessment systems and, 25-27 competency standards for, 130 design considerations, 3-4, 5, 86-87, 91, 95, 191 evaluation and monitoring, 150-154, 157-158 guidelines for, 129 identifying and documenting, 117, 118-119 multiple assessment strategies and, 27-28, 30 professional development and, 125-127, 129, 130 for promotion and graduation, 137 reporting of results and, 123 for resource allocation, 129 scores and scoring, 124, 151, 157 Utah, 57, 60-61 V Validation/validity of achievement standards, 75-76 assessment design, 104-105 cognitive, 104-105 of content standards, 105 gains in scores, 150-151, 157 interpretation of assessment results, 7-8, 26, 124-126, 148, 149, 150-151, 157, 168 reporting of results and, 124-125 Validities of Science Inquiry Assessments, 44 W Washington state, 65, 66 Webb, Norman L., 153 Wixson, Karen K., 153 Written tests. See Paper-and-pencil tests

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