ASSESSMENT OF NIH MINORITY RESEARCH AND TRAINING PROGRAMS

PHASE 3

Committee for the Assessment of NIH Minority Research Training Programs

Oversight Committee for the Assessment of NIH Minority Research Training Programs

Board on Higher Education and Workforce

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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Assessment of NIH Minority Research and Training Programs: Phase 3 ASSESSMENT OF NIH MINORITY RESEARCH AND TRAINING PROGRAMS PHASE 3 Committee for the Assessment of NIH Minority Research Training Programs Oversight Committee for the Assessment of NIH Minority Research Training Programs Board on Higher Education and Workforce Policy and Global Affairs NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Assessment of NIH Minority Research and Training Programs: Phase 3 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. N01-OD-4-2139 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09575-1 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 2005931207 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Assessment of NIH Minority Research and Training Programs: Phase 3 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Assessment of NIH Minority Research and Training Programs: Phase 3 Committee for the Assessment of NIH Minority Research Training Programs John Bailar III, Co-chair, Professor Emeritus, Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago Willie Pearson, Jr., Co-chair, Professor and Chair, School of History, Technology and Society, Georgia Institute of Technology David Gordon, Professor of Pathology and Associate Dean for Diversity and Career Development, University of Michigan School of Medicine Marigold Linton, Director of American Indian Outreach, University of Kansas Craig Love, Senior Research Director, Westat Barbara Lovitts,1 Senior Research Analyst, American Institutes for Research (2001-2002), Research Associate, University of Maryland (2002-2004) Catherine Miller,2 Senior Associate, Hampshire Research Institute (2001-2002) Javier Rojo, Professor of Statistics, Rice University Terrence Russell, Executive Director, Association for Institutional Research Charles Vela, President and Chief Scientist, Expertech Solutions; President and Chief Executive Officer, Center for the Advancement of Hispanics in Science Engineering Education (CAHSEE) Study Staff Joan Esnayra, Study Director Peter Henderson, Board Director (Acting Study Director, April-May 2004 and August-November 2004) George Reinhart, Senior Program Officer (Acting Study Director, June-July 2004) Herman Alvarado, Research Associate Denise Grosshans, Senior Program Assistant Elizabeth Briggs-Huthnance, Senior Program Assistant Stacey Kozlouski, Research Assistant Patricia Santos, Senior Program Assistant 1   Resigned to take position at National Academies in 2004. 2   Resigned for family health reasons in 2002.

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Assessment of NIH Minority Research and Training Programs: Phase 3 Oversight Committee for the Assessment of NIH Minority Research Training Programs Carlos Gutiérrez, Chair, Professor, California State University, Los Angeles Freeman Hrabowski, III, President, University of Maryland, Baltimore County Georgine Pion, Professor, Vanderbilt University Staff Peter Henderson, Board Director Elizabeth Briggs-Huthnance, Senior Program Assistant Patricia Santos, Senior Program Assistant Board on Higher Education and Workforce Richard A. Tapia, Chair, Rice University Burt Barnow, Institute for Policy Studies, Johns Hopkins University Donald L. Bitzer, North Carolina State University Nancy Cantor, Syracuse University Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Cornell University Carlos G. Gutiérrez, California State University, Los Angeles Nancy B. Jackson, Sandia National Laboratories Donald L. Johnson, Grain Processing Corporation (retired) Claudia I. Mitchell-Kernan, University of California, Los Angeles Michael T. Nettles, Educational Testing Service Debra W. Stewart, The Council of Graduate Schools Tadataka Yamada, GlaxoSmithKline Staff Peter Henderson, Board Director Evelyn Simeon, Administrative Coordinator

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Assessment of NIH Minority Research and Training Programs: Phase 3 Acknowledgments The committee would like to thank the following National Institutes of Health staff for critical input to the study process: Elias Zerhouni, John Ruffin, Vincent Thomas, Walter Schaffer, Clifton Poodry, Bob Moore (retired), Lawrence Agodoa, Nelson Aguila, Fred Altman, Nell Armstrong, Robin Barr, Karen Bashir, Lula Beatty, Terry Bishop, Susan Buyer, Faye Calhoun, Mark Chavez, Janita Coen, Michael Commarato, Mary F. Curvey, Irene Eckstrand, Vivian Faden, Julia Freeman, Walter Goldschmidts, Pamela Goodlow, Alfred W. Gordon, Bettie Graham, Taylor Harden, Sandra Hatch, Karin Helmers, Milton Hernandez, Robert Huebner, Chyren Hunter, James Hyde, Lorrayne Jackson, Morgan Jackson, David Jett, Walter Jones, Henry Khachaturian, Steven Klein, Mary Leveck, Enid Light, Flair Lindsey, James Lipton, Belinda Locke, Richard Lymn, Robert Mays, Cindy Miner, Helena Mishoe, Traci Mondoro, Antonio Noronha, John Norvell, Janice Phillips, Judith Podskalny, Cynthia Pond, Suman Rao, Ann Rothgeb, Carol Shreffler, Lorraine Silsbee, Daniel Sklare, Sanya Springfield, Sidney Stahl, Carolyn Strete, Sandra Talley, Adolphus Toliver, Tina Vanderveen, Debra Wynne, and Hinda Zlotnik. Thanks also to Mary Look, Vaishali Joshi, Susan Akin, Jim Craver, Leslyn Hall, Jessica Peters, Cherie Butts, and retired Board on Biology Director, Ralph Dell, who was the inspiration for this report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: James Chromy, Research Triangle Institute; James Donaldson, Howard University; James Gavin, Emory University; Chris Golde, Carnegie Foundation; Carlos Gutiérrez, California State University, Los Angeles; Freeman Hrabowski, III, University of Maryland, Baltimore County; Manuel Martinez-Maldonado, Ponce School of Medicine; Joel Oppenheim, New York University; Jeanine Wiener-Kronish, University of California, San Francisco; and James Wyche, University of Miami. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lyle Jones, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and Georgine Pion, Vanderbilt University. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Assessment of NIH Minority Research and Training Programs: Phase 3 Contents     Summary   1      Study Charge,   2      Assessing Program Outcomes,   2       Methods,   3      Minority Training Programs: What Is Working,   6      Minority Training Programs: What Is Not Working,   7      Minority Experiences,   9       Recommendations,   9 Chapter 1   Introduction   15      Origins of the Study,   16      Study Charge,   17      Minority Underrepresentation,   18      Organization of the Report,   27 Chapter 2   Methods   29      Methods,   29      Definitions,   29      Universe of Programs,   30      Approach to Data Collection,   34 Chapter 3   Undergraduate Programs   47      Undergraduate Programs for Underrepresented Minorities,   48      Focus of the Assessment,   50      Trainee Interview Data,   50      (R25) Bridges to the Baccalaureate Program,   51      (T34) U*STAR and (T34) COR Programs,   62      Conclusion,   83 Chapter 4   Graduate Fellowships and Traineeship Programs   85      Graduate Programs for Underrepresented Minorities,   87      Focus of the Assessment,   90      Previous Program Evaluations Conducted by NIH,   91      Trainee Interview Data,   94      Interviews with Program Administrators at Recipient Institutions (PARIs),   105      (T32) NRSA Institutional Training Grant Interviews,   109      Conclusion,   119 Chapter 5   Postdoctoral Training Opportunities: Postdoctorate Fellows and Junior Faculty   121      Postgraduate Programs for Underrepresented Minorities,   123      Focus of the Assessment,   124

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Assessment of NIH Minority Research and Training Programs: Phase 3      Trainee Interviews,   125      Interviewes with PARIs about the (T32) NRSA Institutional Training Grant,   133      Conclusion,   134 Chapter 6   Perspectives of NIH Program Administrators   135      Results,   137      Conclusion,   148 Chapter 7   Findings and Recommendations   151      Findings,   152      Minority Training Programs: What Works and What Doesn’t?,   156      Recommendations,   159     Bibliography   165     Appendixes     A   Committee Biographical Sketches   169 B   2001 Census of NIH Extramural Minority Research Training Programs   173 C   Computer-Assisted Trainee Interview (CATI) Questionnaire for Graduate Trainees   177 D   Interview Instruments for Training Program Administrators   207 E   Survey Universe by Gender, 1970-1999   223 F   Number of Trainees, by Race/Ethnicity and Mechanism, for all NIH Institutes and Centers, 1999-2003   225 G   Trainees Percentages, by Race/Ethnicity and Mechanism, for all NIH Institutes and Centers, 1999-2003   227

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Assessment of NIH Minority Research and Training Programs: Phase 3 List of Tables and Figures Tables Table 1-1   Doctorates in Biological Sciences Awarded to U.S. Citizens or Permanent Residents by Race or Ethnicity and Major Field of Study: 1994-2003   20 Table 1-2   Doctorates in Psychology Awarded to U.S. Citizens or Permanent Residents by Race or Ethnicity and Major Field of Study: 1994-2003   20 Table 2-1   Reasons for Excluding Minority Training Programs from the Study   31 Table 2-2   Training Programs Examined in the Study   33 Table 2-3   Number of Trainees in Program Universe, 1970-1999   40 Table 2-4   Number in Sample Size and Sampling Outcomes for NIH Minority Research and Training Survey by Trainee Level   43 Table 3-1   Undergraduate Trainee Universe, Survey Pool, and Interviews   51 Table 3-2   Indicators of Degree Progress for Ten (T-34) COR Institutional Programs   82 Table 3-3   Detailed Indicators of Degree Progress for Three (T-34) COR Institutional Programs   82 Table 4-1   Postgraduate Training of F31 MARC Predoctoral Scholars, 1981-1993   93 Table 4-2   Research Involvement of F31 MARC Predoctoral Scholars, 1981-1993   93 Table 4-3   Graduate Fellows and Trainees by Program, Race/Ethnicity in the Universe and Sample, and Race/Ethnicity as Self-Identified in Interviews   95 Table 5-1   Postdoctoral Trainees and Junior Faculty by Program, Race/Ethnicity in the Universe and Sample, and Race/Ethnicity as Self-Identified in Interviews   127 Figures Figure 1-1   The NIH training pipeline   27

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