Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 337
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 References Abramson, D.H., M.R. Melson, L.J. Dunkel, and C.M. Frank. 2001. Third (fourth and fifth) tumours in survivors of retinoblastoma. Ophthalmology 108:1868-1876. Acquavella, J.F., L.D. Wiggs, R.J. Waxweiler, D.G. Macdonell, G.L. Tietjen, and G.S. Wilkinson. 1985. Mortality among workers at the Pantex weapons facility. Health Phys 48:735-746. Adams, N., and W.A. Langmead. 1962. An Investigation into the Accuracy Attained in Routine Film-Badge Dosimetry at UKAEA Establishments. Authority Health and Safety Branch Report. Harwell, UK: United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Aghamohammadi, S.Z., and J.R. Savage. 1991. A BrdU pulse double-labelling method for studying adaptive response. Mutat Res 251:133-141. Aghamohammadi, S.Z., T. Morris, D.L. Stevens, and J. Thacker. 1992. Rapid screening for deletion mutations in the hprt gene using the polymerase chain reaction: x-ray and alpha-particle mutant spectra. Mutat Res 269:1-7. Alam, N.A., S. Bevan, M. Churchman, E. Barclay, K. Barker, E.E. Jaeger, H.M. Nelson, E. Healy, A.C. Pembroke, P.S. Friedmann, K. Dalziel, E. Calonje, J. Anderson, P.J. August, M.G. Davies, R. Felix, C.S. Munro, M. Murdoch, J. Rendall, S. Kennedy, I.M. Leigh, D.P. Kelsell, I.P. Tomlinson, and R.S. Houlston. 2001. Localization of a gene (MCUL1) for multiple cutaneous leiomyomata and uterine fibroids to chromosome 1q42.3-q43. Am J Hum Genet 68:1264-1269. Allan, J.M., C.P. Wild, S. Rollinson, E.V. Willett, A.V. Moorman, G.J. Dovey, P.L. Roddam, E. Roman, R.A. Cartwright, and G.J. Morgan. 2001. Polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase P1 is associated with susceptibility to chemotherapy-induced leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:11592-11597. Alper, T., C. Mothersill, and C.B. Seymour. 1988. Lethal mutations attributable to misrepair of Q-lesions. Int J Radiat Biol 54:525-530. Amundson, S.A., and D.J. Chen. 1996. Inverse dose-rate effect for mutation induction by gamma-rays in human lymphoblasts. Int J Radiat Biol 69:555-563. Amundson, S.A., and H.L. Liber. 1991. A comparison of induced mutations at homologous alleles of the tk locus in human cells. Mutat Res 247: 19-27. Amundson, S.A., M. Bittner, Y. Chen, J. Trent, P. Meltzer, and A.J. Fornace Jr. 1999a. Fluorescent cDNA microarray hybridization reveals complexity and heterogeneity of cellular genotoxic stress responses. Oncogene 18:3666-3672. Amundson, S.A., K.T. Do, and A.J. Fornace Jr. 1999b. Induction of stress genes by low doses of gamma rays. Radiat Res 152:225-231. Anderson, R.M., S.J. Marsden, E.G. Wright, M.A. Kadhim, D.T. Goodhead, and C.S. Griffin. 2000. Complex chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a potential biomarker of exposure to high-LET alpha-particles. Int J Radiat Biol 76:31-42. Anderson, R.N., and P.B. DeTurk. 2002. United States Life Tables, National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 50, Number 6, 1-12. Available online at www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr50/nvsr50_06.pdf. Andersson, M., G. Engholm, K. Ennow, K.A. Jessen, and H.H. Storm. 1991. Cancer risk among staff at two radiotherapy departments in Denmark. Brit J Radiol 64:455-460. Angel, J.M., N. Popova, N. Lanko, V.S. Turusov, and J. DiGiovanni. 2000. A locus that influences susceptibility to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumors maps to the distal end of mouse chromosome 3. Mol Carcinogen 27:47-54. Antoniou, A.C., P.D. Pharoah, G. McMullan, N.E. Day, M.R. Stratton, J. Peto, B.J. Ponder, and D.F. Easton. 2002. A comprehensive model for familial breast cancer incorporating BRCA1, BRCA2 and other genes. Brit J Cancer 86:76-83. Appleby, J.M., J.B. Barber, E. Levine, J.M. Varley, A.M. Taylor, T. Stankovic, J. Heighway, C. Warren, and D. Scott. 1997. Absence of mutations in the ATM gene in breast cancer patients with severe responses to radiotherapy. Brit J Cancer 76:1546-1549. Arai, T., T. Nakano, K. Fukuhisa, T. Kasamatsu, R. Tsunematsu, K. Masubuchi, K. Yamauchi, T. Hamada, T. Fukuda, H. Noguchi, and M. Murata. 1991. Second cancer after radiation therapy for cancer of the uterine cervix. Cancer 67:394-405. Armitage, P. 1985. Biometry and medical statistics. Biometrics 41:823-833. Armitage, P., and R. Doll. 1954. The age distribution of cancer and a multistage theory of carcinogenesis. Brit J Cancer 8:1-12. Armitage, P., and R. Doll. 1957. A two-stage theory of carcinogenesis in relation to the age distribution of human cancer. Brit J Cancer 11: 161-169. Armitage, P., and R. Doll. 1961. Stochastic models for carcinogenesis. Pp. 18-38 in Proceedings of the Fourth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Vol. 4. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Armour, J.A., M.H. Brinkworth, and A. Kamischke. 1999. Direct analysis by small-pool PCR of MS205 minisatellite mutation rates in sperm after mutagenic therapies. Mutat Res 445:73-80. Aromaa, A., T.U. Kosunen, P. Knekt, J. Maatela, L. Teppo, O.P. Heinonen, M. Harkonen, and M.K. Hakama. 1996. Circulating anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin A anitbodies and low serum pepsinogen I level are associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Am J Epidemiol 144:142-149. Arseneau, J. C., R. W. Sponzo, D. L. Levin, L. E. Schnipper, H. Bonner, R. C. Young, G. P. Canellos, R. E. Johnson, and V. T. DeVita. 1972. Nonlymphomatous malignant tumors complicating Hodgkin’s disease. Possible association with intensive therapy. N Engl J Med 287: 1119-22.
OCR for page 338
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Artalejo, F.R., S.C. Lara, B. de Andres Manzano, M.G. Ferruelo, L.I. Martin, and J.R. Calero. 1997. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation and mortality among workers of the former Spanish Nuclear Energy Board. Occup Environ Med 54:202-208. Artandi, S.E., S. Chang, S.L. Lee, S. Alson, G.J. Gottlieb, L. Chin, and R.A. DePinho. 2000. Telomere dysfunction promotes non-reciprocal translocations and epithelial cancers in mice. Nature 406:641-645. Ashizawa, K., Y. Shibata, S. Yamashita, H. Namba, M. Hoshi, N. Yokoyama, M. Izumi, and S. Nagataki. 1997. Prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine excretion levels in children around Chernobyl. J Clin Endocr Metab 82:3430-3433. Ashmore, J.P., D. Krewski, J.M. Zielinski, H. Jiang, R. Semenciw, and P.R. Band. 1998. First analysis of mortality and occupational radiation exposure based on the National Dose Registry of Canada. Am J Epidemiol 148:564-574. Astakhova, L.N., L.R. Anspaugh, G.W. Beebe, A. Bouville, V.V. Drozdovitch, V. Garber, Y.I. Gavrilin, V.T. Khrouch, A.V. Kuvshinnikov, Y.N. Kuzmenkov, V.P. Minenko, K.V. Moschik, A.S. Nalivko, J. Robbins, E.V. Shemiakina, S. Shinkarev, S.I. Tochitskaya, and M.A. Waclawiw. 1998. Chernobyl-related thyroid cancer in children of Belarus: a case-control study. Radiat Res 150:349-356. Aszterbaum, M., J. Epstein, A. Oro, V. Douglas, P.E. LeBoit, M.P. Scott, and E.H. Epstein Jr. 1999. Ultraviolet and ionizing radiation enhance the growth of BCCs and trichoblastomas in patched heterozygous knockout mice. Nat Med 5:1285-1291. Atkinson, W.D., D.V. Law, K.J. Bromley, and H.M. Inskip. 2004. Mortality of employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, 1946-97. Occup Environ Med 61:577-585. Austin, D.F., and P. Reynolds. 1997. Investigation of an excess of melanoma among employees of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Am J Epidemiol 145:524-531. Auvinen, A., M. Hakama, H. Arvela, T. Hakulinen, T. Rahola, M. Suomela, B. Soderman, and T. Rytomaa. 1994. Fallout from Chernobyl and incidence of childhood leukaemia in Finland, 1976-92. Brit Med J 309: 151-154. Auvinen, A., E. Pukkala, H. Hyvonen, M. Hakama, and T. Rytomaa. 2002. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers. J Occ Env Med 44:634-638. Azzam, E.I., G.P. Raaphorst, and R.E.J. Mitchel. 1994. Radiation-induced adaptive response for protection against micronucleus formation and neoplastic transformation in C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo cells. Radiat Res 138:S28-S31. Azzam, E.I., S.M. de Toledo, G.P. Raaphorst, and R.E.J. Mitchel. 1996. Low-dose ionizing radiation decreases the frequency of neoplastic transformation to a level below the spontaneous rate in C3H 10T1/2 cells. Radiat Res 146:369-373. Azzam, E.I., S.M. de Toledo, T. Gooding, and J.B. Little. 1998. Intercellular communication is involved in the bystander regulation of gene expression in human cells exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles. Radiat Res 150:497-504. Azzam, E.I., S.M. de Toledo, D.R. Spitz, and J.B. Little. 2002. Oxidative metabolism modulates signal transduction and micronucleus formation in bystander cells from alpha-particle-irradiated normal human fibroblast cultures. Cancer Res 62:5436-5442. Bacchetti, S. 1996. Telomere maintenance in tumour cells. Cancer Surv 28:197-216. Backlund, M.G., S.L. Trasti, D.C. Backlund, V.L. Cressman, V. Godfrey, and B.H. Koller. 2001. Impact of ionizing radiation and genetic background on mammary tumorigenesis in p53-deficient mice. Cancer Res 61:6577-6582. Bacq, Z.M., and P. Alexander. 1961. Fundamentals of Radiobiology. New York: Pergamon Press. Bailey, S.M., J. Meyne, D.J. Chen, A. Kurimasa, G.C. Li, B.E. Lehnert, and E.H. Goodwin. 1999. DNA double-strand break repair proteins are required to cap the ends of mammalian chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:14899. Bailey, S.M., M.A. Brenneman, J. Halbrook, J.A. Nickoloff, R.L. Ullrich, and E.H. Goodwin. 2004a. The kinase activity of DNA-PK is required to protect mammalian telomeres. DNA Repair (Amst) 3:225-233. Bailey, S.M., M.N. Cornforth, R.L. Ullrich, and E.H. Goodwin. 2004b. Dysfunctional mammalian telomeres join with DNA double-strand breaks. DNA Repair (Amst) 3:349-357. Baird, P.A., T.W. Anderson, H.B. Newcombe, and R.B. Lowry. 1988. Genetic disorders in children and young adults: a population study. Am J Hum Genet 42:677-693. Baker, T.G. 1971. Comparative aspects of the effects of radiation during oogenesis. Mutat Res 11:9-22. Bakkenist, C.J., and M.B. Kastan. 2003. DNA damage activates ATM through intermolecular autophosphorylation and dimer dissociation. Nature 421:499-506. Balmain, A., and H. Nagase. 1998. Cancer resistance genes in mice: models for the study of tumour modifiers. Trends Genet 14:139-144. Balmain, A., J. Gray, and B. Ponder. 2003. The genetics and genomics of cancer. Nat Genet 33(Suppl):238-244. Barber, R., M. Plumb, A.G. Smith, C.E. Cesar, E. Boulton, A.J. Jeffreys, and Y.E. Dubrova. 2000. No correlation between germline mutation at repeat DNA and meiotic crossover in male mice exposed to x-rays or cisplatin. Mutat Res 457:79-91. Barber, R., M.A. Plumb, E. Boulton, I. Roux, and Y.E. Dubrova. 2002. Elevated mutation rates in the germ line of first- and second-generation offspring of irradiated male mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:6877-6882. Baria, K., C. Warren, S.A. Roberts, C.M. West, and D. Scott. 2001. Chromosomal radiosensitivity as a marker of predisposition to common cancers? Brit J Cancer 84:892-896. Barlow, C., S. Hirotsune, R. Paylor, M. Liyanage, M. Eckhaus, F. Collins, Y. Shiloh, J.N. Crawley, T. Reid, D. Tagle, and A. Wynshaw-Boris. 1996. Atm-deficient mice: a paradigm of ataxia-telangiectasia. Cell 86:159-171. Barlow, C., P.A. Dennery, M.K. Shigenaga, M.A. Smith, J.D. Morrow, L.J. Roberts 2nd, A. Wynshaw-Boris, and R.L. Levine. 1999. Loss of the ataxia-telangiectasia gene product causes oxidative damage in target organs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:9915-9919. Barquinero, J.F., L. Barrios, M.R. Caballin, R. Miro, M. Ribas, A. Subias, and J. Egozcue. 1995. Occupational exposure to radiation induces an adaptive response in human lymphocytes. Int J Radiat Biol 67:187-191. Bartsch, H., M. Hollstein, R. Mustonen, J. Schmidt, A. Spiethoff, H. Wesch, T. Wiethege, and K.M. Muller. 1995. Screening for putative radon-specific p53 mutation hotspot in German uranium miners. Lancet 346:121. Basco, V.E., A.J. Coldman, J.M. Elwood, and M.E. Young. 1985. Radiation dose and second breast cancer. Brit J Cancer 52:319-325. Bauchinger, M., E. Schmid, S. Streng, and J. Dresp. 1983. Quantitative analysis of the chromosome damage at first division of human lymphocytes after 60CO gamma-irradiation. Radiat Environ Bioph 22:225-229. Baumann, P., and S.C. West. 1998. DNA end-joining catalyzed by human cell-free extracts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:14066-14070. Baverstock, K., B. Egloff, A. Pinchera, C. Ruchti, and D. Williams. 1992. Thyroid cancer after Chernobyl. Nature 359:21-22. Beauchesne, P.D., S. Bertrand, R. Branche, S.P. Linke, R. Revel, J.F. Dore, and R.M. Pedeux. 2003. Human malignant glioma cell lines are sensitive to low radiation doses. Int J Cancer 105:33-40. Bebeshko, V.G., E.M. Bruslova, V.I. Klimenko, and others. 1997. Leukemias and lymphomas in Ukraine population exposed to chronic low dose irradiation. Pp. 337-338 in Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control. Contributed papers. International Conference held in Seville, Spain. IAEA-TECDOC-976. Beckman, K.B., and B.N. Ames. 1997. Oxidative decay of DNA. J Biol Chem 272:19633-19636. Bedford, J.S., and W.C. Dewey. 2002. Radiation Research Society. 1952-2002. Historical and current highlights in radiation biology: has anything important been learned by irradiating cells? Radiat Res 158:251-291.
OCR for page 339
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Bell, G.I., S. Horita, and J.H. Karam. 1984. A polymoprhic locus near the human insulin gene is associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 31:176-183. Belyaev, I.Y., and M. Harms-Ringdahl. 1996. Effects of gamma rays in the 0.5-50-cGy range on the conformation of chromatin in mammalian cells. Radiat Res 145:687-693. Belyakov, O.V., A.M. Malcolmson, M. Folkard, K.M. Prise, and B.D. Michael. 2001. Direct evidence for a bystander effect of ionizing radiation in primary human fibroblasts. Brit J Cancer 84:674-679. Bender, M.A., H.G. Griggs, and J.S. Bedford. 1974. Mechanisms of chromosomal aberration production. 3. Chemicals and ionizing radiation. Mutat Res 23:197-212. Bennett, R.A., D.M. Wilson 3rd, D. Wong, and B. Demple. 1997. Interaction of human apurinic endonuclease and DNA polymerase beta in the base excision repair pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:7166-7169. Bennett, S.T., A.M. Lucassen, S.C. Gough, E.E. Powell, D.E. Undlien, L.E. Pritchard, M.E. Merriman, Y. Kawaguchi, M.J. Dronsfield, F. Pociot, and 1 other. 1995. Susceptibility to human type 1 diabetes at IDDM2 is determined by tandem repeat variation at the insulin gene minisatellite locus. Nat Genet 9:284-292. Bennett, W.P., M.C. Alavanja, B. Blomeke, K.H. Vahakangas, K. Castren, J.A. Welsh, E.D. Bowman, M.A. Khan, D.B. Flieder, and C.C. Harris. 1999. Environmental tobacco smoke, genetic susceptibility, and risk of lung cancer in never-smoking women. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:2009-2014. Beral, V., H. Inskip, P. Fraser, M. Booth, D. Coleman, and G. Rose. 1985. Mortality of employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, 1946-1979. Brit Med J (Clin Res Ed) 291:440-447. Beral, V., P. Fraser, L. Carpenter, M. Booth, A. Brown, and G. Rose. 1988. Mortality of employees of the Atomic Weapons Establishment, 1951-1982. Brit Med J 297:757-770. Berrington, A., S.C. Darby, H.A. Weiss, and R. Doll. 2001. 100 years of observation on British radiologists: mortality from cancer and other causes 1897-1997. Brit J Radiol 74:507-519. Bertoni, L., C. Attolini, L. Tessera, E. Mucciolo, and E. Giulotto. 1994. Telomeric and nontelomeric (TTAGGG) n sequences in gene amplification and chromosome stability. Genomics 24:53-62. Bettega, D., P. Calzolari, A. Ottolenghi, E. Rimoldi, and L. Tallone Lombardi. 1989. Cell density dependence of transformation frequencies in C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to x-rays. Int J Radiat Biol 56:989-998. Billen, D. 1990. Spontaneous DNA damage and its significance for the “negligible dose” controversy in radiation protection. Radiat Res 124:242-245. Binks, K., D.I. Thomas, and D. McElvenny. 1989. Mortality of workers at Chapelcross plant of British Nuclear Fuels Limited. Cancer 67:615-624. Birdwell, S.H., S.L. Hancock, A. Verghese, R.S. Cox, and R.T. Hoppe. 1997. Gastrointestinal cancer after treatment of Hodgkin’s disease. Int J Radiat Oncol 37:67-73. Birrell, G.W., G. Giaever, A.M. Chu, R.W. Davis, and J.M. Brown. 2001. A genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for genes affecting UV radiation sensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:12608-12613. Birrell, G.W., J.A. Brown, H.I. Wu, G. Giaever, A.M. Chu, R.W. Davis, and J.M. Brown. 2002. Transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to DNA-damaging agents does not identify the genes that protect against these agents. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:8778-8783. Bishayee, A., D.V. Rao, and R.W. Howell. 1999. Evidence for pronounced bystander effects caused by nonuniform distributions of radioactivity using a novel three-dimesional tissue culture model. Radiat Res 152: 88-97. Bishop, D.T. 1990. Multifactorial inheritance. Pp. 165-174 in Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics. New York: Churchill Livingstone. Bishop, D.T., and J. Hopper. 1997. AT-tributable risks? Nat Genet 15:226. Bishop, J.M. 1991. Molecular themes in oncogenesis. Cell 64:235-248. Bithell, J.F. 1989. Epidemiological studies of children irradiated in utero. Pp. 77-87 in Low Dose Radiation: Biological Bases of Risk Assessment, K.F. Baverstock and J.W. Stather, eds. London: Taylor & Francis. Bithell, J.F. 1990. An application of density estimation to geographical epidemiology. Stat Med 9:691-701. Bithell, J.F. 1993. Statistical issues in assessing the evidence associating obstetric irradiation and childhood malignancy. Pp. 53-60 in Neue Bewertung des Strahlenriskos: Niedrigdosis-Strahlung und Gesundheit, E. Lengfelder and H. Wendhausen, eds. Munich: MMV Medizin Verlag. Bithell, J.F., and A.M. Stewart. 1975. Pre-natal irradiation and childhood malignancy: a review of British data from the Oxford Survey. Brit J Cancer 31:271-287. Bithell, J.F., S.J. Dutton, G.J. Draper, and N.M. Neary. 1994. Distribution of childhood leukaemias and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas near nuclear installations in England and Wales. Brit Med J 309:501-505. Black, R.J., J.D. Urquhart, S.W. Kendrick, K.J. Bunch, J. Warner, and D.A. Jones. 1992. Incidence of leukaemia and other cancers in birth and schools cohorts in the Dounreay area. Brit Med J 304:1401-1405. Black, R.J., L. Sharp, E.F. Harkness, and P.A. McKinney. 1994a. Leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: incidence in children and young adults resident in the Dounreay area of Caithness, Scotland in 1968-91. J Epidemiol Commun H 48:232-236. Black R.J., L. Sharp, A.R. Finlayson, E.F. Harkness. 1994b. Cancer incidence in a population potentially exposed to radium-226 at Dalgety Bay, Scotland. Brit J Cancer 69:140-143. Blackburn, E.H. 2000. Telomere states and cell fates. Nature 408:53-56. Blaisdell, J.O., and S.S. Wallace. 2001. Abortive base-excision repair of radiation-induced clustered DNA lesions in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:7426-7430. Blake, J.A., J.T. Eppig, J.E. Richardson, and M.T. Davisson. 2000. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): expanding genetic and genomic resources for the laboratory mouse. The Mouse Genome Database Group. Nucleic Acids Res 28:108-111. Blattner, C., A. Knebel, A. Radler-Pohl, C. Sachsenmaier, P. Herrlich, and H.J. Rahmsdorf. 1994. DNA damaging agents and growth factors induce changes in the program of expressed gene products through common routes. Environ Mol Mutagen 24:3-10. Blattner, C., E. Tobiasch, M. Litfen, H.J. Rahmsdorf, and P. Herrlich. 1999. DNA damage induced p53 stabilization: no indication for an involvement of p53 phosphorylation. Oncogene 18:1723-1732. Blettner, M., and H. Zeeb. 1999. Epidemiological studies among pilots and cabin crew. Radiat Prot Dosimet 86:269-273. Blettner, M., B. Grosche, and H. Zeeb. 1998. Occupational cancer risk in pilots and flight attendants: current epidemiological knowledge. Radiat Environ Bioph 37:75-80. Bleuer, J.P., Y.I. Averkin, and T. Abelin. 1997. Chernobyl-related thyroid cancer: what evidence for role of short-lived iodines. Environ Health Persp 105:1483-1486. BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory). Conard, R.A., D.E. Peglia, P.R. Larson, and others. 1980. Review of Medical Findings in a Marshallese Population Twenty-Six Years after Accidental Exposure to Radioactive Fallout. BNL 51261. Upton, NY: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Boice, J.D., Jr., and R.W. Miller. 1992. Risk of breast cancer in ataxiatelangiectasia. New Engl J Med 326:1357-1358; discussion 1360-1361. Boice, J.D., Jr., and R.W. Miller. 1999. Childhood and adult cancer after intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation. Teratology 59:227-233. Boice, J.D., Jr., M. Rosenstein, and E.D. Trout. 1978. Estimation of breast doses and breast cancer risk associated with repeated fluoroscopic chest examinations of women with tuberculosis. Radiat Res 73:373-390. Boice, J.D., Jr., N.E. Day, A. Andersen, L.A. Brinton, R. Brown, N.W. Choi, E.A. Clarke, M.P. Coleman, R.E. Curtis, J.T. Flannery, M. Hakama, T. Hakulinen, G.R. Howe, O.M. Jensen, R.A. Kleinerman, D. Magnin, K. Magnus, K. Mäkelä, B. Malker, A.B. Miller, N. Nelson, C.C. Patterson, F. Pettersson, V. Pompe-Kirn, M. Primic-Zakelj, P. Prior, B. Ravnihar, R.G. Skeet, J.E. Skjerven, P.G. Smith, M. Sok, R.F. Spengler, H.H. Storm, M. Stovall, G.W.O. Tomkins, and C. Wall. 1985. Second cancers following radiation treatment for cervical cancer. An international collaboration among cancer registries. J Natl Cancer Inst 74:955-975.
OCR for page 340
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Boice, J.D., Jr., M. Blettner, R.A. Kleinerman, M. Stovall, W.C. Moloney, G. Engholm, D.F. Austin, A. Bosch, D.L. Cookfair, E.T. Krementz, H.B. Latourette, L.J. Peters, M.D. Schulz, M. Lundell, F. Pettersson, H.H. Storm, J. Bell, M.P. Coleman, P. Fraser, M. Palmer, P. Prior, N.W. Choi, T.G. Hilsop, M. Kock, D. Robb, D. Robson, R.F. Spengler, M. von Fournier, R. Frischkorn, H. Lochmuller, V. Pompe-Kirn, A. Rimpela, M. Kjorstad, H. Pejovic, K. Sigurdsson, P. Pisani, H. Kucera, and G.B. Hutchison. 1987. Radiation dose and leukemia risk in patients treated for cancer of the cervix. J Natl Cancer Inst 79:1295-1311. Boice, J.D., Jr., G. Engholm, R.A. Kleinerman, M. Blettner, M. Stovall, H. Lisco, W.C. Moloney, D.F. Austin, A. Bosch, D.L. Cookfair, E.T. Krementz, H.B. Latourette, J.A. Merrill, L.J. Peters, M.D. Schulz, H.H. Storm, E. Björkholm, F. Pettersson, C.M.J. Bell, M.P. Coleman, P. Fraser, F.E. Neal, P. Prior, N.W. Choi, T.G. Hislop, M. Koch, N. Kreiger, D. Robb, D. Robson, D.H. Thomson, H. Lochmüller, D. von Fournier, R. Frischkorn, K.E. Kjørstad, A. Rimpela, M.H. Pejovic, V. Pompe Kirn, H. Stankusova, F. Berrino, K. Sigurdsson, G.B. Hutchison, and B. MacMahon. 1988. Radiation dose and second cancer risk in patients treated for cancer of the cervix. Radiat Res 116:3-55. Boice, J.D., Jr., M. Blettner, R.A. Kleinerman, G. Engholm, M. Stovall, H. Lisco, D.F. Austin, A. Bosch, L. Harlan, E.T. Krementz, and J. Wactawski-Wende. 1989. Radiation dose and breast cancer risk in patients treated for cancer of the cervix. Int J Cancer 44:7-16. Boice, J.D., Jr., M.M. Morin, A.G. Glass, G.D. Friedman, M. Stovall, R.N. Hoover, and J.F. Fraumeni. 1991a. Diagnostic x-ray procedures and risk of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. J Am Med Assoc 265:1290-1294. Boice, J.D., Jr., D. Preston, F.G. Davis, and R.R. Monson. 1991b. Frequent chest x-ray fluoroscopy and breast cancer incidence among tuberculosis patients in Massachusetts. Radiat Res 125:214-222. Boice, J.D., Jr., E.B. Harvey, M. Blettner, M. Stovall, and J.T. Flannery. 1992. Cancer in the contralateral breast after radiotherapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med 326:781-785. Boice, J.D., Jr., M. Blettner, and A. Auvinen. 2000. Epidemiologic studies of pilots and aircrew. Health Phys 79:576-584. Bois, P., J.D. Stead, S. Bakshi, J. Williamson, R. Neumann, B. Moghadaszadeh, and A.J. Jeffreys. 1998a. Isolation and characterization of mouse minisatellites. Genomics 50:317-330. Bois, P., J. Williamson, J. Brown, Y.E. Dubrova, and A.J. Jeffreys. 1998b. A novel unstable mouse VNTR family expanded from SINE B1 elements. Genomics 49:122-128. Boivin, J., and G.B. Hutchison. 1982. Coronary heart disease mortality after irradiation for Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer 49:2470-2475. Boivin, J.F., G.B. Hutchison, M. Lyden, J. Godbold, J. Chorosh, and D. Schottenfeld. 1984. Second primary cancers following treatment of Hodgkin’s disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 72:233-241. Boland, C.R., J. Sato, H.D. Appelman, R.S. Bresalier, and A.P. Feinberg. 1995. Microallelotyping defines the sequence and tempo of allelic losses at tumour suppressor gene loci during colorectal cancer progression. Nat Med 1:902-909. Bonassi, S., A. Abbondandolo, L. Camurri, L. Dalpra, M. DeFerrari, F. Degrassi, L. Lamberti, C. Lando, P. Padovani, I. Sbrana, D. Vecchio, and R. Puntoni. 1995. Are chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes predictive of future cancer onset in humans. Cancer Genet Cytogen 79:133-135. Bond, V.P., C.B. Meinhold, and H.H. Rossi. 1978. Low-dose RBE and Q for x-ray compared to gamma-ray radiations. Health Phys 34:433-438. Bondy, M.L., A.P. Kyritsis, J. Gu, M. de Andrade, J. Cunningham, V.A. Levin, J.M. Bruner, and Q. Wei. 1996. Mutagen sensitivity and risk of gliomas: a case-control analysis. Cancer Res 56:1484-1486. Bongarzone, I., M.G. Butti, L. Fugazzola, F. Pacini, A. Pinchera, T.V. Vorontsova, E.P. Demidchik, and M.A. Pierotti. 1997. Comparison of the breakpoint regions of ELE1 and RET genes involved in the generation of RET/PTC3 oncogene in sporadic and in radiation-associated papillary thyroid carcinomas. Genomics 42:252-259. Bonser, G., and J. Jull. 1977. Tumors of the ovary. Pp. 129-184 in The Ovary, L. Zuckerman and B. Weir, eds. New York: Academic Press. Boothman, D.A., M. Meyers, N. Fukunaga, and S.W. Lee. 1993. Isolation of x-ray inducible transcripts from radioresistant human melanoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:7200-7204. Borek, C., E.J. Hall, and M. Zaider. 1983. X rays may be twice as potent as gamma rays for malignant transformation at low doses. Nature 301: 156-158. Bose, A., and G. Olivieri. 1989. Variability of the adaptive response to ionizing radiations in humans. Mutat Res 211:13-17. Boudaiffa, B., P. Cloutier, D. Hunting, M.A. Huels, and L. Sanche. 2000. Resonant formation of DNA strand breaks by low-energy (3 to 20 eV) electrons. Science 287:1658-1660. Bouffler, S.D. 1998. Involvement of telomeric sequences in chromosomal aberrations. Mutat Res 404:199-204. Bouffler, S.D., A. Silver, D. Papworth, J. Coates, and R. Cox. 1991. Murine radiation myeloid leukemogenesis: relationship between interstitial telomere like sequences and chromosome 2 fragile sites. Gene Chromosome Canc 6:90-106. Bouffler, S.D., C.J. Kemp, A. Balmain, and R. Cox. 1995. Spontaneous and ionizing radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in p53-deficient mice. Cancer Res 55:3883-3889. Bouffler, S.D., G. Breckon, and R. Cox. 1996. Chromosomal mechanisms in murine radiation acute myeloid leukaemogenesis. Carcinogenesis 17:655-659. Bouffler, S.D., E.I. Meijne, D.J. Morris, and D. Papworth. 1997. Chromosome 2 hypersensitivity and clonal development in murine radiation acute myeloid leukaemia. Int J Radiat Biol 72:181-189. Bouffler, S.D., J.W. Haines, A.A. Edwards, J.D. Harrison, and R. Cox. 2001. Lack of detectable transmissible chromosomal instability after in vivo or in vitro exposure of mouse bone marrow cells to 224Ra alpha particles. Radiat Res 155:345-352. Boulton, E., H. Cleary, D. Papworth, and M. Plumb. 2001. Susceptibility to radiation-induced leukaemia/lymphoma is genetically separable from sensitivity to radiation-induced genomic instability. Int J Radiat Biol 77:21-29. Bounacer, A., R. Wicker, B. Caillou, A.F. Cailleux, A. Sarasin, M. Schlumberger, and H.G. Suarez. 1997. High prevalence of activating ret proto-oncogene rearrangements, in thyroid tumors from patients who had received external radiation. Oncogene 15:1263-1273. Boutou, O., A.V. Guizard, R. Slama, D. Pottier, and A. Spira. 2002. Population mixing and leukaemia in young people around the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant. Brit J Cancer 87:740-745. Box, H.C., H.G. Freund, E.E. Budzinski, J.C. Wallace, and A.E. Maccubbin. 1995. Free radical-induced double base lesions. Radiat Res 141:91-94. Bradley, W.E., A. Belouchi, and K. Messing. 1988. The aprt heterozygote/hemizygote system for screening mutagenic agents allows detection of large deletions. Mutat Res 199:131-138. Branch, P., D.C. Bicknell, A. Rowan, W.F. Bodmer, and P. Karran. 1995. Immune surveillance in colorectal carcinoma. Nat Genet 9:231-232. Breckon, G., and R. Cox. 1990. Alpha particle leukaemogenesis. Lancet 335:656-657. Breckon, G., D. Papworth, and R. Cox. 1991. Murine radiation myeloid leukemogenesis: a possible role for radiation sensitive sites on chromosome 2. Gene Chromosome Canc 3:367-375. Brenner, D.J. 1999. Does fractionation decrease the risk of breast cancer induced by low-LET radiation? Radiat Res 151:225-229. Brenner, D.J., and C.D. Elliston. 2004. Estimated radiation risks potentially associated with full-body CT screening. Radiology 232:735-738. Brenner, D.J., and J.F. Ward. 1995. Constraints on energy deposition and target size of multiple-damaged sites associated with DNA DSB. Pp. 443-446 in Radiat Res 1895-1995, Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Radiation Research, Vol. 2, U. Hagen and others, eds.
OCR for page 341
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Brenner, D.J., P. Hahnfeldt, S.A. Amundson, and R.K. Sachs. 1996. Interpretation of inverse dose-rate effects for mutagenesis by sparsely ionizing radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 70:447-458. Brenner, D.J., C. Elliston, E. Hall, and W. Berdon. 2001. Estimated risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer from pediatric CT. Am J Roentgenology 176:289-296. Brewen, J.G., H.S. Payne, and R.J. Preston. 1976. X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in mouse dictyate oocytes. I. Time and dose relationships. Mutat Res 35:111-120. Brewer, C., S. Holloway, P. Zawalnyski, A. Schinzel, and D. FitzPatrick. 1998. A chromosomal deletion map of human malformations. Am J Hum Genet 63:1153-1159. Bridges, B.A. 2001. Radiation and germline mutation at repeat sequences: are we in the middle of a paradigm shift? Radiat Res 156:631-641. Brill, A.G., M. Tomonaga, and R.M. Heyssel. 1962. Leukemia in man following exposure to ionizing radiation. A summary of the findings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and a comparison with other human experience. Ann Intern Med 56:590-609. Broeks, A., N.S. Russell, A.N. Floore, J.H. Urbanus, E.C. Dahler, M.B. van’t Veer, A. Hagenbeek, E.M. Noordijk, M.A. Crommelin, F.E. van Leeuwen, and L.J. van’t Veer. 2000. Increased risk of breast cancer following irradiation for Hodgkin’s disease is not a result of ATM germline mutations. Int J Radiat Biol 76:693-698. Broerse, J.J., and G.B. Gerber. 1982. Neutron carcinogenesis. Commission of the European Communities Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development Luxembourg. Broome, E.J., D.L. Brown, and R.E. Mitchel. 1999. Adaptation of human fibroblasts to radiation alters biases in DNA repair at the chromosomal level. Int J Radiat Biol 75:681-690. Broome, E.J., D.L. Brown, and R.E. Mitchel. 2002. Dose responses for adaption to low doses of (60)Co gamma rays and (3)H beta particles in normal human fibroblasts. Radiat Res 158:181-186. Brown, D.P., and T. Bloom. 1987. Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. National Technical Information Services, Springfield, VA. Bryant, P.E. 1984. Enzymatic restriction of mammalian cell DNA using Pvu II and Bam H1: evidence for the double-strand break origin of chromosomal aberrations. Int J Radiat Biol Re 46:57-65. Buard, J., A. Bourdet, J. Yardley, Y. Dubrova, and A.J. Jeffreys. 1998. Influences of array size and homogeneity on minisatellite mutation. EMBO J 17:3495-3502. Buard, J., A. Collick, J. Brown, and A.J. Jeffreys. 2000. Somatic versus germline mutation processes at minisatellite CEB1 (D2S90) in humans and transgenic mice. Genomics 65:95-103. Buchholz, T.A., X. Wu, A. Hussain, S.L. Tucker, G.B. Mills, B. Haffty, S. Bergh, M. Story, F.B. Geara, and W.A. Brock. 2002. Evidence of haplotype insufficiency in human cells containing a germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Int J Cancer 97:557-561. Buchhop, S., M.K. Gibson, X.W. Wang, P. Wagner, H.W. Sturzbecher, and C.C. Harris. 1997. Interaction of p53 with the human Rad51 protein. Nucleic Acids Res 25:3868-3874. Budarf, M.L., and B.S. Emanuel. 1997. Progress in the autosomal segmental aneusomy syndromes (SASs): single or multi-locus disorders? Hum Mol Genet 6:1657-1665. Burak, L.E., Y. Kodama, M. Nakano, K. Ohtaki, M. Itoh, N.D. Okladnikova, E.K. Vasilenko, J.B. Cologne, and N. Nakamura. 2001. FISH examination of lymphocytes from Mayak workers for assessment of translocation induction rate under chronic radiation exposures. Int J Radiat Biol 77:901-908. Burki, H.J. 1980. Ionizing radiation-induced 6-thioguanine-resistant clones in synchronous CHO cells. Radiat Res 81:76-84. Burma, S., B.P. Chen, M. Murphy, A. Kurimasa, and D.J. Chen. 2001. ATM phosphorylates histone H2AX in response to DNA double-strand breaks. J Biol Chem 276:42462-42467. Burnet, N.G., J. Johansen, I. Turesson, J. Nyman, and J.H. Peacock. 1998. Describing patients’ normal tissue reactions: concerning the possibility of individualising radiotherapy dose prescriptions based on potential predictive assays of normal tissue radiosensitivity. Steering Committee of the BioMed2 European Union Concerted Action Programme on the Development of Predictive Tests of Normal Tissue Response to Radiation Therapy. Int J Cancer 79:606-613. Burns, F.J., R.E. Albert, I.P. Sinclair, and P. Bennett. 1973. The effect of fractionation on tumor induction and hair follicle damage in rat skin. Radiat Res 53:235-240. Burns, F.J., R.E. Albert, I.P. Sinclair, and M. Vanderlaan. 1975. The effect of 24-hour fractionation interval on the induction of rat skin tumors by electron radiation. Radiat Res 62:478-487. Burns, F.J., R.E. Albert, and S.J. Garte. 1989a. Radiation-induced cancer in rat skin. Carcinog Compr Surv 11:293-319. Burns, F.J., R.E. Albert, and S.J. Garte. 1989b. Multiple stages in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin. Environ Health Persp 81:67-72. Burns, F.J., R.N. Shore, C. Loomis, and P. Zhao. 2002. PTCH (patched) and XPA genes in radiation-induced basal cell carcinomas. Pp. 175-178 in Radiation and Homeostasis, T. Sugahara, O. Nikaido, and O. Niwa, eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Byrne, J., S.A. Rasmussen, S.C. Steinhorn, R.R. Connelly, M.H. Myers, C.F. Lynch, J. Flannery, D.F. Austin, F.F. Holmes, G.E. Holmes, L.C. Strong, and J.J. Mulvihill. 1998. Genetic disease in offspring of long-term survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. Am J Hum Genet 62:45-52. Calabrese, E.J., and L.A. Baldwin. 2000. Radiation hormesis: its historical foundations as a biological hypothesis. Hum Exp Toxicol 19:41-75. Calabrese, E.J., and L.A. Baldwin. 2003. Toxicology rethinks its central belief: hormesis demands a reappraisal of the way risks are assessed. Nature 421:691-692. Calabrese, E.J., L.A. Baldwin, and C.D. Holland. 1999. Hormesis: A highly generalizable and reproducible phenomenon with important implications for risk assessment. Risk Anal 19:261-281. Cao, J., R.L. Wells, and M.M. Elkind. 1992. Enhanced sensitivity to neoplastic transformation by 137Cs gamma-rays of cells in the G2-/M-phase age interval. Int J Radiat Biol 62:191-199. Cao, J., R.L. Wells, and M.M. Elkind. 1993. Neoplastic transformation of C3H mouse embryo cells, 10T1/2: cell-cycle dependence for 50 kV X-rays and UV-B light. Int J Radiat Biol 64:83-92. Caratero, A., M. Courtade, L. Bonnet, H. Planel, and C. Caratero. 1998. Effect of a continuous gamma irradiation at a very low dose on the life span of mice. Gerontology 44:272-276. Cardis, E., and A.E. Okeanov. 1996. What’s feasible and desirable in the epidemiologic follow-up of Chernobyl. First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine on the Radiological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident. Minsk, Belarus. Cardis, E., and D. Richardson. 2000. Invited editorial: health effects of radiation exposure at uranium processing facilities. J Radiol Prot 20: 95-97. Cardis, E., E.S. Gilbert, L. Carpenter, G. Howe, I. Kato, B.K. Armstrong, V. Beral, G. Cowper, A. Douglas, J. Fix, F.A. Fry, J. Kaldor, C. Lave, L. Salmon, P.G. Smith, G.L. Voelz, and L.D. Wiggs. 1995. Effects of low doses and low dose rates of external ionizing radiation: cancer mortality among nuclear industry workers in three countries. Radiat Res 142:117-132. Cardis, E., A.E. Okeanov, L. Anspaugh, V.K. Ivanov, I. Likthariev, A.E. Okeanov, and A. Prisyazhniuk. 1996. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident. Pp. 241-279 in Proceedings of the Joint EU, IAEA and WHO International Conference One Decade after Chernobyl. Vienna, Austria. Cardis, E., D. Richardson, and A. Kesminiene. 2000. Radiation Risk Estimates in the Beginning of the 21st Century. Bethesda, MD: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.
OCR for page 342
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Cardis, E., M. Vrijheid, M. Blettner, E. Gilbert, M. Hakama, C. Hill, G. Howe, J. Kaldor, C.R. Muirhead, M. Schubauer-Berigan, Yoshimura, F. Bermann, G. Cowper, J. Fix, C. Hacker, B. Heinmiller, M. Marshall, I. Thierry-Chef, D. Utterback, Y.O. Ahn, E. Amoros, P. Ashmore, A. Auvinen, J.M. Bae, J. Bernar Solano, A. Biau, E. Combalot, P. Deboodt, A. Diez Sacristan, M. Eklof, H. Engels, G. Engholm, G. Gulis, R. Habib, K. Holan, H. Hyvonen, A. Kerekes, J. Kurtinaitis, H. Malker, M. Martuzzi, A. Mastauskas, A. Monnet, M. Moser, M. Murata, M.S. Pearce, D.B. Richardson, F. Rodriguez-Artalejo, A. Rogel, H. Tardy, M. Telle-Lamberton, I. Turai, M. Usel, and K. Veress. 2005a. Cancer risk following low doses of ionising radiation—a 15-country study. Brit Med J. Cardis, E., A. Kesminiene, V. Ivanov, I. Malakhova, Y. Shibata, V. Khrouch, V. Drozdovitch, E. Maceika, I. Zvonova, O. Vlassov, A. Bouville, G. Goulko, M. Hoshi, A. Abrosimov, J. Anoshko, L. Astakhova, S. Chekin, E. Demidchik, R. Galanti, M. Ito, E. Korobova, E. Lushnikov, M. Maksioutov, V. Masyakin, A. Nerovnia, V. Parshin, E. Parshkov, N. Piliptsevich, A. Pinchera, S. Polyakov, N. Shabeka, E. Suonio, V. Tenet, A. Tsyb, S. Yamashita, and D. Williams. 2005b. Risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to 131I in childhood. J Natl Cancer Inst 97:724-732. Carnes, B.A., and T.E. Fritz. 1991. Responses of the beagle to protracted irradiation. I. Effect of total dose and dose rate. Radiat Res 128:125-132. Carnes, B.A., D. Grahn, and J.F. Thomson. 1989. Dose-response modeling of life shortening in a retrospective analysis of the combined data from the JANUS program at Argonne National Laboratory. Radiat Res 119:39-56. Carnes, B.A., S.J. Olshansky, and D. Grahn. 1998. An interspecies prediction of the risk of radiation-induced mortality. Radiat Res 149:487-492. Carnes, B.A., N. Gavrilova, and D. Grahn. 2002. Pathology effects at radiation doses below those causing increased mortality. Radiat Res 158:187-194. Carnes, B.A., D. Grahn, and D. Hoel. 2003. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors predicted from laboratory animals. Radiat Res 160:159-167. Carpenter, L., P. Fraser, M. Booth, C. Higgins, and V. Beral. 1989. Smoking habits and radiation exposure. J Radiol Prot 9:286-287. Carpenter, L., V. Beral, P. Fraser, and M. Booth. 1990. Health related selection and death rates in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority workforce. Brit J Ind Med 47:248-258. Carpenter, L., C. Higgins, A. Douglas, P. Fraser, V. Beral, and P. Smith. 1994. Combined analysis of mortality in three United Kingdom nuclear industry workforces, 1946-1988. Radiat Res 138:224-238. Carpenter, L.M., C.D. Higgins, A.J. Douglas, N.E. Maconochie, R.Z. Omar, P. Fraser, V. Beral, and P.G. Smith. 1998. Cancer mortality in relation to monitoring for radionuclide exposure in three UK nuclear industry workforces. Brit J Cancer 78:1224-1232. Carr, Z.A., R.A. Kleinerman, M. Stovall, R.M. Weinstock, M.L. Griem, and C.E. Land. 2002. Malignant neoplasms after radiation therapy for peptic ulcer. Radiat Res 157:668-677. Carrano, A.V., and J.A. Heddle. 1973. The fate of chromosome aberrations. J Theor Biol 38:289-304. Carter, C.O. 1961. The inheritance of pyloric stenosis. Brit Med Bull 17:251-254. Carter, C.O. 1976a. Genetics of common single malformations. Brit Med Bull 32:21-26. Carter, C.O. 1976b. Monogenic disorders. J Med Genet 14:316-320. Cattanach, B.M., and H. Moseley. 1974. Sterile period, translocation and specific locus mutation in the mouse following fractionated x-ray treatments with different fractionation intervals. Mutat Res 25:63-72. Cattanach, B.M., and C. Rasberry. 1994. Enhanced specific-locus mutation response of 101/H male mice to single, acute X-irradiation. Mutat Res 311:77-84. Cattanach, B.M., C. Jones, and D.G. Papworth. 1985. Specific-locus mutation response to unequal, 1 + 9 Gy X-ray fractionations at 24-h and 4-day fraction intervals. Mutat Res 149:105-118. Cattanach, B.M., M.D. Burtenshaw, C. Rasberry, and E.P. Evans. 1993. Large deletions and other gross forms of chromosome imbalance compatible with viability and fertility in the mouse. Nat Genet 3:56-61. Cattanach, B.M., E.P. Evans, C. Rasberry, and M.D. Burtenshaw. 1996. Incidence and distribution of radiation-induced large deletions in the mouse. Pp. 531-534 in Radiation Research 1895-1995, Vol. 2, Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Radiation Research, Wurzburg, August 27-September 1, 1995. Chakraborty, R., M.P. Little, and K. Sankaranarayanan. 1997. Cancer predisposition, radiosensitivity and the risk of radiation-induced cancers. III. Effects of incomplete penetrance and dose-dependent radiosensitivity on cancer risks in populations. Radiat Res 147:309-320. Chakraborty, R., M.P. Little, and K. Sankaranarayanan. 1998a. Cancer predisposition, radiosensitivity and the risk of radiation-induced cancers. IV. Prediction of risks in relatives of cancer-predisposed individuals. Radiat Res 149:493-507. Chakraborty, R., N. Yasuda, C. Denniston, and K. Sankaranarayanan. 1998b. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. VII. The concept of mutation component and its use in risk estimation for Mendelian diseases. Mutat Res 400:541-552. Chan, T.A., H. Hermeking, C. Lengauer, K.W. Kinzler, and B. Vogelstein. 1999. 14-3-3 Sigma is required to prevent mitotic catastrophe after DNA damage. Nature 401:616-620. Chang, B.D., K. Watanabe, E.V. Broude, J. Fang, J.C. Poole, T.V. Kalinichenko, and I.B. Roninson. 2000. Effects of p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1 on cellular gene expression: implications for carcinogenesis, senescence, and age-related diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:4291-4296. Chang, B.H., L.C. Shimmin, S.K. Shyue, D. Hewett-Emmett, and W.H. Li. 1994. Weak male-driven molecular evolution in rodents. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:827-831. Chang, S., C. Khoo, and R.A. DePinho. 2001. Modeling chromosomal instability and epithelial carcinogenesis in the telomerase-deficient mouse. Semin Cancer Biol 11:227-239. Chang, W.P., and J.B. Little. 1992. Evidence that DNA double-strand breaks initiate the phenotype of delayed reproductive death in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Radiat Res 131:53-59. Charles, D.J., and W. Pretsch. 1986. Enzyme-activity mutations detected in mice after paternal fractionated irradiation. Mutat Res 160:243-248. Chauveinc, L., M. Ricoul, L. Sabatier, G. Gaboriaud, A. Srour, X. Bertagna, and B. Dutrillaux. 1997. Dosimetric and cytogenetic studies of multiple radiation-induced meningiomas for a single patient. Radiother Oncol 43:285-288. Checkoway, H., R.M. Mathew, C.M. Shy, J.E. Watson Jr., W.G. Tankersley, S.H. Wolf, J.C. Smith, and S.A. Fry. 1985. Radiation, work experience, and cause specific mortality among workers at an energy research laboratory. Brit J Ind Med 42:525-533. Checkoway, H., N. Pearce, D.J. Crawford-Brown, and D.L. Cragle. 1988. Radiation doses and cause-specific mortality among workers at a nuclear materials fabrication plant. Am J Epidemiol 127:255-266. Chehab, N.H., A. Malikzay, M. Appel, and T.D. Halazonetis. 2000. Chk2/hCds1 functions as a DNA damage checkpoint in G(1) by stabilizing p53. Gene Dev 14:278-288. Chenevix-Trench, G., A.B. Spurdle, M. Gatei, H. Kelly, A. Marsh, X. Chen, K. Donn, M. Cummings, D. Nyholt, M.A. Jenkins, C. Scott, G.M. Pupo, T. Dork, R. Bendix, J. Kirk, K. Tucker, M.R. McCredie, J.L. Hopper, J. Sambrook, G.J. Mann, and K.K. Khanna. 2002. Dominant negative ATM mutations in breast cancer families. J Natl Cancer Inst 94: 205-215. Cherbonnel-Lasserre, C., S. Gauny, and A. Kronenberg. 1996. Suppression of apoptosis by Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL promotes susceptibility to mutagenesis. Oncogene 13:1489-1497. Childs, J.D. 1981. The effect of a change in mutation rate on the incidence of dominant and X-linked recessive disorders in man. Mutat Res 83: 145-158.
OCR for page 343
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Choi, H., S. Kim, P. Mukhopadhyay, S. Cho, J. Woo, G. Storz, and S. Ryu. 2001. Structural basis of the redox switch in the OxyR transcription factor. Cell 105:103-113. Chuang, Y.Y., and H.L. Liber. 1996. Effects of cell cycle position on ionizing radiation mutagenesis. I. Quantitative assays of two genetic loci in a human lymphoblastoid cell line. Radiat Res 146:494-500. Clark, D.J., E.I.M. Meijne, S.D. Bouffler, R. Huiskamp, C.J. Skidmore, R. Cox, and A.R.J. Silver. 1996. Microsatellite analysis of recurrent chromosome 2 deletions in acute myeloid leukaemia induced by radiation in F1 hybrid mice. Gene Chromosome Canc 16:238-246. Clayton, D., and M. Hills. 1993. Statistical Methods in Epidemiology. New York: Oxford Press. Cleaver, J.E. 1968. Defective repair replication of DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum. Nature 218:652-656. Clifton, K.H. 1996. Comments on the evidence in support of the epigenetic nature of radiogenic initiation. Mutat Res 350:77-80. Clutton, S.M., K.M.S. Townsend, D.T. Goodhead, J.D. Ansell, and E.G. Wright. 1996a. Differentiation and delayed cell death in embryonal stem cells exposed to low doses of ionising radiation. Cell Death Differ 3: 141-148. Clutton, S.M., K.M.S. Townsend, C. Walker, J.D. Ansell, and E.G. Wright. 1996b. Radiation-induced genomic instability and persisting oxidative stress in primary bone marrow cultures. Carcinogenesis 17:1633-1639. Cohen, B.L. 2002. Cancer risk from low-level radiation. Am J Roentgenology 179:1137-1143. Collis, S.J., J.M. Schwaninger, A.J. Ntambi, T.W. Keller, W.G. Nelson, L.E. Dillehay, and T.L. Deweese. 2004. Evasion of early cellular response mechanisms following low level radiation-induced DNA damage. J Biol Chem 279:49624-49632. Cologne, J.B., and D.L. Preston. 2000. Longevity of atomic-bomb survivors. Lancet 356:303-307. Cologne, J.B., S. Tokuoka, G.W. Beebe, T. Fukuhara, and K. Mabuchi. 1999. Effects of radiation on incidence of primary liver cancer among atomic bomb survivors. Radiat Res 152:364-373. Conard, R.A. 1980. Review of Medical Findings in a Marshallese Population Twenty-Six Years after Accidental Exposure to Radioactive Fallout. Upton, NY: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Conard, R.A. 1984. Late radiation effects in Marshall Islanders exposed to fallout 28 years ago. Pp. 57-71 in Radiation Carcinogenesis: Epidemiology and Biologic Significance, J.D. Boice Jr. and J.F. Fraumeni Jr., eds. New York: Raven Press. Congdon, C.C. 1987. A review of certain low-level ionizing radiation studies in mice and guinea pigs. Health Phys 52:593-597. Connor, F., D. Bertwistle, P.J. Mee, G.M. Ross, S. Swift, E. Grigorieva, V.L. Tybulewicz, and A. Ashworth. 1997. Tumorigenesis and a DNA repair defect in mice with a truncating Brca2 mutation. Nat Genet 17:423-430. Cormier, R.T., A. Bilger, A.J. Lillich, R.B. Halberg, K.H. Hong, K.A. Gould, N. Borenstein, E.S. Lander, and W.F. Dove. 2000. The Mom1AKR intestinal tumor resistance region consists of Pla2g2a and a locus distal to D4Mit64. Oncogene 19:3182-3192. Cornforth, M.N., and J.S. Bedford. 1983. X-ray-induced breakage and rejoining of human interphase chromosomes. Science 222:1141-1143. Cornforth, M.N., and J.S. Bedford. 1987. A quantitative comparison of potentially lethal damage repair and the rejoining of interphase chromosome breaks in low passage normal human fibroblasts. Radiat Res 111:385-405. Cornforth, M.N., and J.S. Bedford. 1993. Ionizing radiation damage and its early development in chromosomes. Adv Radiat Biol 423:423-496. Cornforth, M.N., S.M. Bailey, and E.H. Goodwin. 2002. Dose responses for chromosome aberrations produced in noncycling primary human fibroblasts by alpha particles and by gamma rays delivered at sublimiting low dose rates. Radiat Res 158:43-53. Correa, C.R., and V.G. Cheung. 2004. Genetic variation in radiation-induced expression phenotypes. Am J Hum Genet 75:885-890. Court Brown, W.M., and R. Doll. 1958. Expectation of life and mortality from cancer among British radiologists. Brit Med J:181-187. Coussens, L.M., and Z. Werb. 2002. Inflammation and cancer. Nature 420:860-867. Covelli, V., V. Di Majo, M. Coppola, and S. Rebessi. 1989. The dose-response relationships for myeloid leukemia and malignant lymphoma in BC3F1 mice. Radiat Res 119:553-561. Cox, R., and A.A. Edwards. 2002. Comments on the paper: Microsatellite instability in acute myelocytic leukaemia developed from A-bomb survivors—and related cytogenic data. Int J Radiat Biol 78:443-445. Cox, R., and W.K. Masson. 1978. Do radiation-induced thioguanine-resistant mutants of cultured mammalian cells arise by HGPRT gene mutation or X-chromosome rearrangement? Nature 276:629-630. Cox, R., and W.K. Masson. 1979. Mutation and inactivation of cultured mammalian cells exposed to beams of accelerated heavy ions. III. Human diploid fibroblasts. Int J Radiat Biol Re 36:149-160. Cox, R., J. Thacker, and D.T. Goodhead. 1977. Inactivation and mutation of cultured mammalian cells by aluminium characteristic ultrasoft x-rays. II. Dose-responses of Chinese hamster and human diploid cells to aluminium x-rays and radiations of different LET. Int J Radiat Biol Re 31:561-576. Cragle, D.L., R.W. McLain, J.R. Qualters, J.L. Hickey, G.S. Wilkinson, W.G. Tankersley, and C.C. Lushbaugh. 1988. Mortality among workers at a nuclear fuels production facility. Am J Ind Med 14:379-401. Cragle, D.L., K. Robertson-Demers, and J.P. Watkins. 1994. Mortality among Workers at a Nuclear Fuels Production Facility: The Savannah River Site, 1952-1986. Center for Epidemiologic Research. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. Critchlow, S.E., and S.P. Jackson. 1998. DNA end-joining: from yeast to man. Trends Biochem Sci 23:394-398. Crompton, N.E.A., B. Barth, and J. Kiefer. 1990. Inverse dose-rate effect for the induction of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants in Chinese hamster V79-S cells by 60Co gamma rays. Radiat Res 124:300-308. Crow, J.F. 1993. How much do we know about spontaneous human mutation rates? Environ Mol Mutagen 21:122-129. Crow, J.F. 1997. The high spontaneous mutation rate: is it a health risk? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:8380-8386. Crow, J.F. 1999. Spontaneous mutation in man. Mutat Res 437:5-9. Crow, J.F. 2001. The beanbag lives on. Nature 409:771. Crow, J.F., and C. Denniston. 1981. The mutation component of genetic damage. Science 212:888-893. Crow, J.F., and C. Denniston. 1985. Mutations in human populations. Adv Hum Genet 14:59-123. Curtis, R.E., J.D. Boice Jr., M. Stovall, L. Bernstein, R.S. Greenberg, J.T. Flannery, A.G. Schwartz, P. Weyer, W.C. Moloney, and R.N. Hoover. 1992. Risk of leukemia after chemotherapy and radiation treatment for breast cancer. N Engl J Med 326:1745-1751. Curtis, R.E., J.D. Boice Jr., M. Stovall, L. Bernstein, E. Holowaty, S. Karjalainen, F. Langmark, P.C. Nasca, A.G. Schwartz, and M.J. Schymura. 1994. Relationship of leukemia risk to radiation dose following cancer of the uterine corpus. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:1315-1324. Czeizel, A., and K. Sankaranarayanan. 1984. The load of genetic and partially genetic disorders in man. I. Congenital anomalies: estimates of detriment in terms of years of life lost and years of impaired life. Mutat Res 128:73-103. Czeizel, A., and G. Tusnady. 1984. Aetiological Studies of Isolated Common Congenital Abnormalities in Hungary. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado. Czeizel, A., K. Sankaranarayanan, A. Losonci, T. Rudas, and M. Keresztes. 1988. The load of genetic and partially genetic diseases in man. II. Some selected common multifactorial diseases: estimates of detriment in terms of years lost and impaired life. Mutat Res 196:259-292. Czene, K., P. Lichtenstein, and K. Hemminki. 2002. Environmental and heritable causes of cancer among 9.6 million individuals in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Int J Cancer 99:260-266.
OCR for page 344
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Dalager, N.A., H.K. Kang, and C.M. Mahan. 2000. Cancer mortality among the highest exposed US atmospheric nuclear test participants. J Occup Environ Med 42:798-805. Damber, L., L.G. Larsson, L. Johansson, and T. Norin. 1995. A cohort study with regard to the risk of haematological malignancies in patients treated with x-rays for benign lesions in the locomotor system. I. Epidemiological analyses. Acta Oncol 34:713-719. Darby, S.C., G.M. Kendall, T.P. Fell, R. Doll, A.A. Goodill, A.J. Conquest, D.A. Jackson, and R.G. Haylock. 1993. Further follow up of mortality and incidence of cancer in men from the United Kingdom who participated in the United Kingdom’s atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes. Brit Med J 307:1530-1535. Darby, S.C., G. Reeves, T. Key, R. Doll, and M. Stovall. 1994. Mortality in a cohort of women given x-ray therapy for metropathia haemorrhagica. Int J Cancer 56:793-801. Darby, S., P. McGale, R. Peto, F. Granath, P. Hall, and A. Ekbom. 2003. Mortality from cardiovascular disease more than 10 years after radiotherapy for breast cancer: nationwide cohort study of 90,000 Swedish women. Brit Med J 326:256-257. Darroudi, F., J. Fomina, M. Meijers, and A.T. Natarajan. 1998. Kinetics of the formation of chromosome aberrations in x-irradiated human lymphocytes, using PCC and FISH. Mutat Res 404:55-65. Davis, F., J. Boice, Z. Hrubec, and R. Monson. 1989. Cancer mortality in a radiation-exposed cohort of Massachusetts. Cancer Res 49:6130-6136. Davis, S., K.J. Kopecky, and T.E. Hamilton. 2001. Final Report. Hanford Thyroid Disease Study. Davis S., K.J. Kopecky, T.E. Hamilton, and L.E. Onstad. 2004a. Thyroid neoplasia, autoimmune thyroiditis, and hypothyroidism in persons exposed to I-131 from the Hanford Nuclear Site. J Am Med Assoc 292:2600-2613. Davis, S., V. Stepanenko, N. Rivkind, K.J. Kopecky, P. Voilleque, V. Shakhtarin, E. Parshkov, S. Kulikov, E. Lushnikov, A. Abrosimov, V. Troshin, G. Romanova, V. Doroschenko, A. Proshin, and A. Tsyb. 2004b. Risk of thyroid cancer in the Bryansk Oblast of the Russian Federation after the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Radiat Res 162:241-248. Day, J.P., C.L. Limoli, and W.F. Morgan. 1998. Recombination involving interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences promotes chromosomal instability in Chinese hamster cells. Carcinogenesis 19:259-265. Daza, P., S. Reichenberger, B. Gottlich, M. Hagmann, E. Feldmann, and P. Pfeiffer. 1996. Mechanisms of nonhomologous DNA end-joining in frogs, mice and men. Biol Chem 377:775-786. de Vathaire, F., P. Francois, C. Hill, O. Schweisguth, C. Rodary, D. Sarrazin, O. Oberlin, C. Beurtheret, A. Dutreix, and R. Flamant. 1989. Role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the risk of second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood. Brit J Cancer 59:792-796. de Vathaire, F., M. Schlumberger, M.J. Delisle, C. Francese, C. Challeton, E. de la Genardiere, F. Meunier, C. Parmentier, C. Hill, and H. Sancho-Garnier. 1997. Leukaemias and cancers following iodine-131 administration for thyroid cancer. Brit J Cancer 75:734-739. de Vathaire, F., M. Hawkins, S. Campbell, O. Oberlin, M.A. Raquin, J.Y. Schlienger, A. Shamsaldin, I. Diallo, J. Bell, E. Grimaud, C. Hardiman, J.L. Lagrange, N. Daly-Schveitzer, X. Panis, J.M. Zucker, H. Sancho-Garnier, F. Eschwege, J. Chavaudra, and J. Lemerle. 1999. Second malignant neoplasms after a first cancer in childhood: temporal pattern of risk according to type of treatment. Brit J Cancer 79:1884-1893. Degg, N.L., M.M. Weil, A. Edwards, J. Haines, M. Coster, J. Moody, M. Ellender, R. Cox, and A. Silver. 2003. Adenoma multiplicity in irradiated Apc(Min) mice is modified by chromosome 16 segments from BALB/c. Cancer Res 63:2361-2363. Delongchamp, R.R., K. Mabuchi, Y. Yoshimoto, and D.L. Preston. 1997. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero or as young children, October 1950-May 1992. Radiat Res 147:385-395. Demple, B. 1991. Regulation of bacterial oxidative stress genes. Ann Rev Genet 25:315-337. Deng, C.X., and S.G. Brodie. 2001. Knockout mouse models and mammary tumorigenesis. Semin Cancer Biol 11:387-394. Denniston, C. 1983. Are human studies possible? Some thoughts on the mutation component and population monitoring. Environ Health Persp 52:41-44. Denniston, C., R. Chakraborty, and K. Sankaranarayanan. 1998. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. VIII. The concept of mutation component and its use in risk estimation for multifactorial diseases. Mutat Res 405:57-79. Dent, P., D.B. Reardon, J.S. Park, G. Bowers, C. Logsdon, K. Valerie, and R. Schmidt-Ullrich. 1999. Radiation-induced release of transforming growth factor alpha activates the epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in carcinoma cells, leading to increased proliferation and protection from radiation-induced cell death. Mol Biol Cell 10:2493-2506. DerSimonian, R., and N. Laird. 1986. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7:177-188. Dewey, W.C., R.M. Humphrey, and B.A. Jones. 1965. Comparisons of tritiated thymidine, tritiated water, and cobalt-60 gamma rays in inducing chromosomal aberrations. Radiat Res 24:214-238. Dewey, W.C., S.C. Furman, and H.H. Miller. 1970. Comparison of lethality and chromosomal damage induced by x-rays in synchronized Chinese hamster cells in vitro. Radiat Res 43:561-581. Dianov, G.L., R. Prasad, S.H. Wilson, and V.A. Bohr. 1999. Role of DNA polymerase beta in the excision step of long patch mammalian base excision repair. J Biol Chem 274:13741-13743. Dickinson, H.O., L. Parker, K. Binks, R. Wakeford, and J. Smith. 1996. The sex ratio of children in relation to paternal preconceptional radiation dose: a study in Cumbria, Northern England. J Epidemiol Commun H 50:645-652. Difilippantonio, M.J., S. Petersen, H.T. Chen, R. Johnson, M. Jasin, R. Kanaar, T. Ried, and A. Nussenzweig. 2002. Evidence for replicative repair of DNA double-strand breaks leading to oncogenic translocation and gene amplification. J Exp Med 196:469-480. Dizdaroglu, M. 1992. Oxidative damage to DNA in mammalian chromatin. Mutat Res 275:331-342. Dizdaroglu, M., M.L. Dirksen, H.X. Jiang, and J.H. Robbins. 1987. Ionizing-radiation-induced damage in the DNA of cultured human cells. Identification of 8,5-cyclo-2-deoxyguanosine. Biochem J 241:929-932. Dizdaroglu, M., Z. Nackerdien, B.C. Chao, E. Gajewski, and G. Rao. 1991. Chemical nature of in vivo DNA base damage in hydrogen peroxide-treated mammalian cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 285:388-390. Dobson, R.L., T. Straume, A.V. Carrano, J.L. Minkler, L.L. Deaven, L.G. Littlefield, and A.A. Awa. 1991. Biological effectiveness of neutrons from Hiroshima bomb replica: results of a collaborative cytogenetic study. Radiat Res 128:143-149. Dobyns, B.M., G.E. Sheline, J.B. Workman, E.A. Tompkins, W.M. McConahey, and D.V. Becker. 1974. Malignant and benign neoplasms of the thyroid in patients treated for hyperthyroidism: a report of the cooperative thyrotoxicosis therapy follow-up study. J Clin Endocr Metab 38:976-998. Doll, R., and R. Wakeford. 1997. Risk of childhood cancer from fetal irradiation. Brit J Radiol 70:130-139. Dondon, M.G., F. de Vathaire, A. Shamsaldin, F. Doyon, I. Diallo, L. Ligot, C. Paoletti, M. Labbe, M. Abbas, J. Chavaudra, M.F. Avril, P. Fragu, and F. Eschwege. 2004. Cancer mortality after radiotherapy for a skin hemangioma during childhood. Radiother Oncol 72:87-93. Dong, C., and K. Hemminki. 2001. Modification of cancer risks in offspring by sibling and parental cancers from 2,112,616 nuclear families. Int J Cancer 92:144-150. Doody, M.M., J.S. Mandel, J.H. Lubin, and J.D. Boice Jr. 1998. Mortality among United States radiologic technologists, 1926-90. Cancer Cause Control 9:67-75. Doody, M.M., J.E. Lonstein, M. Stoval, D.G. Hacker, N. Luckyanov, and C.E. Land. 2000. Breast cancer mortality after diagnostic radiography: findings from the US Scoliosis Cohort Study. Spine 25:2052-2063.
OCR for page 345
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Dores, G.M., C. Metayer, R.E. Curtis, C.F. Lynch, E.A. Clarke, B. Glimelius, H. Storm, E. Pukkala, F.E. van Leeuwen, E.J. Holowaty, M. Andersson, T. Wiklund, T. Joensuu, M.B. van’t Veer, M. Stovall, M. Gospodarowicz, and L.B. Travis. 2002. Second malignant neoplasms among long-term survivors of Hodgkin’s disease: a population-based evaluation over 25 years. J Clin Oncol 20:3484-3494. Douglas, A.J., R.Z. Omar, and P.G. Smith. 1994. Cancer mortality and morbidity among workers at the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels. Brit J Cancer 70:1232-1243. Doyle, P., N. Maconochie, E. Roman, G. Davies, P.G. Smith, and V. Beral. 2000. Fetal death and congenital malformation in babies born to nuclear industry employees: report from the nuclear industry family study. Lancet 356:1293-1299. Draper, G.J., M.P. Little, T. Sorahan, L.J. Kinlen, K.J. Bunch, A.J. Conquest, G.M. Kendall, G.W. Kneale, R.J. Lancashire, C.R. Muirhead, C.M. O’Connor, and T.J. Vincent. 1997. Cancer in the offspring of radiation workers: a record linkage study. Brit Med J 315:1181-1188. Drost, J.B., and W.R. Lee. 1995. Biological basis of germline mutation: comparisons of spontaneous germline mutation rates among drosophila, mouse, and human. Environ Mol Mutagen 25(Suppl 26):48-64. Dublin, L.I., and M. Spigelman. 1948. Mortality among medical specialists. J Am Med Assoc 137:1519-1524. Dubrova, Y.E., A.J. Jeffreys, and A.M. Malashenko. 1993. Mouse minisatellite mutations induced by ionizing radiation. Nat Genet 5: 92-94. Dubrova, Y.E., V.N. Nesterov, N.G. Krouchinsky, V.A. Ostapenko, R. Neumann, D.L. Neil, and A.J. Jeffreys. 1996. Human minisatellite mutation rate after the Chernobyl accident. Nature 380:683-686. Dubrova, Y.E., V.N. Nesterov, N.G. Krouchinsky, V.A. Ostapenko, G. Vergnaud, F. Giraudeau, J. Buard, and A.J. Jeffreys. 1997. Further evidence for elevated human minisatellite mutation rate in Belarus eight years after the Chernobyl accident. Mutat Res 381:267-278. Dubrova, Y.E., M. Plumb, J. Brown, J. Fennelly, P. Bois, D. Goodhead, and A.J. Jeffreys. 1998a. Stage specificity, dose response, and doubling dose for mouse minisatellite germ-line mutation induced by acute radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:6251-6255. Dubrova, Y.E., M. Plumb, J. Brown, and A.J. Jeffreys. 1998b. Radiation-induced germline instability at minisatellite loci. Int J Radiat Biol 74:689-696. Dubrova, Y.E., M. Plumb, J. Brown, E. Boulton, D. Goodhead, and A.J. Jeffreys. 2000a. Induction of minisatellite mutations in the mouse germline by low-dose chronic exposure to gamma-radiation and fission neutrons. Mutat Res 453:17-24. Dubrova, Y.E., M. Plumb, B. Gutierrez, E. Boulton, and A.J. Jeffreys. 2000b. Transgenerational mutation by radiation. Nature 405:37. Dubrova, Y.E., R.I. Bersimbaev, L.B. Djansugurova, M.K. Tankimanova, Z.Zh. Mamyrbaeva, R. Mustonen, C. Lindholm, M. Hulten, and S. Salomaa. 2002a. Nuclear weapons tests and human germline mutation rate. Science 295:1037. Dubrova, Y.E., G. Grant, A.A. Chumak, V.A. Stezhka, and A.N. Karakasian. 2002b. Elevated minisatellite mutation rate in the post-Chernobyl families from Ukraine. Am J Hum Genet 71:801-809. Ducray, C., J.P. Pommier, L. Martins, F.D. Boussin, and L. Sabatier. 1999. Telomere dynamics, end-to-end fusions and telomerase activation during the human fibroblast immortalization process. Oncogene 18:4211-4223. Duell, E.J., J.K. Wiencke, T.J. Cheng, A. Varkonyi, Z.F. Zuo, T.D. Ashok, E.J. Mark, J.C. Wain, D.C. Christiani, and K.T. Kelsey. 2000. Polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1 and ERCC2 and biomarkers of DNA damage in human blood mononuclear cells. Carcinogenesis 21:965-971. Duell, E.J., R.C. Millikan, G.S. Pittman, S. Winkel, R.M. Lunn, C.K. Tse, A. Eaton, H.W. Mohrenweiser, B. Newman, and D.A. Bell. 2001. Polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene XRCC1 and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:217-222. Duensing, S., and K. Munger. 2001. Centrosome abnormalities, genomic instability and carcinogenic progression. Biochim Biophys Acta 1471:M81-M88. Duensing, S., A. Duensing, C.P. Crum, and K. Munger. 2001. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein-induced abnormal centrosome synthesis is an early event in the evolving malignant phenotype. Cancer Res 61:2356-2360. Dugan, L.C., and J.S. Bedford. 2003. Are chromosomal instabilities induced by exposure of cultured normal human cells to low- or high-LET radiation? Radiat Res 159:301-311. Dummer, T.J., H.O. Dickinson, M.S. Pearce, M.E. Charlton, J. Smith, J. Salotti, and L. Parker. 1998. Stillbirth rates around the nuclear installation at Sellafield, North West England: 1950-1989. Int J Epidemiol 27:74-82. Duncan, K.P., and R.W. Howell. 1970. Health workers in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Health Phys 19:285-291. Dunning, A.M., C.S. Healey, P.D. Pharoah, M.D. Teare, B.A. Ponder, and D.F. Easton. 1999. A systematic review of genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8:843-854. Dupree, E.A., D.L. Cragle, R.W. McLain, D.J. Crawford-Brown, and M.J. Teta. 1987. Mortality among workers at a uranium processing facility, the Linde Air Products Company Ceramics Plant, 1943-1949. Scand J Work Env Health 13:100-107. Dupree, E.A., J.P. Watkins, J.N. Ingle, P.W. Wallace, C.M. West, and W.G. Tankersley. 1995. Uranium dust exposure and lung cancer risk in four uranium processing operations. Epidemiology 6:370-375. Easton, D.F. 1994. Cancer risks in A-T heterozygotes. Int J Radiat Biol 66:S177-S182. Eckardt-Schupp, F., and C. Klaus. 1999. Radiation inducible DNA repair processes in eukaryotes. Biochimie 81:161-171. Edwards, A.A. 1992. Low Dose and Low Dose Rate Effects in Laboratory Animals, Technical Memorandum 1(92). Chilton, UK: National Radiological Protection Board. Edwards, A.A., and R. Cox. 2000. Commentary on the Second Event Theory of Busby. Int J Radiat Biol 76:119-122. Edwards, A.A., and J.R. Savage. 1999. Is there a simple answer to the origin of complex chromosome exchanges? Int J Radiat Biol 75:19-22. Edwards, A.A., D.C. Lloyd, R.J. Purrott, and J.C. Prosser. 1982. The dependence of chromosome aberration yields on dose rate and radiation quality. In: Research and Development Report, 1979-1981, R&D 4. Chilton, UK: National Radiological Protection Board. Edwards, A.A., D.C. Lloyd, and J.S. Prosser. 1989. Chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes—a radiobiological review. Pp. 423-432 in Low Dose Radiation: Biological Bases of Risk Assessment, K.F. Baverstock and J.W. Stather, eds. London: Taylor and Francis. Eeles, R., B. Bonder, D. Easton, and A. Horwich. 1996. Genetic Predisposition to Cancer. London: Chapman and Hall. Ehling, U.H. 1965. The frequency of x-ray-induced dominant mutations affecting the skeleton in mice. Genetics 51:723-732. Ehling, U.H. 1966. Dominant mutations affecting the skeletion in offspring of x-irradiated male mice. Genetics 54:1381-1389. Ehling, U.H. 1985. Induction and manifestation of hereditary cataracts. Basic Life Sci 33:345-367. Elkind, M.M. 1996. Guest editorial: enhanced risks of cancer from protracted exposures to x- or gamma-rays: a radiobiological model of radiation-induced breast cancer. Brit J Cancer 73:133-138. Ellegren, H. 2000. Microsatellite mutations in the germline: implications for evolutionary inference. Trends Genet 16:551-558. Ellender, M., S.M. Larder, and J.D. Harrison. 1997. Radiation-induced intestinal neoplasia in a genetically-predisposed mouse (Min). Radioprotection 32:C1-C287. Elson, A., Y. Wang, C.J. Daugherty, C.C. Morton, F. Zhou, J. Campos-Torres, and P. Leder. 1996. Pleiotropic defects in ataxia-telangiectasia protein-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:13084-13089. Elston, R.C., and J. Stewart. 1971. A general model for the genetic analysis of pedigree data. Hum Hered 21:523-542.
OCR for page 346
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Endlich, B., I.R. Radford, H.B. Forrester, and W.C. Dewey. 2000. Computerized video time-lapse microscopy studies of ionizing radiation-induced rapid-interphase and mitosis-related apoptosis in lymphoid cells. Radiat Res 153:36-48. Eng, C., F.P. Li, D.H. Abramson, R.M. Ellsworth, F.L. Wong, M.B. Goldman, J. Seddon, N. Tarbell, and J.D. Boice Jr. 1993. Mortality from second tumors among long-term survivors of retinoblastoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:1121-1128. Engels, H., and A. Wambersie. 1998. Relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for cancer induction and other late effects: a review of radiobiological data. Recent Res Cancer 150:54-87. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1994. Estimating Radiogenic Cancer Risks, EPA Report 402-R-93-076. Washington DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Estimating Radiogenic Cancer Risks. Addendum: Uncertainty Analysis. Washington DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Epstein, C.J. 1995. The new dysmorphology: application of insights from basic developmental biology to the understanding of human birth defects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:8566-8573. ESGNWJ (Epidemiological Study Group of Nuclear Workers [Japan]). 1997. First analysis of mortality of nuclear industry workers in Japan, 1986-1992. J Health Phys 32:173-184. Falconer, D.S. 1965. The inheritance liability to certain diseases, estimated from the incidence among relatives. Ann Hum Genet 29:51-76. Falconer, D.S. 1967. The inheritance of liability to diseases with variable age of onset, with particular reference to diabetes mellitus. Ann Hum Genet 31:1-20. Fan, Y.J., Z. Wang, S. Sadamoto, Y. Ninomiya, N. Kotomura, K. Kamiya, K. Dohi, R. Kominami, and O. Niwa. 1995. Dose-response of a radiation induction of a germline mutation at a hypervariable mouse minisatellite locus. Int J Radiat Biol 68:177-183. Favor, J. 1989. Risk estimation based on germ-cell mutations in animals. Genome 31:844-852. FCRGERG (FANTOM Consortium and Riken Genome Exploration Research Group Phase I and II Teams). 2002. Analysis of the mouse transcriptome based on functional annotation of 60,770 full-length cDNAs. Nature 420:563-573. Federal Register. 1987. Radiation protection guidance to federal agencies for occupational exposure. Washington, DC: Federal Register 52:2822-2834. Feinberg, A.P. 1993. Genomic imprinting and gene activation in cancer. Nat Genet 4:110-113. Feinberg, A.P. 2004. The epigenetics of cancer etiology. Semin Cancer Biol 14:427-432. Feinberg, S.E. 1988. Method of Statistical Differentials. New York: Wiley-Interscience. Finnon, P., D.C. Lloyd, and A.A. Edwards. 1995. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes: applicability to biological dosimetry. Int J Radiat Biol 68: 429-435. Finnon, P., J.E. Moquet, A.A. Edwards, and D.C. Lloyd. 1999. The 60Co gamma ray dose-response for chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes analysed by FISH; applicability to biological dosimetry. Int J Radiat Biol 75:1215-1222. Finnon, R., J. Moody, E. Meijne, J. Haines, D. Clark, A. Edwards, R. Cox, and A. Silver. 2002. A major breakpoint cluster domain in murine radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia. Mol Carcinogen 34:64-71. Finucane, D.M., E. Bossy-Wetzel, N.J. Waterhouse, T.G. Cotter, and D.R. Green. 1999. Bax-induced caspase activation and apoptosis via cytochrome c release from mitochondria is inhibitable by Bcl-xL. J Biol Chem 274:2225-2233. Fishel, R., and R.D. Kolodner. 1995. Identification of mismatch repair genes and their role in the development of cancer. Curr Opin Genet Dev 5:382-395. Fisher, B., H. Rockette, E.R. Fisher, D.L. Wickerham, C. Redmond, and A. Brown. 1985. Leukemia in breast cancer patients following adjuvant chemotherapy or postoperative radiation: the NSABP experience. J Clin Oncol 3:1640-1658. Fisher, R.A. 1918. The correlation between relatives on the supposition of Mendelian inheritance. Trans Roy Soc Edin 52:399-433. Fix, J.J., E.S. Gilbert, and W.V. Baumgartner. 1994. An Assessment of Bias and Uncertainty in Recorded Dose from External Sources of Radiation for Workers at the Hanford Site. PNL-10066. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Fix, J.J., L. Salmon, G. Cowper, and E. Cardis. 1997. A retrospective evaluation of the dosimetry employed in an international combined epidemiological study. Radiat Prot Dosim 74:39-53. Fjalling, M., L.E. Tisell, S. Carlsson, G. Hansson, L.M. Lundberg, and A. Oden. 1986. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules after neck irradiation. Cancer 58:1219-1224. Floyd, R.A. 1995. Measurement of oxidative stress in vivo. Pp. 89-103 in The Oxygen Paradox, K.J.A. Davies and F. Ursini, eds. Padova, Italy: CLEUP University Press. Folkman, J. 1995. Angiogenesis in cancer, vascular, rheumatoid and other disease. Nat Med 1:27-31. Folley, J.H., W. Borges, and T. Yamasaki. 1952. Incidence of leukemia in survivors of the atom bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Am J Med 13:311-321. Ford, H.L., and A.B. Pardee. 1999. Cancer and the cell cycle. J Cell Biochem 32-33 (Suppl):166-172. Forrester, H.B., C.A. Vidair, N. Albright, C.C. Ling, and W.C. Dewey. 1999. Using computerized video time lapse for quantifying cell death of x-irradiated rat embryo cells transfected with c-myc or c-Ha-ras. Cancer Res 59:931-939. Fortini, P., B. Pascucci, E. Parlanti, R.W. Sobol, S.H. Wilson, and E. Dogliotti. 1998. Different DNA polymerases are involved in the short-and long-patch base excision repair in mammalian cells. Biochemistry-US 37:3575-3580. Fouladi, B., L. Sabatier, D. Miller, G. Pottier, and J.P. Murnane. 2000. The relationship between spontaneous telomere loss and chromosome instability in a human tumor cell line. Neoplasia 2:540-554. Foulds, L. 1975. Neoplastic Development. New York: Acedemic Press. Franklyn, J.A., P. Maisonneuve, M. Sheppard, J. Betteridge, and P. Boyle. 1999. Cancer incidence and mortality after radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 353:2111-2115. Fraser, P., L. Carpenter, N. Maconochie, C. Higgins, M. Booth, and V. Beral. 1993. Cancer mortality and morbidity in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, 1946-86. Brit J Cancer 67: 615-624. Freudenreich, C.H., S.M. Kantrow, and V.A. Zakian. 1998. Expansion and length-dependent fragility of CTG repeats in yeast. Science 279: 853-856. Friedberg, W., D.N. Faulkner, L. Snyder, E.B. Darden Jr., and K. O’Brien. 1989. Galactic cosmic radiation exposure and associated health risks for air carrier crewmembers. Aviat Space Envir Md 60:1104-1108. Frome, E.L., D. Cragle, and R. McLain. 1990. Poisson regression analysis of the mortality among a cohort of World War II nuclear industry workers. Radiat Res 123:138-152. Frome, E.L., D.L. Cragle, J.P. Watkins, S. Wing, C.M. Shy, W.G. Tankersley, and C.M. West. 1997. A mortality study of employees of the nuclear industry in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Radiat Res 148:64-80. Fry, R.J., J.B. Storer, and F.J. Burns. 1986. Radiation induction of cancer of the skin. Brit J Radiol 19(Suppl):58-60. Fu, Y.P., J.C. Yu, T.C. Cheng, M.A. Lou, G.C. Hsu, C.Y. Wu, S.T. Chen, H.S. Wu, P.E. Wu, and C.Y. Shen. 2003. Breast cancer risk associated with genotypic polymorphism of the nonhomologous end-joining genes: a multigenic study on cancer susceptibility. Cancer Res 63:2440-2446. Fuchs, C.S., and R.J. Mayer. 1995. Gastric carcinoma. N Engl J Med 333:32-41.
OCR for page 347
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Fujiwara, S., R. Sposto, H. Ezaki, S. Akiba, K. Neriishi, K. Kodama, Y. Hosoda, and K. Shimaoka. 1992. Hyperparathyroidism among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima. Radiat Res 130:372-378. Fujiwara, S., S. Kusumi, J. Cologne, M. Akahoshi, K. Kodama, and H. Yoshizawa. 2000. Prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody and chronic liver disease among atomic bomb survivors. Radiat Res 154: 12-19. Fukasawa, K., F. Wiener, G.F. Vande Woude, and S. Mai. 1997. Genomic instability and apoptosis are frequent in p53 deficient young mice. Oncogene 15:1295-1302. Furre, T., M. Koritzinsky, D.R. Olsen, and E.O. Pettersen. 1999. Inverse dose-rate effect due to pre-mitotic accumulation during continuous low dose-rate irradiation of cervix carcinoma cells. Int J Radiat Biol 75: 699-707. Gajewski, E., G. Rao, Z. Nackerdien, and M. Dizdaroglu. 1990. Modification of DNA bases in mammalian chromatin by radiation-generated free radicals. Biochemistry 29:7876-7882. Game, J.C., G.W. Birrell, J.A. Brown, T. Shibata, C. Baccari, A.M. Chu, M.S. Williamson, and J.M. Brown. 2003. Use of a genome-wide approach to identify new genes that control resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ionizing radiation. Radiat Res 160:14-24. Gardner M.J., A.J. Hall, S. Downes, and J.D. Terrell. 1987. Follow up study of children born to mothers resident in Seascale, West Cumbria (birth cohort). Brit Med J 295:822-827. Gardner, M.J., A.J. Hall, M.P. Snee, S. Downes, C.A. Powell, and J.D. Terrell. 1990a. Methods and basic data of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria. Brit Med J 300:429-434. Gardner, M.J., M.P. Snee, A.J. Hall, C.A. Powell, S. Downes, and J.D. Terrell. 1990b. Results of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria. Brit Med J 300:423-429. Gellon, L., R. Barbey, P. Auffret van der Kemp, D. Thomas, and S. Boiteux. 2001. Synergism between base excision repair, mediated by the DNA glycosylases Ntg1 and Ntg2, and nucleotide excision repair in the removal of oxidatively damaged DNA bases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Genet Genomics 265:1087-1096. Geoffroy-Perez, B., N. Janin, K. Ossian, A. Lauge, M.F. Croquette, C. Griscelli, M. Debre, B. Bressac-de-Paillerets, A. Aurias, D. Stoppa-Lyonnet, and N. Andrieu. 2001. Cancer risk in heterozygotes for ataxiatelangiectasia. Int J Cancer 93:288-293. Gibbs, M., A. Collick, R.G. Kelly, and A.J. Jeffreys. 1993. A tetranucleotide repeat mouse minisatellite displaying substantial somatic instability during early preimplantation development. Genomics 17:121-128. Gibbs, R.A., J. Camakaris, G.S. Hodgson, and R.F. Martin. 1987. Molecular characterization of 125I decay and X-ray-induced HPRT mutants in CHO cells. Int J Radiat Biol Re 51:193-199. Gilbert, E.S. 1989. Issues in analysing the effects of occupational exposure to low levels of radiation. Stat Med 8:173-187. Gilbert, E.S. 1991. Chapter 3: Late somatic effects. In Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part II: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models, S. Abrahamson and others, eds. NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part II, Addendum 1, LMF-132. Gilbert, E.S. 1998. Accounting for errors in dose estimates used in studies of workers exposed to external radiation. Health Phys 74:22-29. Gilbert, E.S., and J.J. Fix. 1995. Accounting for bias in dose estimates in analyses of data from nuclear worker mortality studies. Health Phys 68:650-660. Gilbert, E.S., S.A. Fry, L.D. Wiggs, G.L. Voelz, D.L. Cragle, and G.R. Petersen. 1989. Analyses of combined mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant. Radiat Res 120:19-35. Gilbert, E.S., D.L. Cragle, and L.D. Wiggs. 1993a. Updated analyses of combined mortality data for workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Weapons Plant. Radiat Res 136:408-421. Gilbert, E.S., E. Omohundro, J. Buchanna, and N. Holter. 1993b. Mortality of workers at the Hanford Site: 1945-1986. Health Phys 64:577-590. Gilbert, E.S., N.A. Koshurnikova, M. Sokolnikov, V.F. Khokhryakov, S. Miller, D.L. Preston, S.A. Romanov, N.S. Shilnikova, K.G. Suslova, and V.V. Vostrotin. 2000. Liver cancers in Mayak workers. Radiat Res 154:246-252. Gilbert, E.S., M. Stovall, M. Gospodarowicz, F.E. Van Leeuwen, M. Andersson, B. Glimelius, T. Joensuu, C.F. Lynch, R.E. Curtis, E. Holowaty, H. Storm, E. Pukkala, M.B. van’t Veer, J.F. Fraumeni, J.D. Boice Jr., E.A. Clarke, and L.B. Travis. 2003. Lung cancer after treatment for Hodgkin’s disease: focus on radiation effects. Radiat Res 159:161-173. Gilman, E.G., A.M. Stewart, E.G. Knox, and G.W. Kneale. 1989. Trends in obstetric radiography, 1939-81. J Radiol Prot 9:93-101. Gimm, O., H. Dziema, J. Brown, C. Hoang-Vu, R. Hinze, H. Dralle, L.M. Mulligan, and C. Eng. 2001. Over-representation of a germline variant in the gene encoding RET co-receptor GFRalpha-1 but not GFRalpha-2 or GFRalpha-3 in cases with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Oncogene 20:2161-2170. Gisselsson, D., L. Pettersson, M. Hoglund, M. Heidenblad, L. Gorunova, J. Wiegant, F. Mertens, P. Dal Cin, F. Mitelman, and N. Mandahl. 2000. Chromosomal breakage-fusion-bridge events cause genetic intratumor heterogeneity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:5357-5362. Goldman, M.B., F. Maloof, R.R. Monson, A. Aschengrau, D. Cooper, and E. Ridgway. 1988. Radioactive iodine therapy and breast cancer: a follow-up study of hyperthyroid women. Am J Epidemiol 127:969-980. Goldstone, A.R., P. Quirke, and M.F. Dixon. 1996. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer. J Pathol 179:129-137. Goode, E.L., C.M. Ulrich, and J.D. Potter. 2002. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and associations with cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:1513-1530. Goodhead, D.T. 1994. Initial events in the cellular effects of ionizing radiations: clustered damage in DNA. Int J Radiat Biol 65:7-17. Gorman, M.A., S. Morera, D.G. Rothwell, E. de La Fortelle, C.D. Mol, J.A. Tainer, I.D. Hickson, and P.S. Freemont. 1997. The crystal structure of the human DNA repair endonuclease HAP1 suggests the recognition of extra-helical deoxyribose at DNA abasic sites. EMBO J 16:6548-6558. Gowen, L.C., A.V. Avrutskaya, A.M. Latour, B.H. Koller, and S.A. Leadon. 1998. BRCA1 required for transcription-coupled repair of oxidative DNA damage. Science 281:1009-1012. Greaves, M.F., and J. Wiemels. 2003. Origins of chromosome translocations in childhood leukaemia. Nat Rev Cancer 3:639-649. Green, P.M., S. Saad, C.M. Lewis, and F. Giannelli. 1999. Mutation rates in humans. I. Overall and sex-specific rates obtained from a population study of hemophilia B. Am J Hum Genet 65:1572-1579. Greenberg, E.R., B. Rosner, C. Hennekens, R. Rinsky, and T. Colton. 1985. An investigation of bias in a study of nuclear shipyard workers. Am J Epidemiol 121:301-308. Greenblatt, M.S., W.P. Bennett, M. Hollstein, and C.C. Harris. 1994. Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene: clues to cancer etiology and molecular pathogenesis. Cancer Res 54:4855-4878. Greider, C.W. 1996. Telomere length regulation. Annu Rev Biochem 65:337-365. Greinert, R., E. Detzler, and D. Harder. 2000. The kinetics of postirradiation chromatin restitution as revealed by chromosome aberrations detected by premature chromosome condensation and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Radiat Res 154:87-93. Gribbin, M.A., J.L. Weeks, and G.R. Howe. 1993. Cancer mortality (1956-1985) among male employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited with respect to occupational exposure to external low-linear-energy-transfer ionizing radiation. Radiat Res 133:375-380.
OCR for page 362
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Prisyazhiuk, A., O.A. Pjatak, V.A. Buzanov, G.K. Reeves, and V. Beral. 1991. Cancer in the Ukraine, post-Chernobyl. Lancet 338:1334-1335. Prisyazhniuk, A., V. Gristchenko, V. Zakordonets, N. Fouzik, Y. Slipeniuk, and I. Ryzhak. 1995. The time trends of cancer incidence in the most contaminated regions of the Ukraine before and after the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Environ Biophys 34:3-6. Prisyazhniuk, A., Z. Fedorenko, A. Okaenov, V. Ivanov, V. Starinsky, V. Gristchenko, and L. Remennik. 1996. Epidemiology of cancer in populations living in contaminated territories of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia after the Chernobyl accident. Pp. 909-921 in The Radiological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident. Brussels: European Commission, EUR 16544. Prysyazhnyuk A.Y., L.O. Gulak, V.G. Gristchyenko, and Z.P. Fedorenko. 2002. Cancer incidence in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. In Chernobyl: Message for the 21st Century. Proceedings of the Sixth Chernobyl Sasakawa Medical Cooperation Symposium. New York: Elsevier. Puck, T.T., and C.A. Waldren. 1987. Mutation in mammalian cells: theory and implications. Somat Cell Mol Genet 13:405-409. Puck, T.T., R. Johnson, and S. Rasumussen. 1997. A system for mutation measurement in mammalian cells: application to gamma-irradiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:1218-1223. Rabbitts, T.H. 1994. Chromosomal translocations in human cancer. Nature 372:143-149. Rabes, H.M., E.P. Demidchik, J.D. Sidorow, E. Lengfelder, C. Beimfohr, D. Hoelzel, and S. Klugbauer. 2000. Pattern of radiation-induced RET and NTRK1 rearrangements in 191 post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas: biological, phenotypic, and clinical implications. Clin Cancer Res 6:1093-1103. Rafii, S., P. O’Regan, G. Xinarianos, I. Azmy, T. Stephenson, M. Reed, M. Meuth, J. Thacker, and A. Cox. 2002. A potential role for the XRCC2 R188H polymorphic site in DNA-damage repair and breast cancer. Hum Mol Genet 11:1433-1438. Rahu, M., M. Tekkel, T. Veidebaum, E. Pukkala, T. Hakulinen, A. Auvinen, T. Rytomaa, P.D. Inskip, and J.D. Boice. 1997. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: II. Incidence of cancer and mortality. Radiat Res 147:653-657. Rallison, M.L., B.M. Dobyns, F.R. Keating Jr., J.E. Rall, and F.H. Tyler. 1975. Thyroid nodularity in children. J Am Med Assoc 233:1069-1072. Ramsay, C.N., P.M. Ellis, and H. Zealley. 1991. Down’s syndrome in the Lothian region of Scotland—1978 to 1989. Biomed Pharmacother 45:267-272. Ranier, S., L.A. Johnson, C.J. Dobry, A.J. Ping, P.E. Grundy, and A.P. Feinberg. 1993. Relaxation of imprinted genes in human cancer. Nature 362:749-751. Redpath, J.L., and R.J. Antoniono. 1998. Induction of an adaptive response against spontaneous neoplastic transformation in vitro by low-dose gamma radiation. Radiat Res 149:517-520. Redpath, J.L., D. Liang, T.H. Taylor, C. Christie, and E. Elmore. 2001. The shape of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in vitro: evidence for an adaptive response against neoplastic transformation at low doses of low-LET radiation. Radiat Res 156: 700-707. Remennik, L.V., V.V. Starinsky, V.I. Chissov, V.D. Mokina, and M.M. Rubtsova. 1996. Malignant neoplasm of thyroid in children and in adults on the territories suffered from the Chernobyl accident. Pp. 519-520 in International Conference One Decade After Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident, Book of Extended Synopses. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. Ribeiro, R.C., F. Sandrini, B. Figueiredo, G.P. Zambetti, E. Michalkiewicz, A.R. Lafferty, L. DeLacerda, M. Rabin, C. Cadwell, G. Sampaio, I. Cat, C.A. Stratakis, and R. Sandrini. 2001. An inherited p53 mutation that contributes in a tissue-specific manner to pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:9330-9335. Richardson, D.B., and S. Wing. 1998. Methods for investigating age differences in the effects of prolonged exposures. Am J Ind Med 33:123-130. Richardson, D.B., and S. Wing. 1999a. Greater sensitivity to ionizing radiation at older age: follow-up of workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory through 1990. Int J Epidemiol 28:428-436. Richardson, D.B., and S. Wing. 1999b. Radiation and mortality of workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: positive associations for doses received at older ages. Environ Health Persp 107:649-656. Richardson, S., C. Monfort, M. Green, G. Draper, and C. Muirhead. 1995. Spatial variation of natural radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain. Stat Med 14:2487-2501. Richter, H.E., H.D. Lohrer, L. Hieber, A.M. Kellerer, E. Lengfelder, and M. Bauchinger. 1999. Microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in radiation-associated thyroid carcinomas of Belarussian children and adults. Carcinogenesis 20:2247-2252. Rigaud, O., A. Laquerbe, and E. Moustacchi. 1995. DNA sequence analysis of HPRT-mutants induced in human lymphoblastoid cells adapted to ionizing radiation. Radiat Res 144:181-189. Rinsky, R.A., R.D. Zumwalde, R.J. Waxweiler, W.E. Murray Jr., P.J. Bierbaum, P.J. Landrigan, M. Terpilak, and C. Cox. 1981. Cancer mortality at a naval nuclear shipyard. Lancet 1:231-235. Rinsky, R.A., J.M. Melius, R.W. Hornung, R.D. Zumwalde, R.J. Waxweiler, P.J. Landrigan, P.J. Bierbaum, and W.E. Murray Jr. 1988. Case-control study of lung cancer in civilian employees at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine. Am J Epidemiol 127:55-64. Ritz, B. 1999. Radiation exposure and cancer mortality in uranium processing workers. Epidemiology 10:531-538. Ritz, B., H. Morgenstern, J. Froines, and B.B. Young. 1999a. Effects of exposure to external ionizing radiation on cancer mortality in nuclear workers monitored for radiation at Rocketdyne/Atomics International. Am J Ind Med 35:21-31. Ritz, B., H. Morgenstern, and J. Moncau. 1999b. Age at exposure modifies the effects of low-level ionizing radiation on cancer mortality in an occupational cohort. Epidemiology 10:135-140. Ritz, B., H. Morgenstern, D. Crawford-Brown, and B. Young. 2000. The effects of internal radiation exposure on cancer mortality in nuclear workers at Rocketdyne/Atomics International. Environ Health Persp 108:743-751. Roberts, S.A., A.R. Spreadborough, B. Bulman, J.B. Barber, D.G. Evans, and D. Scott. 1999. Heritability of cellular radiosensitivity: a marker of low-penetrance predisposition genes in breast cancer? Am J Hum Genet 65:784-794. Robison, L.L., and A. Mertens. 1993. Second tumors after treatment of childhood malignancies. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 7:401-415. Robson, T.A., H. Lohrer, J.R. Bailie, D.G. Hirst, M.C. Joiner, and J.E. Arrand. 1997. Gene regulation by low-dose ionizing radiation in a normal human lung epithelial cell line. Biochem Soc Trans 25:335-342. Robson, T., M.C. Joiner, G.D. Wilson, W. McCullough, M.E. Price, I. Logan, H. Jones, S.R. McKeown, and D.G. Hirst. 1999. A novel human stress response-related gene with a potential role in induced radioresistance. Radiat Res 152:451-461. Robson, T., M.E. Price, M.L. Moore, M.C. Joiner, V.J. McKelvey-Martin, S.R. McKeown, and D.G. Hirst. 2000. Increased repair and cell survival in cells treated with DIR1 antisense oligonucleotides: implications for induced radioresistance. Int J Radiat Biol 76:617-623. Roderick, T.H. 1963. The response of twenty-seven inbred strains of mice to daily doses of whole body x-irradiation. Radiat Res 20:613-614. Roesch, W.C., Radiation Effects Research Foundation, and National Academy of Sciences (U.S.). 1987. US-Japan joint reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Minami-ku, Hiroshima: Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Rogel A, N. Carré, E. Amoros, M. Bonnet-Belfais, M. Goldberg, E. Imbernon, T. Calvez, and C. Hill. 2005. Mortality of workers exposed to ionizing radiation at the French National Electricity Company. Am J Ind Med 47:72–82.
OCR for page 363
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Roman, E., A. Watson, V. Beral, S. Buckle, D. Bull, K. Baker, H. Ryder, and C. Barton. 1993. Case-control study of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma among children aged 0-4 years living in west Berkshire and north Hampshire health districts. Brit Med J 306: 615-621. Roman, E., P. Doyle, N. Maconochie, G. Davies, P.G. Smith, and V. Beral. 1999. Cancer in children of nuclear industry employees: report on children aged under 25 years from nuclear industry family study. Brit Med J 318:1443-1450. Romanenko, A., L. Morell-Quadreny, V. Nepomnyaschy, A. Vozianov, and A. Llombart-Bosch. 2000. Pathology and proliferative activity of renal-cell carcinomas (RCCS) and renal oncocytomas in patients with different radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine. Int J Cancer 87:880-883. Romanenko, A., K. Morimura, M. Wei, W. Zaparin, A. Vozianov, and S. Fukushima. 2002. DNA damage repair in bladder urothelium after the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine. J Urol 168:973-977. Romanenko, A., K. Morimura, H. Wanibuchi, M. Wei, W. Zaparin, W. Vinnichenko, A. Kinoshita, A. Vozianov, and S. Fukushima. 2003. Urinary bladder lesions induced by persistent chronic low-dose ionizing radiation. Cancer Sci 94:328-333. Romney, C.A., J.D. Paulauskis, H. Nagasawa, and J.B. Little. 2001. Multiple manifestations of x-ray-induced genomic instability in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Mol Carcinog 32:118-127. Ron, E. 1998. Ionizing radiation and cancer risk: evidence from epidemiology. Radiat Res 150:S30-S41. Ron, E., and B. Modan. 1984. Thyroid and other neoplasms following childhood scalp irradiation. Radiation Carcinogenesis: Epidemiology and Biological Significance, J.D. Boice and J.F Fraumeni, eds. New York: Raven Press. Ron, E., B. Modan, J.D. Boice, E. Alfandary, M. Stovall, A. Chetrit, and L. Katz. 1988a. Tumors of the brain and nervous system after radiotherapy in childhood. N Engl J Med 319:1033-1039. Ron, E., B. Modan, and J.D. Boice Jr. 1988b. Mortality after radiotherapy for ringworm of the scalp. Am J Epidemiol 127:713-725. Ron, E., B. Modan, D. Preston, E. Alfandary, M. Stovall, and J.D. Boice Jr. 1989. Thyroid neoplasia following low-dose radiation in childhood. Radiat Res 120:516-531. Ron, E., B. Modan, D. Preston, S. Hamburger, and M. Stovall. 1994. Mortality following radiation treatment for infertility of hormonal origin or amenorrhoea. Int J Epidemiol 23:1165-1173. Ron, E., J.H. Lubin, R.E. Shore, K. Mabuchi, B. Modan, L. Pottern, A.B. Schneider, M.A. Tucker, and J.D. Boice. 1995a. Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies. Radiat Res 141:259-277. Ron, E., F.L. Wong, and K. Mabuchi. 1995b. Incidence of benign gastrointestinal tumors among atomic bomb survivors. Am J Epidemiol 142:68-75. Ron, E., M.M. Doody, D.V. Becker, A.B. Brill, R.E. Curtis, M.B. Goldman, B.S. Harris 3rd, D.A. Hoffman, W.M. McConahey, H.R. Maxon, S. Preston-Martin, M.E. Warshauer, F.L. Wong, and J.D. Boice Jr. 1998a. Cancer mortality following treatment for adult hyperthyroidism. Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-Up Study Group. J Am Med Assoc 280:347-355. Ron, E., D.L. Preston, M. Kishikawa, T. Kobuke, M. Iseki, S. Tokuoka, M. Tokunaga, and K. Mabuchi. 1998b. Skin tumor risk among atomic-bomb survivors in Japan. Cancer Cause Control 9:393-401. Rooney, C., V. Beral, N. Maconochie, P. Fraser, and G. Davies. 1993. Case-control study of prostatic cancer in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Brit Med J 307:1391-1397. Roots, R., and S. Okada. 1972. Protection of DNA molecules of cultured mammalian cells from radiation-induced single-strand scissions by various alcohols and SH compounds. Int J Radiat Biol Res 21:329-342. Rosemann, M., M. Lintrop, J. Favor, and M.J. Atkinson. 2002. Bone tumorigenesis induced by alpha-particle radiation: mapping of genetic loci influencing predisposition in mice. Radiat Res 157:426-434. Rosenquist, T.A., E. Zaika, A.S. Fernandes, D.O. Zharkov, H. Miller, and A.P. Grollman. 2003. The novel DNA glycosylase, NEIL1, protects mammalian cells from radiation-mediated cell death. DNA Repair 2:581-591. Rossi, H.H., and M. Zaider. 1996. Microdosimetry and Its Applications. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Roth, S.Y. 1996. Something about silencing. Nat Genet 14:3-4. Rothkamm, K., and M. Lobrich. 2003. From the cover: evidence for a lack of DNA double-strand break repair in human cells exposed to very low x-ray doses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:5057-5062. Rothkamm, K., I. Kruger, L.H. Thompson, and M.Lobrich. 2003. Pathways of DNA double-strand break repair during the mammalian cell cycle. Mol Cell Biol 23:5706-5715. Rubino, C., E. Adjadj, S. Guerin, C. Guibout, A. Shamsaldin, M.G. Dondon, D. Valteau-Couanet, O. Hartmann, M. Hawkins, and F. de Vathaire. 2003. Long-term risk of second malignant neoplasms after neuroblastoma in childhood: role of treatment. Int J Cancer 107:791-796. Rudolph, K.L., M. Millard, M.W. Bosenberg, and R.A. DePinho. 2001. Telomere dysfunction and evolution of intestinal carcinoma in mice and humans. Nat Genet 28:155-159. Russell, L.B. 1999. Significance of the perigametic interval as a major source of spontaneous mutations that result in mosaics. Environ Mol Mutagen 34:16-23. Russell, L.B., and W.L. Russell. 1996. Spontaneous mutations recovered as mosaics in the mouse specific-locus test. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:13072-13077. Russell, W.L. 1965. Studies in mammalian radiation genetics. Nucleonics 23:53-56, 62. Russell, W.L. 1968. Recent studies on the genetic effects of radiation in mice. Pediatrics 41:223-230. Russell, W.L., L.B. Russell, and E.M. Kelly. 1958. Radiation dose rate and mutation frequency. Science 128:1546-1550. Russell, W.L., L.B. Russell, and M.B. Cupp. 1959. Dependence of mutation frequency on radiation dose rate in female mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 45:18-23. Russell, W.L., J.W. Bangham, and L.B. Russell. 1998. Differential response of mouse male germ-cell stages to radiation-induced specific-locus and dominant mutations. Genetics 148:1567-1578. Rutledge, J.C., K.T. Cain, L.A. Hughes, P.W. Braden, and W.M. Generoso. 1986. Difference between two hybrid stocks of mice in the incidence of congenital abnormalities following x-ray exposure of stem-cell spermatogonia. Mutat Res 163:299-302. Ryberg, M., M. Lundell, B. Nilsson, and F. Pettersson. 1990. Malignant disease after radiation treatment of benign gynaecological disorders. A study of a cohort of metropathia patients. Acta Oncol 29:563-567. Rydberg, B. 1996. Clusters of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation: formation of short DNA fragments. 2. Experimental detection. Radiat Res 145:200-209. Sabatier, L., B. Dutrillaux, and M.B. Martin. 1992. Chromosomal instability. Nature 357:548. Sabatier, L., M. Ricoul, G. Pottier, N. Mathieu, and J.P. Murnane. 2005. The loss of a single telomere can result in instability of multiple chromosomes in a human tumor cell line. Mol Can Res 3:139-150. Sacher, G.A. 1955. A comparative analysis of radiation lethality in mammals exposed at constant average intensity for the duration of life. J Natl Cancer Inst 15:1125-1144. Sachs, R.K., A.M. Chen, and D.J. Brenner. 1997. Review: proximity effects in the production of chromosome aberrations by ionizing radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 71:1-19. Sadamoto, S., S. Suzuki, K. Kamiya, R. Kominami, K. Dohi, and O. Niwa. 1994. Radiation induction of germline mutation at a hypervariable mouse minisatellite locus. Int J Radiat Biol 65:549-557. Sadekova, S., S. Lehnert, and T.Y. Chow. 1997. Induction of PBP74/mortalin/Grp75, a member of the hsp70 family, by low doses of ionizing radiation: a possible role in induced radioresistance. Int J Radiat Biol 72:653-660.
OCR for page 364
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Sadetzki, S., P. Flint-Richter, T. Ben-Tal, and D. Nass. 2002. Radiation-induced meningioma: a descriptive study of 253 cases. J Neurosurg 97:1078-1082. Sadetzki, S., A. Chetrit, L. Freedman, M. Stovall, B. Modan, and I. Novikov. 2005. Long-term follow-up for brain tumor development after childhood exposure to ionizing radiation for tinea capitis. Radiat Res 163:424-432. Saenger, E.L., G.E. Thoma, and E.A. Tompkins. 1968. Incidence of leukemia following treatment of hyperthyroidism. Preliminary report of the Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-up Study. J Am Med Assoc 205:855-862. Safa, A.M., O.P. Schumacher, and A. Rodriguez-Antunez. 1975. Long-term follow-up results in children and adolescents treated with radioactive iodine (131I) for hyperthyroidism. N Engl J Med 292:167-171. Sagan, L.A. 1987. Health Physics, Vol. 52: Special Issue on Radiation Hormesis. New York: Pergamon Press. Saito, Y., Y. Ochiai, Y. Kodama, Y. Tamura, T. Togashi, H. Kosugi-Okano, T. Miyazawa, Y. Wakabayashi, K. Hatakeyama, S. Wakana, O. Niwa, and R. Kominami. 2001. Genetic loci controlling susceptibility to gamma-ray-induced thymic lymphoma. Oncogene 20:5243-5247. Sankaranarayanan, K. 1976. Evaluation and re-evaluation of genetic radiation hazards in man. III. Other relevant data and risk assessment. Mutat Res 35:387-414. Sankaranarayanan, K. 1991. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. III. Nature of spontaneous and radiation-induced mutations in mammalian in vitro systems and mechanisms of induction of mutations by radiation. Mutat Res 258:75-97. Sankaranarayanan, K. 1998. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. IX. Estimates of the frequencies of Mendelian diseases and spontaneous mutation rates in human populations: a 1998 perspective. Mutat Res 411: 129-178. Sankaranarayanan, K. 1999. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. X. The potential “disease phenotypes” of radiation-induced genetic damage in humans: perspectives from human molecular biology and radiation genetics. Mutat Res 429:45-83. Sankaranarayanan, K., and R. Chakraborty. 2000a. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. XIII. Summary and synthesis of papers VI to XII and estimates of genetic risks in the year 2000. Mutat Res 453:183-197. Sankaranarayanan, K., and R. Chakraborty. 2000b. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. XII. The concept of “potential recoverability correction factor” (PRCF) and its use for predicting the risk of radiation-inducible genetic disease in human live births. Mutat Res 453:129-181. Sankaranarayanan, K., A.V. Duyn, M.J. Loos, and A.T. Natarajan. 1989. Adaptive response of human lymphocytes to low-level radiation from radioisotopes or x-rays. Mutat Res 211:7-12. Sankaranarayanan, K., N. Yasuda, R. Chakraborty, G. Tusnady, and A.E. Czeizel. 1994. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. V. Multifactorial diseases: a review of epidemiological and genetic aspects of congenital abnormalities in man and of models on maintenance of quantitative traits in populations. Mutat Res 317:1-23. Sankaranarayanan, K., R. Chakraborty, and E.A. Boerwinkle. 1999. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. VI. Chronic multifactorial diseases: a review of epidemiological and genetical aspects of coronary heart disease, essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Mutat Res 436: 21-57. Santos, J., M. Herranz, M. Fernandez, C. Vaquero, P. Lopez, and J. Fernandez-Piqueras. 2001. Evidence of a possible epigenetic inactivation mechanism operating on a region of mouse chromosome 19 in gamma-radiation-induced thymic lymphomas. Oncogene 20:2186-2189. Sasaki, M.S. 1991. Primary damage and fixation of chromosomal DNA as probed by monochromatic soft x-rays and low-energy neutrons. Pp. 369-384 in The Early Effects of Radiation on DNA, E.M. Fielden and P. O’Neil, eds. NATO ASI Series, Vol. H54. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, Sasaki, M.S. 1995. On the reaction kinetics of the radioadaptive response in cultured mouse cells. Int J Radiat Biol 68:281-291. Sasaki, M.S., K. Kobayashi, K. Hieda, Y. Yamada, Y. Ejima, H. Maezawa, Y. Furusawa, T. Ito, and S. Okada. 1989. Induction of chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes by monochromatic x-rays of quantum energy between 4.8 and 14.6 keV. Int J Radiat Biol 56:975-988. Satoh, C., and M. Kodaira. 1996. Effects of radiation on children. Nature 383:226. Satoh, C., N. Takahashi, J. Asakawa, M. Kodaira, R. Kuick, S.M. Hanash, and J.V. Neel. 1996. Genetic analysis of children of atomic bomb survivors. Environ Health Persp 104(Suppl 3):511-519. Saul, R.L., and B.N. Ames. 1986. Background levels of DNA damage in the population. Basic Life Sci 38:529-535. Savage, J.R. 1996. Insight into sites. Mutat Res 366:81-95. Savitsky, K., S. Sfez, D.A. Tagle, Y. Ziv, A. Sartiel, F.S. Collins, Y. Shiloh, and G. Rotman. 1995. The complete sequence of the coding region of the ATM gene reveals similarity to cell cycle regulators in different species. Hum Mol Genet 4:2025-2032. Sawant, S.G., G. Randers-Pehrson, C.R. Geard, D.J. Brenner, and E.J. Hall. 2001a. The bystander effect in radiation oncogenesis: I. Transformation in C3H 10T1/2 cells in vitro can be initiated in the unirradiated neighbors of irradiated cells. Radiat Res 155:397-401. Sawant, S.G., G. Randers-Pehrson, N.F. Metting, and E.J. Hall. 2001b. Adaptive response and the bystander effect induced by radiation in C3H 10T(1/2) cells in culture. Radiat Res 156:177-180. Sawant, S.G., W. Zheng, K.M. Hopkins, G. Randers-Pehrson, H.B. Lieberman, and E.J. Hall. 2002. The radiation-induced bystander effect for clonogenic survival. Radiat Res 157:361-364. Schappi-Buchi, C. 1994. On the genetic background of the adaptive response to x-rays in Drosophila melanogaster. Int J Radiat Biol 65: 427-435. Schiestl, R.H., F. Khogali, and N. Carls. 1994. Reversion of the mouse pink-eyed unstable mutation induced by low doses of x-rays. Science 266:1573-1576. Schinzel, A. 1988. Microdeletion syndromes, balanced translocations, and gene mapping. J Med Genet 25:454-462. Schmickel, R.D. 1986. Contiguous gene syndromes: a component of recognizable syndromes. J Pediatr 109:231-241. Schmid, E., D. Regulla, S. Guldbakke, D. Schlegel, and M. Bauchinger. 2000. The effectiveness of monoenergetic neutrons at 565 keV in producing dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes at low doses. Radiat Res 154:307-312. Schmid, E., D. Regulla, H.M. Kramer, and D. Harder. 2002. The effect of 29 kV x rays on the dose response of chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes. Radiat Res 158: 771-777. Schmidt-Kastner, P.K., K. Jardine, M. Cormier, and M.W. McBurney. 1998. Absence of p53-dependent cell cycle regulation in pluripotent mouse cell lines. Oncogene 16:3003-3011. Schmutte, C., and R. Fishel. 1999. Genomic instability: first step to carcinogenesis. Anticancer Res 19:4665-4696. Schneider, A.B., E. Shore-Freedman, U.Y. Ryo, C. Bekerman, M. Favus, and S. Pinsky. 1985. Radiation-induced tumors of the head and neck following childhood irradiation. Prospective studies. Medicine 64:1-15. Schneider, A.B., E. Ron, J. Lubin, M. Stovall, and T.C. Gierlowski. 1993. Dose-response relationships for radiation-induced thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules: evidence for the prolonged effects of radiation on the thyroid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77:362-369. Schollnberger, H., R.E. Mitchel, E.I. Azzam, D.J. Crawford-Brown, and W. Hofmann. 2002. Explanation of protective effects of low doses of gamma-radiation with a mechanistic radiobiological model. Int J Radiat Biol 78:1159-1173. Schull, W.J., M. Otake, and J.V. Neel. 1981. Genetic effects of the atomic bomb: a reappraisal. Science 213:1220-1227. Schull, W.J., J.V. Neel, M. Otake, A. Awa, C. Satoh, and H.B. Hamilton. 1982. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: three and a half decades of genetic screening. Pp. 687-700 in Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens, T. Sugimura, S. Kondo, and H. Takebe, eds. New York: Alan R. Liss.
OCR for page 365
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Scott, D. 1980. Molecular mechanisms of chromosome structural changes. Pp. 101-113 in Progress in Environmental Mutagenesis, M. Alcevic, ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Scott, D., A. Spreadborough, E. Levine, and S.A. Roberts. 1994. Genetic predisposition in breast cancer. Lancet 344:1444. Scott, D., J.B. Barber, E.L. Levine, W. Burrill, and S.A. Roberts. 1998. Radiation-induced micronucleus induction in lymphocytes identifies a high frequency of radiosensitive cases among breast cancer patients: a test for predisposition? Brit J Cancer 77:614-620. Scully, R., J. Chen, R.L. Ochs, K. Keegan, M. Hoekstra, J. Feunteun, and D.M. Livingston. 1997. Dynamic changes of BRCA1 subnuclear location and phosphorylation state are initiated by DNA damage. Cell 90:425-435. Searle, A.G. 1967. Progress in mammalian radiation genetics. Pp. 469-481 in Proceedings III International Congress of Radiation Research Cortina d’Ampezzo, 1966, Radiation Research, G. Silini, ed. Amsterdam: North Holland. Searle, A.G. 1976. Use of the Doubling Doses for the Estimation of Genetic Risks. Orsay, France: Euratom. Searle, A.G., and C. Beechey. 1986. The role of dominant visibles in mutagenicity testing. Prog Clin Biol Res 209B:511-518. Seed, T.M., and L.V. Kaspar. 1992. Acquired radioresistance of hematopoietic progenitors (granulocyte/monocyte colony-forming units) during chronic radiation leukemogenesis. Cancer Res 52:1469-1476. Seed, T.M., and S.M. Meyers. 1993. Chronic radiation-induced alteration in hematopoietic repair during preclinical phases of aplastic anemia and myeloproliferative disease: assessing unscheduled DNA synthesis responses. Cancer Res 53:4518-4527. Seelentag, W.W., W. Panzer, G. Drexler, L. Platz, and F. Pfantner. 1979. A Catalogue of Spectra for the Calibration of Dose Meters, GSF-Report 560. Neuherberg/Munich. Selby, P.B. 1998a. Discovery of numerous clusters of spontaneous mutations in the specific-locus test in mice necessitates major increases in estimates of doubling doses. Genetica 102-103:463-487. Selby, P.B. 1998b. Major impacts of gonadal mosaicism on hereditary risk estimation, origin of hereditary diseases, and evolution. Genetica 102-103:445-462. Selby, P.B., and P.R. Selby. 1977. Gamma-ray-induced dominant mutations that cause skeletal abnormalities in mice. I. Plan, summary of results and discussion. Mutat Res 43:357-375. Selby, P.B., and P.R. Selby. 1978. Gamma-ray-induced dominant mutations that cause skeletal abnormalities in mice. III. Description of presumed mutations. Mutat Res 50:341-351. Sever, L.E., E.S. Gilbert, N.A. Hessol, and J.M. McIntyre. 1988. A case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Am J Epidemiol 127:226-242. Seymour, C.B., and C. Mothersill. 1997. Delayed expression of lethal mutations and genomic instability in the progeny of human epithelial cells which survived in a bystander killing environment. Radiat Oncol Investi 5:106-110. Seymour, C.B., and C. Mothersill. 2000. Relative contribution of bystander and targeted cell killing to the low-dose region of the radiation dose-response curve. Radiat Res 153:508-511. Shadley, J.D., and J.K. Wiencke. 1989. Induction of the adaptive response by x-rays is dependent on radiation intensity. Int J Radiat Biol 56: 107-118. Shadley, J.D., V. Afzal, and S. Wolff. 1987. Characterization of the adaptive response to ionizing radiation induced by low doses of x rays to human lymphocytes. Radiat Res 111:511-517. Shafman, T.D., S. Levitz, A.J. Nixon, L.A. Gibans, K.E. Nichols, D.W. Bell, C. Ishioka, K.J. Isselbacher, R. Gelman, J. Garber, J.R. Harris, and D.A. Haber. 2000. Prevalence of germline truncating mutations in ATM in women with a second breast cancer after radiation therapy for a contralateral tumor. Gene Chromosome Canc 27:124-129. Shakhtarin, V.V., A.F. Tsyb, V.F. Stepanenko, M.Y. Orlov, K.J. Kopecky, and S. Davis. 2003. Iodine deficiency, radiation dose, and the risk of thyroid cancer among children and adolescents in the Bryansk region of Russia following the Chernobyl power station accident. Int J Epidemiol 32:584-591. Sharan, S.K., M. Morimatsu, U. Albrecht, D.S. Lim, E. Regel, C. Dinh, A. Sands, G. Eichele, P. Hasty, and A. Bradley. 1997. Embryonic lethality and radiation hypersensitivity mediated by Rad51 in mice lacking Brca2. Nature 386:804-810. Shellabarger, C.J., D. Chmelevsky, and A.M. Kellerer. 1980. Induction of mammary neoplasms in the Sprague-Dawley rat by 430keV neutrons and x-rays. J Natl Cancer Inst 64:821-833. Shen, M.R., I.M. Jones, and H. Mohrenweiser. 1998. Nonconservative amino acid substitution variants exist at polymorphic frequency in DNA repair genes in healthy humans. Cancer Res 58:604-608. Shibata, Y., S. Yamashita, V.B. Masyakin, G.D. Panasyuk, and S. Nagataki. 2001. 15 years after Chernobyl: new evidence of thyroid cancer. Lancet 358:1965-1966. Shields, L.M., W.H. Wiese, B.J. Skipper, B. Charley, and L. Benally. 1992. Navajo birth outcomes in the Shiprock uranium mining area. Health Phys 63:542-551. Shields, P.G., and C.C. Harris. 2000. Cancer risk and low-penetrance susceptibility genes in gene-environment interactions. J Clin Oncol 18:2309-2315. Shilnikova, N.S., D.L. Preston, E. Ron, E.S. Gilbert, E.K. Vassilenko, S.A. Romanov, I.S. Kuznetsova, M.E. Sokolnikov, P.V. Okatenko, V.V. Kreslov, and N.A. Koshurnikova. 2003. Cancer mortality risk among workers at the Mayak Nuclear Complex. Radiat Res 159:787-798. Shiloh, Y. 2001. ATM and ATR: networking cellular responses to DNA damage. Curr Opin Genet Dev 11:71-77. Shiloh, Y. 2004. Bridge over broken ends. The cellular response to DNA breaks in health and disease. DNA Repair 3:779-1254. Shimizu, Y., H. Kato, and W.J. Schull. 1990. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 9. Mortality, 1950-1985: Part 2. Cancer mortality based on the recently revised doses (DS86). Radiat Res 121:120-141. Shimizu, Y., H. Kato, W.J. Schull, and K. Mabuchi. 1992. Dose-response analysis among atomic-bomb survivors exposed to low-level radiation. Pp. 71-74 in Low Dose Irradiation and Biological Defense Mechanisms, T. Sugahara, L. Sagan, and T. Aoyama, eds. Amsterdam: Exerpta Medica. Shimizu, Y., D.A. Pierce, D.L. Preston, and K. Mabuchi. 1999. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part II. Noncancer mortality: 1950-1990. Radiat Res 152:374-389. Shippey, C.A., M. Layton, and L.M. Secker-Walker. 1990. Leukemia characterized by multiple sub-clones with unbalanced translocations involving different telomeric segments: case report and review of the literature. Gene Chromosome Canc 2:14-17. Shizuma, K., K. Iwatani, H. Hasai, M. Hoshi, T. Oka, and H. Morishima. 1993. Residual 152Eu and 60Co activities induced by neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Health Phys 65:272-282. Shore, R.E. 1992. Issues and epidemiological evidence regarding radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Radiat Res 131:98-111. Shore, R.E. 2001. Radiation-induced skin cancer in humans. Med Pediatr Oncol 36:549-554. Shore, R.E., and X. Xue. 1999. Comparative thyroid cancer risk of childhood and adult radiation exposure and estimation of lifetime risk. Radiation and Thyroid Cancer. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. Shore, R.E., R.E. Albert, M. Reed, N. Harley, and B.S. Pasternack. 1984. Skin cancer incidence among children irradiated for ringworm of the scalp. Radiat Res 100:192-204. Shore, R.E., E. Woodard, N. Hildreth, P. Dvoretsky, L. Hempelmann, and B. Pasternack. 1985. Thyroid tumors following thymus irradiation. J Natl Cancer Inst 74:1177-1184. Shore, R.E., N. Hildreth, E. Woodard, P. Dvoretsky, L. Hempelmann, and B. Pasternack. 1986. Breast cancer among women given x-ray therapy for acute postpartum mastitis. J Natl Cancer Inst 77:689-696.
OCR for page 366
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Shore, R.E., N. Hildreth, P. Dvoretsky, E. Andresen, M. Moseson, and B. Pasternack. 1993a. Thyroid cancer among persons given x-ray treatment in infancy for an enlarged thymus gland. Am J Epidemiol 137:1068-1080. Shore, R.E., N. Hildreth, P. Dvoretsky, B. Pasternack, and E. Andresen. 1993b. Benign thyroid adenomas among persons x-irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands. Radiat Res 134:217-223. Short, S.C., J. Kelly, C.R. Mayes, M. Woodcock, and M.C. Joiner. 2001. Low-dose hypersensitivity after fractionated low-dose irradiation in vitro. Int J Radiat Biol 77:655-664. Short, S.C., M. Woodcock, B. Marples, and M.C. Joiner. 2003. Effects of cell cycle phase on low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity. Int J Radiat Biol 79:99-105. Sidransky, D. 1996. Is human patched the gatekeeper of common skin cancers? Nat Genet 14:7-8. Sielken, R.L., Jr., R.S. Bretzlaff, and D.E. Stevenson. 1994. Incorporating additional biological phenomena into two-stage cancer models. Prog Clin Biol Res 387:237-260. Silver, A., J. Moody, R. Dunford, D. Clark, S. Ganz, R. Bulman, S. Bouffler, P. Finnon, E. Meijne, R. Huiskamp, and R. Cox. 1999. Molecular mapping of chromosome 2 deletions in murine radiation-induced AML localizes a putative tumor suppressor gene to a 1.0 cM region homologous to human chromosome segment 11p11-12. Gene Chromosome Canc 24:95-104. Sinclair, W.K. 1985. Experimental RBE values of high LET radiations at low doses and the implications for quality factor assignment. Radiat Prot Dosim 13:319-326. Sinclair, W.K., and R.A. Morton. 1963. Variations in x-ray response during the division cycle of partially synchronized Chinese hamster cells in culture. Nature 199:1158-1160. Singer, M.F. 1982. Highly repeated sequences in mammalian genomes. Int Rev Cytol 76:67-112. Skov, K.A. 1999. Radioresponsiveness at low doses: hyper-radiosensitivity and increased radioresistance in mammalian cells. Mutat Res 430:241-253. Skuse, G.R., and J.W. Ludlow. 1995. Tumour suppressor genes in disease and therapy. Lancet 345:902-906. Sloan, S.R., E.W. Newcomb, and A. Pellicer. 1990. Neutron radiation can activate K-ras via a point mutation in codon 146 and induces a different spectrum of ras mutations than does gamma radiation. Mol Cell Biol 10:405-408. Smida, J., H. Zitzelsberger, A.M. Kellerer, L. Lehmann, G. Minkus, T. Negele, F. Spelsberg, L. Hieber, E.P. Demidchik, E. Lengfelder, and M. Bauchinger. 1997. p53 mutations in childhood thyroid tumours from Belarus and in thyroid tumours without radiation history. Int J Cancer 73:802-807. Smida, J., H. Zitzelsberger, L. Lengfelder, and others. 1999a. Molecular genetic analysis of RET rearangements in papillary thyroid carcinomas from BelaRussian children and adults. Pp. 263-267 in Radiation and Thyroid Cancer, G. Thomas, E.D. Williams, and A. Karaoglou, eds. Luxembourg: World Scientific Publishing. Smida, J., K. Salassidis, L. Hieber, H. Zitzelsberger, A.M. Kellerer, E.P. Demidchik, T. Negele, F. Spelsberg, E. Lengfelder, M. Werner, and M. Bauchinger. 1999b. Distinct frequency of RET rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinomas of children and adults from Belarus. Int J Cancer 80:32-38. Smith, C. 1975. Quantitative inheritance. Pp. 382-441 in Text Book of Human Genetics, G. Fraser and O. Mayo, eds. London: Blackwell. Smith, J.C., C.R. Newton, A. Alves, R. Anwar, D. Jenner, and A.F. Markham. 1990. Highly polymorphic minisatellite DNA probes. Further evaluation for individual identification and paternity testing. J Forensic Sci Soc 30:3-18. Smith, J.W., and H. Inskip. 1985. Estimation of below measurement threshold doses following the remeasurement of a sample of old films. J Soc Radiol Prot 5:159-164. Smith, L.G., R.C. Miller, M. Richards, D.J. Brenner, and E.J. Hall. 1999. Investigation of hypersensitivity to fractionated low-dose radiation exposure. Int J Radiat Oncol 45:187-191. Smith, P.G., and R. Doll. 1981. Mortality from cancer and all causes among British radiologists. Brit J Radiol 54:187-194. Smith, P.G., and A.J. Douglas. 1986. Mortality of workers at the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels. Brit Med J (Clin Res Ed) 293:845-854. Smith, W.M., X.P. Zhou, K. Kurose, X. Gao, F. Latif, T. Kroll, K. Sugano, S.A. Cannistra, S.K. Clinton, E.R. Maher, T.W. Prior, and C. Eng. 2001. Opposite association of two PPARG variants with cancer: overrepresentation of H449H in endometrial carcinoma cases and underrepresentation of P12A in renal cell carcinoma cases. Hum Genet 109:146-151. Sobol, R.W., J.K. Horton, R. Kuhn, H. Gu, R.K. Singhal, R. Prasad, K. Rajewsky, and S.H. Wilson. 1996. Requirement of mammalian DNA polymerase-beta in base-excision repair. Nature 379:183-186. Sobolev, B., W.F. Heidenreich, I. Kairo, P. Jacob, G. Goulko, and I. Likhtarev. 1997. Thyroid cancer incidence in the Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident: comparison with spontaneous incidences. Radiat Environ Bioph 36:195-199. Sofer, T., J.R. Goldsmith, I. Nusselder, and L. Katz. 1991. Geographical and temporal trends of childhood leukemia in relation to the nuclear plant in the Negev, Israel, 1960-1985. Public Health Rev 19:191-198. Sonoda, E., M.S. Sasaki, J.M. Buerstedde, O. Bezzubova, A. Shinohara, H. Ogawa, M. Takata, Y. Yamaguchi-Iwai, and S. Takeda. 1998. Rad51-deficient vertebrate cells accumulate chromosomal breaks prior to cell death. EMBO J 17:598-608. Sont, W.N., J.M. Zielinski, J.P. Ashmore, H. Jiang, D. Krewski, M.E. Fair, P.R. Band, and E.G. Letourneau. 2001. First analysis of cancer incidence and occupational radiation exposure based on the National Dose Registry of Canada. Am J Epidemiol 153:309-318. Sorahan, T., and P.J. Roberts. 1993. Childhood cancer and paternal exposure to ionizing radiation: preliminary findings from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers. Am J Ind Med 23:343-354. Sorensen, K.J., C.M. Attix, A.T. Christian, A.J. Wyrobek, and J.D. Tucker. 2002. Adaptive response induction and variation in human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Mutat Res 519:15-24. Southwick, G.J., and R.A. Schwartz. 1979. The basal cell nevus syndrome: disasters occurring among a series of 36 patients. Cancer 44:2294-2305. Sposto, R., and D.L. Preston. 1992. Correction for catchment area non-residency in studies based on tumor-registry data. Hiroshima, Japan: Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Sposto, R., D.L. Preston, Y. Shimizu, and K. Mabuchi. 1992. The effect of diagnostic misclassification on non-cancer and cancer mortality dose response in A-bomb survivors. Biometrics 48:605-617. Spring, K., F. Ahangari, S.P. Scott, P. Waring, D.M. Purdie, P.C. Chen, K. Hourigan, J. Ramsay, P.J. McKinnon, M. Swift, and M.F. Lavin. 2002. Mice heterozygous for mutation in ATM, the gene involved in ataxiatelangiectasia, have heightened susceptibility to cancer. Nat Genet 32:185-190. Stadler, L.J. 1928a. Genetic effects of x-rays in maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 14:69-75. Stadler, L.J. 1928b. Mutations in barley induced by x-rays and radium. Science 68:186. Stead, J.D., and A.J. Jeffreys. 2000. Allele diversity and germline mutation at the insulin minisatellite. Hum Mol Genet 9:713-723. Stecca, C., and G.B. Gerber. 1998. Adaptive response to DNA-damaging agents: a review of potential mechanisms. Biochem Pharmacol 55: 941-951. Steiner, M., W. Burkart, B. Grosche, U. Kaletsch, and J. Michaelis. 1998. Trends in infant leukaemia in West Germany in relation to in utero exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Environ Bioph 37: 87-93.
OCR for page 367
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Stern, F.B., R.A. Waxweiler, J.J. Beaumont, S.T. Lee, R.A. Rinsky, R.D. Zumwalde, W.E. Halperin, P.J. Bierbaum, P.J. Landrigan, and W.E. Murray Jr. 1986. A case-control study of leukemia at a naval nuclear shipyard. Am J Epidemiol 123:980-992. Stewart, A.M., and G.W. Kneale. 1996. Relations between age at occupational exposure to ionising radiation and cancer risk. Occup Environ Med 53:225-230. Stewart, A., J. Webb, and D. Hewitt. 1958. A survey of childhood malignancies. Brit Med J 30:1495-1508. Stewart, J.R., and L.F. Fajardo. 1984. Radiation-induced heart disease: an update. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 27:173-194. Stewart, J.R., L.F. Fajardo, S.M. Gillette, and L.S. Constine. 1995. Radiation injury to the heart. Int J Radiat Oncol 31:1205-1211. Storer, J.B., and R.L. Ullrich. 1983. Life shortening in BALB/c mice following brief, protracted, or fractionated exposures to neutrons. Radiat Res 96:335-347. Storer, J.B., L.J. Serrano, E.B. Darden Jr., M.C. Jernigan, and R.L. Ullrich. 1979. Life shortening in RFM and BALB/c mice as a function of radiation quality, dose, and dose rate. Radiat Res 78:122-161. Storer, J.B., T.J. Mitchell, and R.L. Ullrich. 1982. Causes of death and their contribution to radiation-induced life shortening in intact and ovariectomized mice. Radiat Res 89:618-643. Storer, J.B., T.J. Mitchell, and R.J. Fry. 1988. Extrapolation of the relative risk of radiogenic neoplasms across mouse strains and to man. Radiat Res 114:331-353. Storm, H.H., M. Andersson, J.D. Boice, M. Blettner, M. Stovall, H.T. Mouridsen, P. Dombernowsky, C. Rose, A. Jacobsen, and M. Pedersen. 1992. Adjuvant radiotherapy and risk of contralateral breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 84:1245-1250. Storm, H.H., A.E. Prisyazhniuk, A.E. Okeanov, V.K. Ivanov, and L. Gulak. 1996. Development of infrastructure for epidemiological studies in the three CIS republics. The Radiological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident. Proceedings of the First International Conference, Minsk, Belarus, A. Karaoglou, G. Desmet, G.N. Kelly, and others, eds. ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels, Luxembourg. Strasser, A., A.W. Harris, T. Jacks, and S. Cory. 1994. DNA damage can induce apoptosis in proliferating lymphoid cells via p53-independent mechanisms inhibitable by Bcl-2. Cell 79:329-339. Strather, J.W., C.R. Muirheard, A.A. Edwards, J.D. Harrison, D.C. Lloyd, and N.R. Wood. 1988. Health Effects Models Developed from the 1988 UNSCEAR Report. NRPBR226. Chilton, UK: National Radiological Protection Board. Straume, T. 1991. Health Risks from Exposure to Tritium. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report. Straume, T. 1996. Risk implications of the neutron discrepancy in the Hiroshima DS86 dosimetry system. Radiat Prot Dosim 67:9-12. Straume, T., and A.L. Carsten. 1993. Tritium radiobiology and relative biological effectiveness. Health Phys 65:657-672. Straume, T., S.D. Egbert, W.A. Woolson, R.C. Finkel, P.W. Kubik, H.E. Gove, P. Sharma, and M. Hoshi. 1992. Neutron discrepancies in the DS86 Hiroshima dosimetry system. Health Phys 63:421-426. Strong, L.C. 1977. Genetic and environmental interactions. Cancer 40:1861-1866. Strong, L.C., and W.R. Williams. 1987. The genetic implications of long-term survival of childhood cancer. A conceptual framework. Am J Pediat Hematol 9:99-103. Stsjazhko, V.A., A.F. Tsyb, N.D. Tronko, G. Souchkevitch, and K.F. Baverstock. 1995. Childhood thyroid cancer since accident at Chernobyl. Brit Med J 310:801. Sturzbecher, H.W., B. Donzelmann, W. Henning, U. Knippschild, and S. Buchhop. 1996. p53 is linked directly to homologous recombination processes via RAD51/RecA protein interaction. EMBO J 15:1992-2002. Sugenoya, A., K. Asanuma, Y. Hama, H. Masuda, G.S. Skidanenko, A.T. Anatoliebna, K. Koike, A. Komiyama, and F. Iida. 1995. Thyroid abnormalities among children in the contaminated area related to the Chernobyl accident. Thyroid 5:29-33. Suzuki, K., R. Takahara, S. Kodama, and M. Watanabe. 1998. In situ detection of chromosome bridge formation and delayed reproductive death in normal human embryonic cells surviving X irradiation. Radiat Res 150:375-381. Swanson, R.L., N.J. Morey, P.W. Doetsch, and S. Jinks-Robertson. 1999. Overlapping specificities of base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, recombination, and translesion synthesis pathways for DNA base damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 19:2929-2935. Swerdlow, A.J., M.J. Schoemaker, R. Allerton, A. Horwich, J.A. Barber, D. Cunningham, T.A. Lister, A.Z. Rohatiner, G. Vaughan Hudson, M.V. Williams, and D.C. Linch. 2001. Lung cancer after Hodgkin’s disease: a nested case-control study of the relation to treatment. J Clin Oncol 19:1610-1618. Szymanska, H., M. Sitarz, E. Krysiak, J. Piskorowska, A. Czarnomska, H. Skurzak, A.A. Hart, D. de Jong, and P. Demant. 1999. Genetics of susceptibility to radiation-induced lymphomas, leukemias and lung tumors studied in recombinant congenic strains. Int J Cancer 83:674-678. Taalman, R.D., N.G. Jaspers, J.M. Scheres, J. de Wit, and T.W. Hustinx. 1983. Hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, in vitro, in a new chromosomal breakage disorder, the Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome. Mutat Res 112:23-32. Takahashi, T., M.J. Schoemaker, K.R. Trott, S.L. Simon, K. Fujimori, N. Nakashima, A. Fukao, and H. Saito. 2003. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands. J Epidemiol 13:99-107. Tamaki, K., C.A. May, Y.E. Dubrova, and A.J. Jeffreys. 1999. Extremely complex repeat shuffling during germline mutation at human minisatellite B6.7. Hum Mol Genet 8:879-888. Tanaka, K., N.J. Tchaijunusova, T. Takatsuji, B.I. Gusev, A.K. Sakerbaev, M. Hoshi, and N. Kamada. 2000. High incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area near the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site. J Radiat Res 41:45-54. Tankersley, W.G., C.M. West, J.E. Watson, and J.L. Reagan. 1996. Retrospective assessment of radiation exposures at or below the minimum detectable level at a federal nuclear reactor facility. App Occ Env Hyg 11:330-333. Tauchi, H., S. Endo, K. Eguchi-Kasai, Y. Furusawa, M. Suzuki, S. Matsuura, K. Ando, N. Nakamura, S. Sawada, and K. Komatsu. 1999. Cell cycle and LET dependence for radiation-induced mutation: a possible mechanism for reversed dose-rate effect. J Radiat Res 40(Suppl):45-52. Tawn, E.J., C.A. Whitehouse, D. Holdsworth, S. Morris, and R.E. Tarone. 2000a. Chromosome analysis of workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility. Int J Radiat Biol 76:355-365. Tawn, E.J., C.A. Whitehouse, and F.A. Martin. 2000b. Sequential chromosome aberration analysis following radiotherapy—no evidence for enhanced genomic instability. Mutat Res 465:45-51. Tawn, E.J., C.A. Whitehouse, and R.E. Tarone. 2004. FISH chromosome aberration analysis on retired radiation workers from the Sellafield nuclear facility. Radiat Res 162:249-256. Taylor, A.M.R. 1983. The effect of radiation on the chromosomes of patients with an unusual cancer susceptibility. Pp. 166-169 in Radiation Induced Chromosome Damage in Man, T. Ishikara and M. Sasaki, eds. New York: A.R. Liss. Taylor, A.M.R., D. Scott, C.F. Arlett, and J. Cole. 1994a. Ataxia-telangiectasia: the effect of a pleiotropic gene. Int J Radiat Biol 66:S5-S201. Taylor, J.A., M.A. Watson, T.R. Devereux, R.Y. Michels, G. Saccomanno, and M. Anderson. 1994b. p53 mutation hotspot in radon-associated lung cancer. Lancet 343:86-87. Taylor, N.A. 1991. Estimation of dose received when dosemeter results are recorded below a threshold level. J Radiol Prot 3:191-198. Tedeschi, B., D. Caporossi, P. Vernole, L. Padovani, M. Appolloni, P. Anzidei, and F. Mauro. 1995. Do human lymphocytes exposed to the fallout of the Chernobyl accident exhibit an adaptive response? 2. Challenge with bleomycin. Mutat Res 332:39-44.
OCR for page 368
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Tedeschi, B., D. Caporossi, P. Vernole, L. Padovani, and F. Mauro. 1996. Do human lymphocytes exposed to the fallout of the Chernobyl accident exhibit an adaptive response? III. Challenge with bleomycin in lymphocytes from children hit by the initial acute dose of ionizing radiation. Mutat Res 354:77-80. Telle, M.A. 1995. Historique des pratiques de dosimetrie au CEA: metrologie, enreistrement des doses et criteres de surveillance. Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire. Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. Telle-Lamberton, M.A., E. Auperin, J. Chemali, and D. Bergot. 1998. Reconstitution a posteriori des expositions professionnelles aux rayonnements ionisants: Incertitudes liees aux seuils de detection des dosimetres. Revue de Medecine du Travail 25:37-41. Telle-Lamberton, M., D. Bergot, M. Gagneau, E. Samson, J.M. Giraud, M.O. Neron, and P. Hubert. 2004. Cancer mortality among French Atomic Energy Commission workers. Am J Ind Med 45:34-44. Teraoka, S.N., K.E. Malone, D.R. Doody, N.M. Suter, E.A. Ostrander, J.R. Daling, and P. Concannon. 2001. Increased frequency of ATM mutations in breast carcinoma patients with early onset disease and positive family history. Cancer 92:479-487. Terasima, T., and L.J. Tolmach. 1963. X-ray sensitivity and DNA synthesis in synchronous populations of HeLa cells. Science 140:490-492. Thacker, J. 1986. The nature of mutants induced by ionising radiation in cultured hamster cells. III. Molecular characterization of HPRT-deficient mutants induced by gamma-rays or alpha-particles showing that the majority have deletions of all or part of the hprt gene. Mutat Res 160:267-275. Thacker, J. 1992. Radiation-induced mutation in mammalian cells at low doses and dose rates. Adv Radiat Biol 16:77-124. Thacker, J., and R. Cox. 1983. The relationship between specific chromosome aberrations and radiation-induced mutations in cultured mammalian cells. Pp. 235-275 in Radiation-Induced Chromosome Damage in Man, T. Ishihara and M.S. Sasaki, eds. New York: Liss. Thacker, J., A. Stretch, and M.A. Stephens. 1979. Mutation and inactivation of cultured mammalian cells exposed to beams of accelerated heavy ions. II. Chinese hamster V79 cells. Int J Radiat Biol Re 36:137-148. Thacker, J., A.N. Ganesh, A. Stretch, D.M. Benjamin, A.J. Zahalsky, and E.A. Hendrickson. 1994. Gene mutation and V(D)J recombination in the radiosensitive irs lines. Mutagenesis 9:163-168. Thomas, G.A., and E.D. Williams. 1991. Evidence for and possible mechanisms of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis in the rodent thyroid. Mutat Res 248:357-370. Thomas, D., S. Darby, F. Fagnani, P. Hubert, M. Vaeth, and K. Weiss. 1992. Definition and estimation of lifetime detriment from radiation exposures: principles and methods. Health Phys 63:259-272. Thompson, D.E., K. Mabuchi, E. Ron, M. Soda, M. Tokunaga, S. Ochikubo, S. Sugimoto, T. Ikeda, M. Terasaki, S. Izumi, and D.L. Preston. 1994. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors, 1958-1987. Radiat Res 137:S17-S67. Thompson, L.H. 1996. Evidence that mammalian cells possess homologous recombinational repair pathways. Mutat Res 363:77-88. Thompson, L.H., and R.M. Humphrey. 1968. Response of mouse L-P59 cells to x-irradiation in the G2 phase. Int J Radiat Biol 15:181-184. Thompson, L.H., and D. Schild. 1999. The contribution of homologous recombination in preserving genome integrity in mammalian cells. Biochimie 81:87-105. Thorpe, G.W., C.S. Fong, N. Alic, V.J. Higgins, and I.W. Dawes. 2004. Cells have distinct mechanisms to maintain protection against different reactive oxygen species: oxidative-stress-response genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:6564-6569. Tishkoff, D.X., N. Filosi, G.M. Gaida, and R.D. Kolodner. 1997. A novel mutation avoidance mechanism dependent on S. cerevisiae RAD27 is distinct from DNA mismatch repair. Cell 88:253-263. Tokunaga, M., C.E. Land, Y. Aoki, T. Yamamoto, M. Asano, E. Sato, S. Tokuoka, G. Sakamoto, and D.L. Page. 1993. Proliferative and nonproliferative breast disease in atomic bomb survivors. Results of a histopathologic review of autopsy breast tissue. Cancer 72:1657-1665. Tokunaga, M., C.E. Landd, S. Tokuoka, I. Nishimori, M. Soda, and S. Akiba. 1994. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-1985. Radiat Res 138:209-223. Tomlinson, I., and W. Bodmer. 1999. Selection, the mutation rate and cancer: ensuring that the tail does not wag the dog. Nat Med 5:11-12. Tomonaga, M.T., R.L. Matsuo, J.M. Carter, K. Bennett, F. Kuriyama, F. Imanaka, S. Kusumi, K. Mabuci, A. Kuramoto, N. Kamada, M. Ichimaru, A.V. Pisciotta, and C.C. Finch. 1991. Differential effects of atomic bomb irradiation in inducing major leukemia types: analysis of open-city cases including the Life Span Study cohort based upon updated diagnostic systems and the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). Hiroshima, Japan: Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Tondel, M., G. Carlsson, L. Hardell, M. Eriksson, S. Jakobsson, U. Flodin, A. Skoldestig, and O. Axelson. 1996. Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y in parts of Sweden with high 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident. Health Phys 71:947-950. Travis, L.B., R.E. Curtis, J.D. Boice, B.F. Hankey, and J.F. Fraumeni. 1991. Second cancers following non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cancer 67:2002-2009. Travis, L.B., R.E. Curtis, H. Storm, P. Hall, E. Holowaty, F.E. van Leeuwen, B.A. Kohler, E. Pukkala, C.F. Lynch, M. Andersson, K. Bergfeldt, E.A. Clarke, T. Wiklund, G. Stoter, M. Gospodarowicz, J. Sturgeon, J.F. Fraumeni Jr., and J.D. Boice Jr. 1997. Risk of second malignant neoplasms among long-term survivors of testicular cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 89:1429-1439. Travis, L.B., E.J. Holowaty, K. Bergfeldt, C.F. Lynch, B.A. Kohler, T. Wiklund, R.E. Curtis, P. Hall, M. Andersson, E. Pukkala, J. Sturgeon, and M. Stovall. 1999. Risk of leukemia after platinum-based chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 340:351-357. Travis, L.B., M. Andersson, M. Gospodarowicz, F.E. van Leeuwen, K. Bergfeldt, C.F. Lynch, R.E. Curtis, B.A. Kohler, T. Wiklund, H. Storm, E. Holowaty, P. Hall, E. Pukkala, D.T. Sleijfer, E.A. Clarke, J.D. Boice Jr., M. Stovall, and E. Gilbert. 2000. Treatment-associated leukemia following testicular cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92:1165-1171. Travis, L.B., M. Gospodarowicz, R.E. Curtis, E.A. Clarke, M. Andersson, B. Glimelius, T. Joensuu, C.F. Lynch, F.E. van Leeuwen, E. Holowaty, H. Storm, I. Glimelius, E. Pukkala, M. Stovall, J.F. Fraumeni Jr., J.D. Boice Jr., and E. Gilbert. 2002. Lung cancer following chemotherapy and radiotherapy for Hodgkin’s disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:182-192. Travis, L.B, D.A. Hill, G.M. Dores, M. Gospodarowicz, F.E. van Leeuwen, E. Holowaty, B. Glimelius, M. Andersson, T. Wiklund, C.F. Lynch, M.B. van’t Veer, I. Glimelius, H. Storm, E. Pukkala, M. Stovall, R. Curtis, J.D. Boice Jr., and E. Gilbert. 2003. Breast cancer following radiotherapy and chemotherapy among young women with Hodgkin disease. J Am Med Assoc 290:465-475; erratum in J Am Med Assoc 290:1318. Trenz, K., A. Rothfuss, P. Schutz, and G. Speit. 2002. Mutagen sensitivity of peripheral blood from women carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Mutat Res 500:89-96. Trepicchio, W.L., and T.G. Krontiris. 1992. Members of the rel/NF_B family of transcriptional regulatory proteins bind the HRAS1 minisatellite DNA sequence. Nucleic Acids Res 20:2427-2434. Trimble, B.K., and J.H. Doughty. 1974. The amount of hereditary disease in human populations. Ann Hum Genet 38:199-223. Tripodis, N., A.A. Hart, R.J. Fijneman, and P. Demant. 2001. Complexity of lung cancer modifiers: mapping of thirty genes and twenty-five interactions in half of the mouse genome. J Natl Cancer Inst 93:1484-1491. Trivedi, A., and M.A. Hannan. 2004. Radiation and cardiovascular diseases. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 23:99-106. Tronko, M.D., T.I. Bogdanova, I.V. Komissarenko, O.V. Epstein, V. Oliynyk, A. Kovalenko, I.A. Likhtarev, I. Kairo, S.B. Peters, and V.A. LiVolsi. 1999. Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents in Ukraine after the Chernobyl nuclear accident: statistical data and clinicomorphologic characteristics. Cancer 86:149-156.
OCR for page 369
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Tronko, N.D., T.I. Bogdanova, O.V. Epstein, V.A. Oleynyk, I.V. Komissarenko, S.I. Rybakov, A.E. Kovalenko, V.P. Tereshchenko, I.A. Likhtarev, I.A. Kairo, V.M. Shpak, and N.I. Chepurnoy. 2002. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Ukraine having been exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident (15-year expertise of investigations). Int J Radiat Med 4:222-232. Tsyb, A.F., A.N. Dedenkov, V.K. Ivanov, V.F. Stepanenko, and V.V. Pozhidaev. 1989. The development of an all-Union registry of persons exposed to radiation resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Med Radiol 34:3-6. Tucker, J.D., K.J. Sorensen, C.S. Chu, D.O. Nelson, M.J. Ramsey, C. Urlando, and J.A. Heddle. 1998. The accumulation of chromosome aberrations and Dlb-1 mutations in mice with highly fractionated exposure to gamma radiation. Mutat Res 400:321-335. Tucker, M.A., G.J. D’Angio, J.D. Boice Jr., L.C. Strong, F.P. Li, M. Stovall, B.J. Stone, D.M. Green, F. Lombardi, W. Newton, R.N. Hoover, and J.F. Fraumeni Jr. 1987a. Bone sarcomas linked to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in children. N Engl J Med 317:588-593. Tucker, M.A., A.T. Meadows, J.D. Boice Jr., M. Stovall, O. Oberlin, B.J. Stone, J. Birch, P.A. Voute, R.N. Hoover, and J.F. Fraumeni Jr. 1987b. Leukemia after therapy with alkylating agents for childhood cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 78:459-464. Tucker, M.A., P.H. Morris Jones, J.D. Boice Jr., L.L. Robison, B.J. Stone, M. Stovall, R.D. Jenkin, J.H. Lubin, E.S. Baum, S.E. Siegel, A.T. Meadows, R.N. Hoover, and J.F. Fraumeni Jr. 1991. Therapeutic radiation at a young age is linked to secondary thyroid cancer. Cancer Res 51:2885-2888. Tukiendorf, A., G. Krasowski, and Z. Rybak. 2003. Thyroid cancer morbidity in Opole Province, Poland, after Chernobyl disaster. Cent Eur J Public Health 11:98-101. Tusher, V.G., R. Tibshirani, and G. Chu. 2001. Significance analysis of microarrays applied to the ionizing radiation response. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:5116-5121. Ueno, A.M., D.B. Vannais, D.L. Gustafson, J.C. Wong, and C.A. Waldren. 1996. A low, adaptive dose of gamma-rays reduced the number and altered the spectrum of S1 mutants in human-hamster hybrid AL cells. Mutat Res 358:161-169. Ullrich, R.L. 1983. Tumor induction in BALB/c female mice after fission neutron or gamma irradiation. Radiat Res 93:506-515. Ullrich, R.L. 1984. Tumor induction in BALB/c mice after fractionated or protracted exposures to fission-spectrum neutrons. Radiat Res 97: 587-597. Ullrich, R.L. 1986. The rate of progression of radiation-transformed mammary epithelial cells is enhanced after low-dose-rate neutron irradiation. Radiat Res 105:68-75. Ullrich, R.L. 1999. Risks for radiation-induced breast cancer: the debate continues. Radiat Res 151:123-124. Ullrich, R.L., and C.M. Davis. 1999. Radiation-induced cytogenetic instability in vivo. Radiat Res 152:170-173. Ullrich, R.L., and B. Ponnaiya. 1998. Radiation-induced instability and its relation to radiation carcinogenesis. Int J Radiat Biol 74:747-754. Ullrich, R.L., and R.J. Preston. 1987. Myeloid leukemia in male RFM mice following irradiation with fission spectrum neutrons or gamma rays. Radiat Res 109:165-170. Ullrich, R.L., and J.B. Storer. 1979a. Influence of gamma irradiation on the development of neoplastic disease in mice. I. Reticular tissue tumors. Radiat Res 80:303-316. Ullrich, R.L., and J.B. Storer. 1979b. Influence of gamma irradiation on the development of neoplastic disease in mice. II. Solid tumors. Radiat Res 80:317-324. Ullrich, R.L., and J.B. Storer. 1979c. Influence of gamma irradiation on the development of neoplastic disease in mice. III. Dose-rate effects. Radiat Res 80:325-342. Ullrich, R.L., M.C. Jernigan, G.E. Cosgrove, L.C. Satterfield, N.D. Bowles, and J.B. Storer. 1976. The influence of dose and dose rate on the incidence of neoplastic disease in RFM mice after neutron irradiation. Radiat Res 68:115-131. Ullrich, R.L., M.C. Jernigan, L.C. Satterfield, and N.D. Bowles. 1987. Radiation carcinogenesis: time-dose relationships. Radiat Res 111: 179-184. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1958. The 1958 Report to the General Assembly with Annexes. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1962. The 1962 Report to the General Assembly with Annexes. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1972. The 1972 Report to the General Assembly with Annexes. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1977. The 1977 Report to the General Assembly with Annexes. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1982. Ionizing Radiation: Sources and Biological Effects. The 1982 Report to the General Assembly with Annexes. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1986. Genetic and Somatic Effects of Ionizing Radiation. The 1986 Report to the General Assembly with Annexes. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1988. Sources, Effects, and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. The 1988 Report to the General Assembly with Annexes. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1993. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. 1993 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1994. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. 1994 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. Annex B Adaptive Responses to Radiation in Cells and Organisms. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1996. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. 1996 Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annex. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 2000a. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. UNSCEAR Report to the General Assembly, Volume I: Sources. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 2000b. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. UNSCEAR Report to the General Assembly, Volume II: Effects. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 2001. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Hereditary Effects of Radiation. The 2002 Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annex. New York: United Nations. Upton, A.C. 2000. Why the concept of hormesis has not been incorporated into mainstream radiation health theory: radiation perspective. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 6:249-271. Upton, A.C., M.L. Randolph, J.W. Conklin, M.A. Kastenbaum, M. Slater, G.S. Melville Jr., F.P. Conte, and J.A. Sproul Jr. 1970. Late effects of fast neutrons and gamma-rays in mice as influenced by the dose rate of irradiation: induction of neoplasia. Radiat Res 41:467-491.
OCR for page 370
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Urquhart, J.D., R.J. Black, M.J. Muirhead, L. Sharp, M. Maxwell, O.B. Eden, and D.A. Jones. 1991. Case-control study of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in children in Caithness near the Dounreay nuclear installation. Brit Med J 302:687-692; erratum in Brit Med J 302:818. Vaeth, M., and D.A. Pierce. 1990. Calculating excess lifetime risk in relative risk models. Environ Health Persp 87:83-94. Vahakangas, K.H., J.M. Samet, R.A. Metcalf, J.A. Welsh, W.P. Bennett, D.P. Lane, and C.C. Harris. 1992. Mutations of p53 and ras genes in radon-associated lung cancer from uranium miners. Lancet 339:576-580. van der Houven van Oordt, C.W., R. Smits, T.G. Schouten, J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat, S.L. Williamson, A. Luz, P. Meera Khan, A.J. van der Eb, M.L. Breuer, and R. Fodde. 1999. The genetic background modifies the spontaneous and x-ray-induced tumor spectrum in the Apc1638N mouse model. Gene Chromosomes Cancer 24:191-198. van Leeuwen, F.E., W.J. Klokman, M. Stovall, A. Hagenbeek, A.W. van den Belt-Dusebout, R. Noyon, J.D. Boice Jr., J.M. Burgers, and R. Somers. 1995. Roles of radiotherapy and smoking in lung cancer following Hodgkin’s disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 87:1530-1537. van Leeuwen, F.E., W.J. Klokman, M. Stovall, E.C. Dahler, M.B. van’t Veer, E.M. Noordijk, M.A. Crommelin, B.M. Aleman, A. Broeks, M. Gospodarowicz, L.B. Travis, and N.S. Russell. 2003. Roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and hormonal factors in breast cancer following Hodgkin’s disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 95:971-980. van Wezel, T., A.P. Stassen, C.J. Moen, A.A. Hart, M.A. van der Valk, and P. Demant. 1996. Gene interaction and single gene effects in colon tumour susceptibility in mice. Nat Genet 14:468-470. Venitt, S., and P.J. Biggs. 1994. Radon, mycotoxins, p53, and uranium mining. Lancet 343:795. Verger, P., O. Catelinois, M. Tirmarche, L. Cherie-Challine, P. Pirard, M. Colonna, and P. Hubert. 2003. Thyroid cancers in France and the Chernobyl accident: risk assessment and recommendations for improving epidemiological knowledge. Health Phys 85:323-329. Vergnaud, G., and F. Denoeud. 2000. Minisatellites: mutability and genome architecture. Genome Res 10:899-907. Vermiglio, F., M.G. Castagna, E. Volnova, V.P. Lo Presti, M. Moleti, M.A. Violi, A. Artemisia, and F. Trimarchi. 1999. Post-Chernobyl increased prevalence of humoral thyroid autoimmunity in children and adolescents from a moderately iodine-deficient area in Russia. Thyroid 9: 781-786. Viel, J.F., D. Pobel, and A. Carre. 1995. Incidence of leukaemia in young people around the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant: a sensitivity analysis. Stat Med 14:2459-2472. Vijayalaxmi, B.Z. Leal, T.S. Deahl, and M.L. Meltz. 1995. Variability in adaptive response to low dose radiation in human blood lymphocytes: consistent results from chromosome aberrations and micronuclei. Mutat Res 348:45-50. Vilenchik, M.M., and A.G. Knudson Jr. 2000. Inverse radiation dose-rate effects on somatic and germ-line mutations and DNA damage rates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:5381-5386. Villeneuve, P.J., and H.I. Morrison. 1997. Coronary heart disease mortality among Newfoundland fluorspar miners. Scan J Work Env Health 23:221-226. Voehringer, D.W., D.L. Hirschberg, J. Xiao, Q. Lu, M. Roederer, C.B. Lock, L.A. Herzenberg, L. Steinman, and L.A. Herzenberg. 2000. Gene microarray identification of redox and mitochondrial elements that control resistance or sensitivity to apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:2680-2685. Voelz, G.L., J.N. Lawrence, and E.R. Johnson. 1997. Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Manhattan Project plutonium workers: an update. Health Phys 73:611-619. Vogel, F. 1979. Genetics of retinoblastoma. Hum Genet 52:1-54. Vogel, F., and Motulsky, A.G. 1997. Human Genetics: Problems and Approaches. Berlin: Springer. Vogelstein, B., and K.W. Kinzler. 1993. The multistep nature of cancer. Trends Genet 9:138-141. Vykhovanets, E.V., V.P. Chernyshov, I.I. Slukvin, Y.G. Antipkin, A.N. Vasyuk, H.F. Klimenko, and K.W. Strauss. 1997. I-131 dose-dependent thyroid autoimmune disorders in children living around Chernobyl. Clin Immunol Immnop 84:251-259. Wakeford, R., and M.P. Little. 2003. Risk coefficients for childhood cancer after intrauterine irradiation: a review. Int J Radiat Biol 79:293-309. Wakeford, R., and L. Parker. 1996. Leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in young persons resident in small areas of West Cumbria in relation to paternal preconceptional irradiation. Brit J Cancer 73: 672-679. Waldren, C.A. 2004. Classical radiation biology dogma, bystander effects and paradigm shifts. Hum Exp Toxicol 23:95-100. Waller, L.A., B.W. Turnbull, G. Gustafsson, U. Hjalmars, and B. Andersson. 1995. Detection and assessment of clusters of disease: an application to nuclear power plant facilities and childhood leukaemia in Sweden. Stat Med 14:3-16. Wang, B., H. Ohyama, T. Nose, H. Itsukaichi, T. Nakajima, O. Yukawa, T. Odaka, K. Tanaka, E. Kojima, T. Yamada, and I. Hayata. 1998. Adaptive response in embryogenesis: I. Dose and timing of radiation for reduction in prenatal death and congenital malformation during the late period of organogenesis. Radiat Res 150:120-122. Wang, J.X., J.D. Boice Jr., B.X. Li, J.Y. Zhang, and J.F. Fraumeni Jr. 1988. Cancer among medical diagnostic x-ray workers in China. J Natl Cancer Inst 80:344-350. Wang, Y., D. Cortez, P. Yazdi, N. Neff, S.J. Elledge, and J. Qin. 2000. BASC, a super complex of BRCA1-associated proteins involved in the recognition and repair of aberrant DNA structures. Genes Dev 14: 927-939. Wang, Z.Y., J.D. Boice, L.X. Wei, G.W. Beebe, Y.R. Zha, M.M. Kaplan, Z.F. Tao, H.R. Maxon III, S.Z. Zhang, A.B. Schneider, B. Tan, T.A. Wesseler, D. Chen, A.G. Ershow, R.A. Kleinerman, L.G. Littlefield, and D. Preston. 1990. Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China. J Natl Cancer Inst 82:478-485. Ward, J.F. 1981. Some biochemical consequences of the spatial distribution of ionizing radiation-produced free radicals. Radiat Res 86:185-195. Ward, J.F. 1988. DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation in mammalian cells: identities, mechanism of formation, and repairability. Prog Nucleic Acid Res 35:95-125. Ward, J.F. 1994. The complexity of DNA damage—relevance to biological consequences. Int J Radiat Biol 66:427-432. Ward, J.F. 2002. The radiation-induced lesions which trigger the bystander effect. Mutat Res 499:151-154. Ward, J.F., W.F. Blakely, and E.I. Joner. 1985. Mammalian cells are not killed by DNA single-strand breaks caused by hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide. Radiat Res 103:383-392. Ward, J.F., C.L. Limoli, P.M. Calabro-Jones, and J. Aguilera. 1991. An examination of the repair saturation hypothesis for describing shouldered survival curves. Radiat Res 127:90-96. Watanabe, M., and M. Horikawa. 1980. Analyses of differential sensitivities of synchronized HeLa S3 cells to radiations and chemical carcinogens during the cell cycle. Par V. Radiation- and chemical carcinogen-induced mutagenesis. Mutat Res 71:219-231. Waters, T.R., P. Gallinari, J. Jiricny, and P.F. Swann. 1999. Human thymine DNA glycosylase binds to apurinic sites in DNA but is displaced by human apurinic endonuclease 1. J Biol Chem 274:67-74. Watkins, J.P., D.L. Cragle, E.L. Frome, J.L. Reagan, C.M. West, D. Crawford-Brown, and W.G. Tankersley. 1997. Collection, validation, and treatment of data for mortality study of nuclear industry workers. Appl Occ Env Hyg 12:195-205. Watson, G.E., S.A. Lorimore, and E.G. Wright. 1996. Long-term in vivo transmission of alpha-particle-induced chromosomal instability in murine haemopoietic cells. Int J Radiat Biol 69:175-182.
OCR for page 371
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Watson, G.E., D.A. Pocock, D. Papworth, S.A. Lorimore, and E.G. Wright. 2001. In vivo chromosomal instability and transmissible aberrations in the progeny of haemopoietic stem cells induced by high- and low-LET radiations. Int J Radiat Biol 77:409-417. Weil, M.M., C. Xia, X. Xia, X. Gu, C.I. Amos, and K.A. Mason. 2001. A chromosome 15 quantitative trait locus controls levels of radiation-induced jejunal crypt cell apoptosis in mice. Genomics 72:73-77. Weinberg, H.S., A.B. Korol, V.M. Kirzhner, T. Fahima, E. Nevo, S. Shapiro, G. Rennert, O. Piatak, E.I. Stepanova, and E. Skvarskaja. 2001. Very high mutation rate in offspring of Chernobyl accident liquidators. Proc R Soc Lond 268:1001-1005. Weinberg, R.A. 1994. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. CA-Cancer J Clin 44:160-170. Weiss, H.A., S.C. Darby, and R. Doll. 1994. Cancer mortality following x-ray treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. Int J Cancer 59:327-338. Weiss, H.A., S.C. Darby, T. Fearn, and R. Doll. 1995. Leukemia mortality after x-ray treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. Radiat Res 142:1-11. White, E., and C. Prives. 1999. DNA damage enables p73. Nature 399:734-735, 737. White, E., S.K. Chiou, L. Rao, P. Sabbatini, and H.J. Lin. 1994. Control of p53-dependent apoptosis by E1B, Bcl-2, and Ha-ras proteins. Cold Spring Harb Symp 59:395-402. Whitehouse, C.A., and E.J. Tawn. 2001. No evidence for chromosomal instability in radiation workers with in vivo exposure to plutonium. Radiat Res 156:467-475. Whitehouse, C.J., R.M. Taylor, A. Thistlethwaite, H. Zhang, F. Karimi-Busheri, D.D. Lasko, M. Weinfeld, and K.W. Caldecott. 2001. XRCC1 stimulates human polynucleotide kinase activity at damaged DNA termini and accelerates DNA single-strand break repair. Cell 104:107-117. Whittemore, A. S. 1978. Quantitative theories of oncogenesis. Adv Cancer Res, v. 27: 55-88. WHO (World Health Organization). 1998. The public health impact of nuclear weapons testing in Kazakhstan. World Health Organization Report. Wiggs, L.D., C.A. Cox-DeVore, and G.L. Voelz. 1991a. Mortality among a cohort of workers monitored for 210Po exposure: 1944-1972. Health Phys 61:71-76. Wiggs, L.D., C.A. Cox-DeVore, G.S. Wilkinson, and M. Reyes. 1991b. Mortality among workers exposed to external ionizing radiation at a nuclear facility in Ohio. J Occup Med 33:632-637. Wiggs, L.D., E. Johnson, C. Cox-Devore, and G. Voelz. 1994. Mortality through 1990 among white male workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory: considering exposures to plutonium and external ionizing radiation. Health Phys 67:577-588. Wilkinson, G.S., G.L. Tietjen, L.D. Wiggs, W.A. Galke, J.F. Acquavella, M. Reyes, G.L. Voelz, and R.J. Waxweiler. 1987. Mortality among plutonium and other radiation workers at a plutonium weapons facility. Am J Epidemiol 125:231-250. Williams, E.D. 1997. Thyroid Cancer and the Chernobyl Accident. Health Effects of Low Dose Radiation. London: British Nuclear Energy Society. Williams, E.D. 2003. Chernobyl, 15 years later, correlation of clinical, epidemiological and molecular outcomes. Ann Endocrinol 64:72. Wilson, D.M., 3rd, and L.H. Thompson. 1997. Life without DNA repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:12754-12757. Wing, S., C. Shy, J. Wood, S. Wolf, D. Cragle, and E. Frome. 1991. Mortality among workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Evidence of radiation effects in follow-up through 1984. J Am Med Assoc 265:1397-1402. Wing, S., C. Shy, J. Wood, S. Wolf, D. Cragle, W. Tankersley, and E. Frome. 1993. Job factors, radiation and cancer mortality at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: follow-up through 1984. Am J Ind Med 23:265-279. Witt, K.L., and J.B. Bishop. 1996. Mutagenicity of anticancer drugs in mammalian germ cells. Mutat Res 355:209-234. Wojcik, A., K. Bonk, W.U. Muller, C. Streffer, U. Weissenborn, and G. Obe. 1992. Absence of adaptive response to low doses of x-rays in preimplantation embryos and spleen lymphocytes of an inbred mouse strain as compared to human peripheral lymphocytes: a cytogenetic study. Int J Radiat Biol 62:177-186. Wolf, C., J. Lafuma, R. Masse, M. Morin, and A.M. Kellerer. 2000. Neutron RBE for induction of tumors with high lethality in Sprague-Dawley rats. Radiat Res 154:412-420. Wolff, S. 1989. Are radiation-induced effects hormetic? Science 245: 575, 621. Wolff, S. 1992a. Low dose exposures and the induction of adaptation. Pp. 21-28 in Low Dose Irradiation and Biological Defense Mechanisms, T. Sugahara and others, eds. Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo: Excerpta Medica. Wolff, S. 1992b. Failla Memorial Lecture. Is radiation all bad? The search for adaptation. Radiat Res 131:117-123. Wolff, S. 1996. Aspects of the adaptive response to very low doses of radiation and other agents. Mutat Res 358:135-142. Wong, F.L., M. Yamada, H. Sasaki, K. Kodama, S. Akiba, K. Shimaoka, and Y. Hosoda. 1993. Noncancer disease incidence in the atomic bomb survivors: 1958-1986. Radiat Res 135:418-430. Wong, F.L., J.D. Boice Jr., D.H. Abramson, R.E. Tarone, R.A. Kleinerman, M. Stovall, M.B. Goldman, J.M. Seddon, N. Tarbell, J.F. Fraumeni Jr., and F.P. Li. 1997a. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma. Radiation dose and sarcoma risk. J Am Med Assoc 278:1262-1267. Wong, F.L., J.D. Boice Jr., D.H. Abramson, R.E. Tarone, R.A. Kleinerman, M. Stovall, M.B. Goldman, J.M. Seddon, N. Tarbell, J.F. Fraumeni Jr., and F.P. Li. 1997b. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma. Radiation dose and sarcoma risk. J Am Med Assoc 278:1262-1267. Wong, F.L., M. Yamada, H. Sasaki, K. Kodama, and Y. Hosoda. 1999. Effects of radiation on the longitudinal trends of total serum cholesterol levels in atomic bomb survivors. Radiat Res 151:736-746. Wood, R.D., M. Mitchell, J. Sgouros, and T. Lindahl. 2001. Human DNA repair genes. Science 291:1284-1289. Worgul, B.V., L. Smilenov, D.J. Brenner, A. Junk, W. Zhou, and E.J. Hall. 2002. ATM heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:9836-9839. Wouters, B.G., A.M. Sy, and L.D. Skarsgard. 1996. Low-dose hypersensitivity and increased radioresistance in a panel of human tumor cell lines with different radiosensitivity. Radiat Res 146:399-413. Wright, E.G. 2000. Genomic instability manifestations and mechanisms. Pp. 483-487 in Radiation Research 2, M. Moriarty and others, eds. Lawrence: Allen Press. Wu, H.I., J.A. Brown, M.J. Dorie, L. Lazzeroni, J.M. Brown. 2004. Genome-wide identification of genes conferring resistance to the anticancer agents cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and mitomycin C. Cancer Res 64:3940-3948. Wu, L.J., G. Randers-Pehrson, A. Xu, C.A. Waldren, C.R. Geard, Z. Yu, and T.K. Hei. 1999. Targeted cytoplasmic irradiation with alpha particles induces mutations in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:4959-4964. Wu, X., J. Li, X. Li, C.L. Hsieh, P.M. Burgers, and M.R. Lieber. 1996. Processing of branched DNA intermediates by a complex of human FEN-1 and PCNA. Nucleic Acids Res 24:2036-2043. Wyllie, A. 1998. Apoptosis. An endonuclease at last. Nature 391:20-21. Xanthoudakis, S., R.J. Smeyne, J.D. Wallace, and T. Curran. 1996. The redox/DNA repair protein, Ref-1, is essential for early embryonic development in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:8919-8923. Xia, F., X. Wang, Y.H. Wang, N.M. Tsang, D.W. Yandell, K.T. Kelsey, and H.L. Liber. 1995. Altered p53 status correlates with differences in sensitivity to radiation-induced mutation and apoptosis in two closely related human lymphoblast lines. Cancer Res 55:12-15.
OCR for page 372
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Beir VII Phase 2 Xu, Y., T. Ashley, E.E. Brainerd, R.T. Bronson, M.S. Meyn, and D. Baltimore. 1996. Targeted disruption of ATM leads to growth retardation, chromosomal fragmentation during meiosis, immune defects, and thymic lymphoma. Genes Dev 10:2411-2422. Yang, C.R., K. Leskov, K. Hosley-Eberlein, T. Criswell, J.J. Pink, T.J. Kinsella, and D.A. Boothman. 2000. Nuclear clusterin/XIP8, an x-ray-induced Ku70-binding protein that signals cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:5907-5912. Yang, N., H. Galick, and S.S. Wallace. 2004. Attempted base excision repair of ionizing radiation damage in human lymphoblastoid cells produces lethal and mutagenic double strand breaks. DNA Repair 3:1323-1334. Yauk, C.L., Y.E. Dubrova, G.R. Grant, and A.J. Jeffreys. 2002. A novel single molecule analysis of spontaneous and radiation-induced mutation at a mouse tandem repeat locus. Mutat Res 500:147-156. Yin, E., D.O. Nelson, M.A. Coleman, L.E. Peterson, and A.J. Wyrobek. 2003. Gene expression changes in mouse brain after exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 79:759-775. Yokoro, K., M. Nakano, A. Ito, K. Nagao, and Y. Kodama. 1977. Role of prolactin in rat mammary carcinogenesis: detection of carcinogenicity of low-dose carcinogens and of persisting dormant cancer cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 58:1777-1783. Yoshimoto, Y., H. Kato, and W.J. Schull. 1988. Risk of cancer among children exposed in utero to A-bomb radiations, 1950-84. Lancet 2:665-669. Yoshinaga, S., T. Aoyama, Y. Yoshimoto, and T. Sugahara. 1999. Cancer mortality among radiological technologists in Japan: updated analysis of follow-up data from 1969 to 1993. J Epidemiol 9:61-72. Young, H.E. 2004. Existence of reserve quiescent stem cells in adults, from amphibians to humans. Curr Top Microbiol 280:71-109. Youngblom, J.H., J.K. Wiencke, and S. Wolff. 1989. Inhibition of the adaptive response of human lymphocytes to very low doses of ionizing radiation by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Mutat Res 227:257-261. Yu, Y., C.Y. Li, and J.B. Little. 1997. Abrogation of p53 function by HPV16 E6 gene delays apoptosis and enhances mutagenesis but does not alter radiosensitivity in TK6 human lymphoblast cells. Oncogene 14:1661-1667. Yu, Y., R. Okayasu, M.M. Weil, A. Silver, M. McCarthy, R. Zabriskie, S. Long, R. Cox, and R.L. Ullrich. 2001. Elevated breast cancer risk in irradiated BALB/c mice associates with unique functional polymorphism of the Prkdc (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) gene. Cancer Res 61:1820-1824. Yuhas, J.M. 1974. Recovery from radiation-carcinogenic injury to the mouse ovary. Radiat Res 60:321-332. Zablotska, L.B., J.P. Ashmore, and G.R. Howe. 2004. Analysis of mortality experience amongst Canadian nuclear power industry workers following chronic low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiat Res 161:633-641. Zaridze, D.G., N. Li, T. Men, and S.W. Duffy. 1994. Childhood cancer incidence in relation to distance from the former nuclear testing site in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan. Int J Cancer 59:471-475. Zhang, S., E.S. Ramsay, and B.A. Mock. 1998. Cdkn2a, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor encoding p16INK4a and p19ARF, is a candidate for the plasmacytoma susceptibility locus, Pctr1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:2429-2434. Zhao, S., Y.C. Weng, S.S. Yuan, Y.T. Lin, H.C. Hsu, S.C. Lin, E. Gerbino, M.H. Song, M.Z. Zdzienicka, R.A. Gatti, J.W. Shay, Y. Ziv, Y. Shiloh, and E.Y. Lee. 2000. Functional link between ataxia-telangiectasia and Nijmegen breakage syndrome gene products. Nature 405:473-477. Zheng, N., D.G. Monckton, G. Wilson, F. Hagemeister, R. Chakraborty, T.H. Connor, M.J. Siciliano, and M.L. Meistrich. 2000. Frequency of minisatellite repeat number changes at the MS205 locus in human sperm before and after cancer chemotherapy. Environ Mol Mutagen 36:134-145. Zhou, P.K., and O. Rigaud. 2001. Down-regulation of the human CDC16 gene after exposure to ionizing radiation: a possible role in the radioadaptive response. Radiat Res 155:43-49. Zhou, P.K., X.Y. Liu, W.Z. Sun, Y.P. Zhang, and K. Wei. 1993. Cultured mouse SR-1 cells exposed to low doses of gamma-rays become less susceptible to the induction of mutagenesis by radiation as well as bleomycin. Mutagenesis 8:109-111. Zhou, H., G. Randers-Pehrson, C.A. Waldren, D. Vannais, E.J. Hall, and T.K. Hei. 2000. Induction of a bystander mutagenic effect of alpha particles in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:2099-2104. Zielinski, J., R. Kodell, and D. Krewski. 2001. Interaction between two carcinogens in the two-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis. J Epidemiol Biostat 6:219-228.
Representative terms from entire chapter: