Index

A

Access to health care, 103–106

future prospects, 107–108, 122–123

insurance costs and, 58

language barriers, 105, 106

prenatal care, 106

preventive services, 106

quality of care, 106

U.S.-born children of undocumented immigrants, 32

U.S. social services policy, 58

Adolescents

childbearing patterns, 25, 103

obesity trends, 101–102, 111 n101

substance use, 102

Advertising and marketing, 118–119, 127 n7

Age at immigration, language proficiency and, 48

Age structure of Hispanic population, 3, 23

childbearing patterns, 25

future prospects, 7, 14, 60–64, 115–116, 125, 126

poverty patterns, 97–98

socioeconomic implications, 61–64, 125, 126

Agriculture, 27–29, 66

Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 58

Alcohol use, 103

American Community Survey, 51, 53 n31

Amnesty programs, 30–31

Arizona, 64

Assimilation

distinguishing features of Hispanic experience, 5–6, 57

ethnic/racial identity, 45

health status and, 102, 107, 122

language use, 46, 118

process, 4–5, 37

tradition of familism and, 78, 121–122

trends among Hispanic population, 5

See also Social integration

Asthma, 102

Atherosclerosis, 8, 102



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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future Index A Access to health care, 103–106 future prospects, 107–108, 122–123 insurance costs and, 58 language barriers, 105, 106 prenatal care, 106 preventive services, 106 quality of care, 106 U.S.-born children of undocumented immigrants, 32 U.S. social services policy, 58 Adolescents childbearing patterns, 25, 103 obesity trends, 101–102, 111 n101 substance use, 102 Advertising and marketing, 118–119, 127 n7 Age at immigration, language proficiency and, 48 Age structure of Hispanic population, 3, 23 childbearing patterns, 25 future prospects, 7, 14, 60–64, 115–116, 125, 126 poverty patterns, 97–98 socioeconomic implications, 61–64, 125, 126 Agriculture, 27–29, 66 Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 58 Alcohol use, 103 American Community Survey, 51, 53 n31 Amnesty programs, 30–31 Arizona, 64 Assimilation distinguishing features of Hispanic experience, 5–6, 57 ethnic/racial identity, 45 health status and, 102, 107, 122 language use, 46, 118 process, 4–5, 37 tradition of familism and, 78, 121–122 trends among Hispanic population, 5 See also Social integration Asthma, 102 Atherosclerosis, 8, 102

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future B Birth rate among immigrant populations, 6, 23–24 Bolivians, 27 Border control, 30, 31–32 Bracero Accords, 27–29 Brazil, 20 C California, 21, 64, 65–66 Cancer, 101 Cardiovascular disease, 8, 111 n88 Census practices concept of race, 40–45 ethnic categories, 4, 21, 37, 38–40, 50, 51, 52 n8 parental birthplace questions, 50, 51 strategies for improving, 50, 51 use of surname as ethnic identifier, 39, 52 n7 Childbearing patterns among youth, 25, 103 economic outcomes and, 124 educational attainment and, 24, 25 Hispanic family characteristics, 24 immigrant vs. native-born, 25 nonmarital, 24–25, 78, 79, 106–107 prenatal care, 106 Civil Rights movement (1960s), 38 Clinton administration, 58 Cohabitation, 79, 80 College enrollment and graduation, 7 economic outcomes and, 59, 124 expectations and aspirations, 85, 86 obstacles to, 86–87 trends, 87, 123, 124 tuition assistance, 58 two-year colleges, 87 Colombians, 44, 65 Construction industry, 66, 67 Country of origin diversity within Hispanic population, 19–20, 23, 38 educational attainment patterns, 82 employment rate variation, 88 ethnic self-identification and, 37, 117 geographic distribution in U.S., 21–22 household income and, 94 language proficiency and, 46 political orientation and, 69 poverty patterns, 97 undocumented immigrants, 27 U.S. population growth, 26–27 wage rates and, 90 See also specific immigrant group Criminal justice, 16 n2 Cubans, 70 access to health care, 104 attitudes toward government, 70 childbearing patterns, 79 educational attainment, 82 employment rate, 88 ethnic/racial identity, 41, 44 family characteristics, 24, 78 geographic distribution of immigrant population, 21–22 household income, 94 immigration patterns, 22 infant mortality, 101 intergenerational earnings patterns, 92 language proficiency of immigrants from, 46 poverty patterns, 97 prenatal care, 106 Current Population Survey, 51 D Depression, 103 Diabetes, 8, 101, 107 Diet and nutrition, 102 Directive 15 (OMB), 38–39, 41, 45 Discrimination against dark-skinned Mexicans, 109 n47

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future early U.S. history, 21 teacher bias, 84 Diversity within Hispanic population, 19, 32, 38 economic well-being, 87–88 ethnic identity and, 4, 50, 117 family structure and functioning, 78 political orientation, 68–69 recent patterns, 26–27 Divorce trends, 78–79 Dominicans, 65 educational attainment, 24 employment patterns, 90 employment rate, 109 n43 ethnic/racial identity, 41, 44 family structure and functioning, 78 household income, 94 immigration patterns, 27 language preferences and proficiency, 49 poverty patterns, 97, 98 welfare participation, 95 E Economic status age patterns, 97–98 distribution patterns, 58–59 diversity within Hispanic population, 87–88 educational attainment and, 8–9, 107, 123, 124–125 family structure and, 8, 94, 95, 124 future prospects, 99, 116 generational change, 91–93 home ownership, 68, 98, 99, 107 household income, 93–96 motivation of undocumented immigrants, 27 obstacles to advancement, 124–125 poverty rates, 96–98 trends, 5, 107, 124 wealthy Hispanics, 98–99 See also Employment; Wages Ecuadorians, 44, 65 Educational attainment and childbearing patterns, 24, 25 college enrollment and graduation, 7, 14, 59, 86–87, 124 consequences of underinvestment in young Hispanic population, 3–4, 8–9, 14, 15–16, 126–127 cultural value, 86 employment and economic outcomes, 5–6, 8–9, 14, 59, 60, 61, 89–90, 93, 107, 123–124, 125 foreign-born vs. U.S. born Hispanics, 5, 46, 81–82 future challenges, 3–4, 14, 64, 68, 116, 123, 124, 126–127 General Equivalency Diploma, 86 guidance counseling and, 85, 86 health factors, 103 high school performance/graduation, 7, 14, 85–86 language proficiency and, 48, 123 mathematics instruction, 86–87 middle school performance, 84–85 patterns and trends, 7, 14, 46, 80–82, 107, 123–124 political participation and, 71 preschool home environment and, 82–84, 123 primary school performance, 84 strategies for improving, 123, 125 See also School system Employment access to health care and, 58, 104 educational attainment and, 8, 14, 60, 89–90, 93, 123–124 future challenges, 14, 59–60, 125 immigrant vs. second generation, 5–6, 67 implications of aging patterns, 61–64 job market trends, 6, 59, 66–67 language proficiency and, 8, 46, 89–90 Mexican presence in U.S., 20, 21 patterns and trends, 3, 6, 7, 14, 66–67, 88–91

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future public perception of low-wage Hispanic workers, 32 See also Undocumented workers; Wages Ethnic identity. See Identity F Family structure and functioning assimilation effects, 78, 121–122 diversity within Hispanic population, 78 economic status and, 8, 94, 95, 124 familism in, 77–78, 122 future prospects, 78, 79–80, 106–107, 122 income pooling, 95 intermarriage effects, 79, 80 preschool literacy, 82–84 size of families, 24, 79 Spanish language use at home, 46, 48 trends, 8, 78–79 U.S.-born children of undocumented immigrants, 32 See also Childbearing patterns Filipino immigrants, 39 Florida, 22, 64, 65, 66 Future prospects, 15–16, 125–127 age profile of U.S. population, 14, 61–64 consequences of underinvestment in young Hispanic population, 3–4, 8–9, 14, 15–16 cost of education gap, 8–9, 14 demographic patterns, 6, 7, 13, 115 determinants of Hispanic experience, 57, 125–126 economic status, 99, 116, 125 family structure and functioning, 8, 78, 79–80, 106–107, 122 health care access and delivery, 8, 107–108, 120, 122–123 home ownership, 68 intermarriage outcomes, 80 language preferences and proficiency, 49–50 meaning of Hispanic identity, 37, 38, 45, 117–119 political effectiveness, 72, 73, 121 predictability, 116–117 race relations, 6, 45, 120 residential segregation, 67–68 sources of Hispanic population growth, 6, 25, 115 strategies for increasing English proficiency, 7–8, 118 welfare reform and, 8, 124 G Generational differences attitudes toward language, 48–49 earnings, 90–93, 124 ethnic/racial identity, 44–45 language preference and proficiency, 47–48 See also Immigrants; Second generation Hispanics; Third and later generations Geographic distribution by country of origin, 21–22 home ownership patterns, 68, 99 implications for health care, 122 implications for social integration, 67–68, 120–121 residential segregation patterns, 65–66, 67–68 roots of Hispanic culture in Americas, 20–21 trends, 3, 6, 19, 57, 64–65, 120 undocumented immigrants, 31 Georgia, 64 Guatemalans, 27, 44 Guyana, 20 H Haitians, 44 Hart-Celler Act. See Immigration and Nationality Act (1965) Head Start, 84

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future Health care future challenges, 8, 120, 122–123 Hispanic physicians, 105 primary care providers, 105–106 U.S. social services policy, 58 See also Access to health care; Health status; Insurance, health Health status, 15 birth outcomes, 101 determinants of, 99–100 mortality, 100–101 patterns and trends, 8, 100–103, 107, 122 See also Access to health care; Health care Hispanics, defined, 4 Hispanics and the Future of America, 14–15 Historical context Cuban presence in U.S., 22 Hispanic immigration, 15 immigration law and policy, 27–32 Mexican presence in U.S., 21–22 Puerto Rican presence in mainland U.S., 22 race relations in Latin America, 41, 52 n10, 120 racial and ethnic identity categories, 38–40, 52 n1 roots of Hispanic culture in Americas, 20–22 Home ownership home equity value, 98, 99 trends, 68, 99, 107 Household income, 5, 93–96, 107 Hypertension, 101 I Identity, 15 assimilation process, 4–5, 37 census categories, 4, 21, 37, 38–44, 50, 51, 52 n7–8 diversity within Hispanic populations and, 4, 50, 117 economic assimilation and self-identification, 92–93 future prospects, 37, 38, 45, 50, 117–119 intermarriage issues, 80, 117–118 language and, 38, 118 media advertising and marketing, 118–119 national origin and, 37, 117 racial identification, 4, 40–45, 50, 117 terminology, 4, 16 n2, 20, 37, 40, 52 n1–3 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), 30, 31 Immigration/Immigrants access to health care, 103–104, 122–123 childbearing patterns, 25 demographic trends, 6, 19, 23–24, 25–27, 61 distinguishing features of Hispanic experience, 5–6, 15, 23, 32, 45–46, 57 earnings patterns, 90–91 educational attainment patterns, 7, 81–82 employment patterns, 67, 88 geographic distribution in U.S., 21–22 Hispanic population growth without, 25–26 language preference and proficiency patterns, 46, 47–48 political participation patterns, 71 U.S. policy, 57–58 See also Undocumented immigrants; specific immigrant group Immigration and Nationality Act (1965) (Hart-Celler Act), 29 Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986), 30–31 Infant mortality/morbidity, 101 Insurance, health future challenges, 8, 122–123

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future patterns and trends, 58, 103–106 U.S.-born children of undocumented immigrants, 32 Inter-Agency Committee on Mexican American Affairs, 39 Intermarriage assimilation process, 5 familism and, 79, 80 identity issues, 13, 80, 117–118 International comparisons, population size, 20 Ixrael, 113 J Jamaicans, 44 L Language assimilation process, 5, 7, 118 barriers to health care, 105, 106 characteristics of fluent speakers, 48 distinguishing element of Hispanic immigrant experience, 45–46 diversity within Hispanic population, 19 employment outcomes, 8, 46, 89–90, 123 ethnic self-identification and, 38, 118 generational attitudes, 48–49 immigrant patterns, 46, 47–48 non-Spanish speaking Latin Americans, 20 preschool literacy, 82–83, 123 residential segregation and, 66 significance of, 46, 123 Spanglish, 49 Spanish language use at home, 46, 48 strategies for increasing English proficiency, 7–8, 118 trends among Hispanic population, 5, 46, 48, 49–50, 118 Latino, defined, 4, 16 n2, 37 Law, immigration demand for immigrant workers and, 27, 31–32 effectiveness, 30–32 historical and conceptual evolution, 27–32 Lomas Garza, Carmen, 1 M Media advertising and marketing, 118–119, 127 n7 Medicaid, 8, 104, 122–123 Mental health, 103 Mexicans access to health care, 104 census classification, 21, 39–40 childbearing patterns, 24, 25, 79 educational performance and attainment, 82 employment trends and patterns, 66–67, 88, 90–92 ethnic/racial identity, 44 family characteristics, 24, 78–79, 122 geographic distribution, 21–22, 64, 65 health status, 100 household income, 94 infant mortality, 101 language proficiency, 46, 48, 49–50 obesity risk, 101–102 poverty patterns, 97 prenatal care, 106 size of U.S. population, 20, 21, 23 undocumented, 27–30 Mexican War, 21 Military, 16 n2 Mortality, 100–101 N Native Americans, 15 Naturalization, immigration law and rate of, 31

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future Nevada, 64, 66–67 New Jersey, 64, 66 New Mexico, 21, 64 New York, 64–65 Nicaraguans, 27, 44 North Carolina, 64 O Obesity, 8, 101–102, 111 n101, 122 Office of Management and Budget, 38–39, 41, 45 P Panamanians, 65 Paraguayans, 65 Pell grants, 58 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), 58, 111 n96 Peruvians, 27, 44 Political participation, 121 civic engagement, 70, 121 diversity of Hispanic interests, 68–69 educational issues, 69–70 Hispanic politicians, 71 strategies for increasing Hispanic effectiveness, 71–72, 73, 121 trust in government, 70, 121 voting patterns and trends, 70–71, 121 Political refugees from Central America, 26–27 from Cuba, 22 Population patterns and trends, 3, 7, 13, 19, 115 birth rate among immigrant populations, 6, 23–24, 25, 115 countries of origin, 19–20, 23, 26–27 Cuban presence in U.S., 22 immigration, 6, 19, 23–24, 25–27, 61 international comparisons, 20 Mexican presence in U.S., 20, 21–22 Puerto Rican presence in mainland U.S., 22 size of U.S. Hispanic population, 3, 6, 13, 19, 20, 22–23, 33 n1, 115 undocumented aliens, 27, 31, 33 n14 without immigration, 25–26 See also Age structure of Hispanic population; Geographic distribution Poverty rates, 96–98 Public Law 94-311, 38 Public perception and understanding of low-wage Hispanic workers, 32 teacher bias, 84 trust in government, 70 Public services, access to, 31, 32 health insurance, 104–105, 122–123 Social Security, 98 U.S. policy, 57–58 See also Access to health care; School system; Welfare Puerto Ricans, 21 access to health care, 104 census classification, 39 childbearing patterns, 24, 25, 79 educational attainment, 82 employment rate, 88, 90, 109 n43 English language proficiency, 46 ethnic/racial identity, 44 family characteristics, 24, 78–79, 122 geographic distribution of immigrant population, 21–22, 64–65 health status, 100 household income, 94 infant mortality, 101 intergenerational earnings patterns, 92 population patterns and trends, 22 poverty patterns, 97, 98 prenatal care, 106 welfare participation, 95–96

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future R Race relations future prospects, 6, 45 in Latin America, 41, 52 n10, 120 segregation patterns, 65–66 Racial identity, 40–45, 50, 117. See also Identity Religion, 16 n2 Rodriguez, Freddy, 75 S Salvadorans, 27, 44 Sanchez, Juan, cover School system, 15 ethnic distribution, 84, 87 Hispanic educators, 84 Hispanic political orientation, 69–70 teacher bias, 84 U.S. social services policy, 58 See also Educational attainment Second generation Hispanics birth outcomes, 101 childbearing patterns, 25 economic status, 91–93, 94, 124 educational attainment patterns, 81–82 ethnic/racial identity, 38, 44–45 future challenges, 116 health status, 122 intermarriage among, 80 language proficiency, 46, 47 political participation patterns, 71 population patterns and trends, 3, 6, 23, 25, 60–61, 115 social impact, 3, 60–61 September 11 terrorist attacks, 32 Service industries, 66–67 Smoking, 101 Social impact of Hispanic population trends age profile of U.S. population and, 14, 60–61, 115–116, 125, 126 consequences of underinvestment in young Hispanic population, 3–4, 8–9, 14, 15–16, 125, 126–127 future prospects, 3–4, 6, 13, 115–117, 125–127 political participation and, 121 race relations, 6, 120 Social integration future challenges, 3–4, 6, 14, 121 geographic distribution of Hispanic population and, 67–68, 120–121 Hispanic identity and, 50 intermarriage and, 80 language proficiency and, 7, 46 political participation, 68–72 public perceptions as obstacles to, 32 residential segregation and, 65–66, 67–68 U.S.-born children of undocumented immigrants, 32 See also Assimilation; Race relations Social Security participation, 98, 110 n75 Spain, 20–22 Spanglish, 49 Spanish-American War, 21 State Children’s Health Insurance Program, 8, 104, 122–123 Stock market investment, 98–99 Substance use, 103 Suicidal behavior/ideation, 103 Supplemental Security Income, 98, 110 n75 Surinam, 20 T Tax policy, 70 Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, 58 Terminology of ethnic identity, 4, 16 n2, 20, 37, 40, 52 n1–3, 119 concept of race, 40–45 Texas, 21, 64

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future Third and later generations demographic trends, 115 earnings patterns, 91–93 ethnic self-identification, 92–93, 107, 117–118 language preference and proficiency, 47–48, 49 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 21 Tufiño, Nitza, 35 U Undocumented immigrants access to health care, 103–104 access to public services, 31 amnesty programs, 30–31 countries of origin, 27 economic and political context, 27, 31–32 employment. See Undocumented workers estimated number, 27, 31, 33 n14 immigration law and policy, 27–32, 126 method of entry, 31 naturalization patterns, 31 policy challenges, 32–33, 126 recent patterns, 30 social stresses for, 32 U.S.-born children of, 32 Undocumented workers estimated number, 5 law and policy, 27–29, 31–32 sanctions on employers of, 30, 31–32 See also Undocumented immigrants Urban population educational experiences, 85 home ownership, 99 labor market trends, 67 segregation patterns, 65–66, 67–68 trends, 3, 6, 64–65 V Vaccination, 106, 111 n98 Valdez, Julio, 11 Valdez, Patssi, 55 Vargas, Kathy, 17 W Wages distribution patterns, 58–59 educational attainment and, 8–9, 14, 59, 90 generational change, 90–93 immigrant experience, 5 influences of immigrant labor, 59 minimum wage, 59 national origin and, 90 patterns and trends, 5, 59, 90 See also Economic status; Employment; Household income Welfare future prospects, 8, 124 trends, 95–96 U.S. policy, 58 Women childbearing patterns. See Childbearing patterns employment patterns and trends, 88, 90

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Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future