3
The Coeur d’Alene System

OVERVIEW

The Coeur d’Alene River basin is a large complicated system with tremendous topographic, hydrologic, and biological variability. This chapter summarizes the components of the Coeur d’Alene system that the committee considers most important in understanding the system and evaluating the likely effectiveness of proposals for the basin’s cleanup. The information presented here forms the basis for the analyses contained in the subsequent chapters.

The area covered by the proposed cleanup efforts being reviewed includes the Coeur d’Alene River basin (outside of the Bunker Hill box), Lake Coeur d’Alene, and the upper reaches of the Spokane River, which drains Lake Coeur d’Alene (see Figure 3-1). The total length of this system is 166 miles (267 kilometers [km]), and the study boundary includes an area of approximately 1,500 square miles (almost 4,000 km2) (URS Greiner, Inc. and CH2M Hill 2001a, p. 4-9). The final project area, however, is much smaller, including only the contaminated portions of the basin, lake, and Spokane River.

Socioeconomic Considerations

Historically, the growth and vitality of the communities of the Coeur d’Alene River basin have been closely linked to the natural resources of the region. The most obvious example is the relationship between the changes



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3 The Coeur d’Alene System OVERVIEW The Coeur d’Alene River basin is a large complicated system with tremendous topographic, hydrologic, and biological variability. This chap- ter summarizes the components of the Coeur d’Alene system that the committee considers most important in understanding the system and evalu- ating the likely effectiveness of proposals for the basin’s cleanup. The infor- mation presented here forms the basis for the analyses contained in the subsequent chapters. The area covered by the proposed cleanup efforts being reviewed in- cludes the Coeur d’Alene River basin (outside of the Bunker Hill box), Lake Coeur d’Alene, and the upper reaches of the Spokane River, which drains Lake Coeur d’Alene (see Figure 3-1). The total length of this system is 166 miles (267 kilometers [km]), and the study boundary includes an area of approximately 1,500 square miles (almost 4,000 km2) (URS Greiner, Inc. and CH2M Hill 2001a, p. 4-9). The final project area, however, is much smaller, including only the contaminated portions of the basin, lake, and Spokane River. Socioeconomic Considerations Historically, the growth and vitality of the communities of the Coeur d’Alene River basin have been closely linked to the natural resources of the region. The most obvious example is the relationship between the changes 47

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48 SUPERFUND AND MINING MEGASITES FIGURE 3-1 Map of the Coeur d’Alene River basin. SOURCE: URS Greiner, Inc. and CH2M Hill 2001b. in the mining industry over time and the status of the associated mining communities. The forest resources have supported the lumber industry, and Lake Coeur d’Alene is developing a strong recreation and tourism economy. In addition, some members of the Coeur d’Alene tribe historically relied on the resources of the basin to support a subsistence lifestyle. There are also important relationships between the socioeconomic at- tributes of the basin communities and potential risks from environmental contaminants. The mining communities have large stocks of older housing. Older houses are more apt to have lead-based paints, which constitute an indoor source of lead exposure. They typically also have greater air infiltra- tion rates than new houses, which can result in larger inputs of airborne contaminants to the indoor environment. Households in the basin tend to have low incomes, and basin communities exhibit high poverty rates. Re- search on the relationships between blood lead in children and environmen- tal and social factors has shown that blood lead levels (BLLs) tend to increase as measures of socioeconomic status decrease (Bornschein et al. 1985). A final factor affecting human health risks for the types of contami- nants found in the basin is the age of the people exposed. Very young

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THE COEUR D’ALENE SYSTEM 49 children (less than 5 years old) are most susceptible to the neurological effects of lead (Koller et al. 2004). Topography The Coeur d’Alene River basin is located in the western part of the Northern Rocky Mountain physiographic province, extending from the Bitterroot Mountains that run along the border between Idaho and Mon- tana westward to Lake Coeur d’Alene, which lies near the border of Idaho and Washington. The river basin consists of the South Fork (299-square-mile [774 km2] drainage area) and the larger North Fork (895-square-mile [2,318 km2] drainage area), which merge 4 miles above the community of Cataldo. Downstream from this confluence is the main stem of the Coeur d’Alene River, which flows 29 miles (47 km) to Lake Coeur d’Alene. The lake then drains through the Spokane River (see Figure 3-2). The river basin contains three topographical types differentiated on the basis of their stream gradients and floodplain characteristics. The first type includes the upper reach of the South Fork from the Bitterroot Mountains to the town of Wallace, the upper reach of the North Fork, and all the 3,500 3,000 Elevation of water surface (feet above sea level) 2,500 2,000 1,500 Spokane River Lake Main Stem South Fork Coeur d’ Alene Coeur d’ Alene River Coeur d’ Alene River 1,000 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 River miles below Mullan, Idaho FIGURE 3-2 Longitudinal profile of Coeur d’Alene-Spokane River drainage. SOURCE: Box 2004.

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50 SUPERFUND AND MINING MEGASITES tributaries of the South and North Forks. These areas, which typically have steep stream gradients and limited floodplains, are termed the upper basin. The middle reach of the South Fork of the Coeur d’Alene River from Wallace to Cataldo and the middle reach of the North Fork are the second type of stream topography. In these reaches, collectively called the middle basin, the valley has wider floodplain areas bordered by steep valley walls, and the river gradient is more moderate. The third type is the lower basin, containing the main stem of the Coeur d’Alene River, which runs from Cataldo to Harrison. In this reach, the river system is actually deltaic and the channel is backflooded by the waters of Lake Coeur d’Alene. Here, the river channel takes on a meander- ing pattern and, for most of the year, has an imperceptible gradient. The floodplain in this section is quite broad containing wetlands, “lateral lakes,” and agricultural lands. At the bottom (western end) of the lower basin, the Coeur d’Alene River flows into Lake Coeur d’Alene. This large and relatively deep lake is the ultimate sink for much of the contaminated sediment being carried down the Coeur d’Alene River. The Spokane River drains Lake Coeur d’Alene at its north end. A dam constructed at Post Falls near the beginning of the river controls the water level in the lake. The Spokane River flows westward through the city of Spokane and on to the Columbia River at Lake Roosevelt behind Grand Coulee Dam. Although the system can be divided into these different components on the basis of topography, it is important to remember that this is one inter- active system, and it needs to be viewed as such if cleanup plans are to be successful (for an example, see Box 3-1). Climate Data concerning the climate in the Coeur d’Alene River basin are lim- ited. The Coeur d’Alene River basin is typical of a “highland climate” with substantial variations in temperature and precipitation both from year to year and from higher to lower elevations. Temperature and Precipitation The upper basin experiences very high precipitation, averaging 55 inches (1.4 meters [m]) a year, of which 75-80% is in the form of snow (Isaacson 2004). The U.S. Forest Service has recorded up to 100 inches (2.5 m) of precipitation, with the depth of snow exceeding 18 feet (5.5 m). In the middle basin at Kellogg, during the 30-year period of record, the highest temperature recorded was 111°F (44°C), and the lowest was –36°F

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THE COEUR D’ALENE SYSTEM 51 BOX 3-1 Riverine Systems and Fish The fish species in the Coeur d’Alene River basin represent a valuable re- source for recreation and subsistence living. As in most Rocky Mountain headwa- ter streams, salmonids, including various species of trout and salmon, are a dom- inant species, but a number of other important species are found there as well (CH2M-Hill and URS Corp. 2001, Table 2-3). For many of these species, the river continuum theory (Vannote et al. 1980) demonstrates the importance of the entire hydrologic system to the health of their populations. In general, as mountain rivers grow in size, the size of the fish, the number of small fish, and the range in fish sizes all increase (Minshall et al. 1992). The nature of the food available to the fish and the biotic and abiotic interactions change along the path of the river as it moves downstream. As a river becomes larger, there are more microhabitats and more pathways for obtaining food, and, as a result, the range of sizes and the number of species generally increase down- stream. The river continuum is particularly important to salmonids in that upstream migration patterns are an integral part of their usual life history pattern (Baxter and Stone 1995), and this pattern links fish in a lower subbasin to habitat, prey abun- dance, and type in an upper basin. For example, in the Coeur d’Alene River basin, cutthroat and bull trout adults inhabit a wide variety of river habitats; however, they return upstream to tributary streams to spawn (Woodward et al. 1995). Connected habitats in the Coeur d’Alene basin tie upstream biotic communities to those in downstream segments (Vannote et al. 1980; Minshall et al. 1992). High-quality riparian habitats and substrates for benthic invertebrates (an impor- tant food source) lead to “quality” trout stream fisheries. For all these reasons, establishing high-quality riparian zones and desirable channel characteristics, as well as improving water quality along the length of the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries, is important to establishing and maintain- ing healthy and diverse fish populations. (–38°C). The average was 47°F (8.3°C) (URS Greiner, Inc. and CH2M Hill 2001b, p. 3-2). The average annual precipitation at Kellogg was 31 inches (0.79 m). The town of Wallace, at a somewhat higher elevation, had an average of 37 inches (0.94 m). Most (70%) of the precipitation occurs in the form of snow in October through April. As an indication of how variable the weather can be, the minimum annual snowfall—16 inches (0.41 m)—occurred in 1995, and the maximum—124 inches (3.15 m)—occurred the following year. The aver- age annual snowfall over the period of record was about 52 inches (1.32 m) (URS Greiner, Inc. and CH2M Hill 2001b, p. 3-2). Normally, the snowfall melts off slowly in late spring and early sum- mer. However, this area can experience warm winter Pacific storms that bring a sudden onset of above freezing temperature and heavy rains on top of the preexisting snow pack. These “rain-on-snow” events result in rapid

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52 SUPERFUND AND MINING MEGASITES snowmelt and produce an abrupt increase over the usual low winter base flows in the river (Box et al. in press, p. 9). The basin is also subject to intense local storms that are characteristic of mountainous areas. These summer thunderstorms are of short duration, but they can cause significant rill erosion, mass wasting (downslope movement of rock and soil under the influence of gravity), and transport of colluvium and mine waste from steep slopes as turbid water or debris flows. Winds The most common wind patterns in the basin are typical of the moun- tain valley drainage phenomena. The winds flow parallel to the axis of the valley—typically flowing gently down the valley (from east to west) at night and in the early morning, as a result of the higher elevations cooling faster than the lower elevations, and then reversing direction in late morning as the sun warms the land, and the warm air begins to flow up the valley (TerraGraphics 1990). This is almost a daily pattern if there are clear night skies and no overriding regional weather patterns. Temperature inversions frequently occur at night and in the early morning before the valley warms up. However, during late summer, the area can experience strong (as much as 70 miles per hour [113 km/hour]) dry winds. Such winds seriously exacerbated the spread of the large forest fires experienced in 1910 and 1967 (Pyne 2001). The winds on Lake Coeur d’Alene are less predictable, with the most common patterns being from either the north or the south along the axis of the lake (URS Greiner, Inc. and CH2M Hill 2001b, p. 3-3). Mining-Related Wastes An estimated 109 million metric tons (121 million U.S. tons) of con- taminated mine tailings were produced by the mines and mills that operated in the Coeur d’Alene River basin (Long 1998). Most of these tailings—56 million metric tons (62 million U.S. tons)—were discharged to the basin’s streams. These discharged wastes contained an estimated 800,000 metric tons (880,000 U.S. tons) of lead and more than 650,000 metric tons (720,000 U.S. tons) of zinc. These and other mining wastes that were discharged to the river systems intermixed with uncontaminated soils and sediments to produce what the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates to be more than 91 million metric tons (100 million U.S. tons) of contaminated materials (EPA 2002, p. 2-1). Another 53 million metric tons (58 million U.S. tons) of wastes containing 350,000 metric tons (386,000 U.S. tons) of lead and at least 650,000 metric tons (717,000 U.S. tons) of zinc “were stockpiled along the floodplain of the Coeur d’Alene River,

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THE COEUR D’ALENE SYSTEM 53 placed in one of several tailings impoundments, or used as stope fill” (Long 1998). Four basic types of wastes were discharged in the basin. The first is “waste rock,” which is relatively unmineralized rock that is removed in uncovering the ore veins. This waste, most of which was dumped at the mine mouth, is relatively uncontaminated. The second type consists of the “jig tailings” disposed in the early mining era. These are generally coarse1 materials with relatively high metal content. They were commonly dumped into the basin streams or in waste piles near the ore-processing facilities. The third type of waste consists of “flotation tailings,” left over from the flotation method for processing ores, which came into use in the early 1900s. These tailings are much finer than the jig tailings and contain lower concentrations of most metals. The flotation tailings also were commonly dumped into the streams. The fourth type of waste includes a wide variety of wastes discharged to the air, water, and land by the smelters and other mining operations. The smelting facilities were located in the middle basin in the 21-square-mile (54 km2) area addressed in operable units 1 and 2 (OU-1 and OU-2) of the Superfund site. These wastes can have a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics. Metals in these wastes are the contaminants of greatest concern, par- ticularly compounds of lead, arsenic, and zinc. The risks that these con- taminants pose to human health and the environment depend not only on their concentration and the exposure to them but also on their chemical form or speciation. Some compounds are more biologically available and, therefore, pose higher risks than others. Chemical Transformations and Toxic Effects Metals in the environment exist in a variety of chemical forms or “species.” For instance, zinc, a metal of primary concern in the Coeur d’Alene River basin because of its toxicity to aquatic ecosystems, can exist in its native mineral form (largely as sphalerite, or zinc sulfide [ZnS], also known as zincblende or zinc ore), in other mineral forms often altered from sphalerite (such as smithsonite, or zinc carbonate [ZnCO3], which is also a zinc ore), in reduced sediments (as authigenic ZnS),2 in solution in a com- 1Box et al. (in press) described the size ranges of jig tailing grain sizes from eight impound- ments of jig tailings in the Prichard and Beaver Creek drainages as follows: >8 millimeter (mm), 16%; 4-8 mm, 9%; 2-4 mm, 11%; 1-2 mm, 12%; 0.5-1.0 mm, 10%; 0.25-0.5 mm, 15%; 0.125-0.25 mm, 13%; 0.063-0.125 mm, 8%; and <0.063 mm, 6%. Tailings from the flotation process are typically 80% by weight finer than 0.25 mm. 2Authigenic ZnS can be formed when Zn2+ interacts with hydrogen sulfide (H S) that is pro- 2 duced during sulfate reduction in sediments containing organic matter. Authigenic ZnS forms in oxygen-depleted wetlands, marshy areas, and lake sediments of the Coeur d’Alene basin.

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54 SUPERFUND AND MINING MEGASITES pletely dissociated ionic state (Zn2+), or in a dissolved form complexed with other inorganic or organic solutes. Speciation of metals is driven by a variety of biotic and abiotic processes. Solid compounds can dissolve in water to the ionic form. This process occurs rapidly for solids that are soluble but slowly for those that are insoluble. Weathering (commonly oxidation) can convert relatively insoluble forms of minerals into more readily soluble ones (such as the conversion of sphalerite to smithsonite or hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6]). Weathering occurs on surfaces, so more rapidly in minerals with increased surface area (for example, in finely ground rock compared with large pieces). Once in solution, ionic zinc is a reactive molecule and undergoes a variety of inter- actions with other ions or with dissolved organic matter. These interactions affect the solubility of the compound. For example, the formation of authigenic ZnS will remove zinc from solution while zinc complexed to dissolved organic matter likely will remain in solution. These are dynamic and reversible processes, driven by a multitude of ever-changing biologic and environmental variables (pH, oxic state, temperature, and moisture). Thus, the potentially toxic metals exist as multiple chemical species in the environment whose behavior and toxicity can be markedly different. Several groups (EPA 2003, 2004a; NRC 2003) recently have pointed out the importance of speciation in making metals bioavailable (in a form capable of exerting toxicological effects). To exert toxicity, a metal must be present as a species that is capable of interacting with a target site, the target site must be accessible to the chemical, and the target site must be available to interact with the metal. To illustrate, zinc exerts toxicity to fish by interacting with receptors on their gills. It is expected that zinc must be in its dissolved state to interact with these sites. If zinc is adsorbed to, for example, ferric oxyhydroxide,3 it will not be available to interact with the sites of toxic action. Accessibility (or exposure) of the sites of toxic action is not a constraint, because gills are in intimate contact with the water and have an extremely high surface area to facilitate oxygen exchange between the water and the fish’s blood. However, these sites may already be occu- pied by other nontoxic metals with similar chemical properties, particularly calcium and magnesium, the commonly dissolved cations that constitute the “hardness” of water. Because these other cations also can react with the receptor site, the toxicity of zinc depends on the concentrations of these competitive species. Thus, the toxicity of zinc to fish is also highly depen- dent on the hardness of the water. In humans, the same types of interactions are important, but the organ- ism and the environment (terrestrial instead of aquatic) are fundamentally 3Also referred to as hydrous ferric oxide.

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THE COEUR D’ALENE SYSTEM 55 different. Here, lead is the metal of primary concern, and the factors limit- ing the expression of toxicity are conversion of the metal to its ionic state and uptake of the metal from the gut to the bloodstream. Except in expo- sures from ingestion of water, lead is present as a solid upon ingestion or inhalation. Similar to zinc, the ongoing process of oxidation/weathering in the environment can convert lead sulfide (PbS), which is relatively insoluble, to a variety of more soluble species such as lead carbonate (PbCO3). This process is accelerated by large surface-areas-to-volume ratios (small particle sizes) and favorable environmental conditions. Thus, in similar environmental conditions, finely ground flotation tail- ings may present a greater risk to humans and waterfowl than coarser jig tailings, even though flotation tailings contain a lower concentration of lead in them. The fine tailings have a much larger surface area per pound of material than the coarser materials, providing much more opportunity for the PbS in the tailings to be oxidized to a form that is more biologically available.4 For humans, there are several other reasons why the finer particles may present more risk. They are more likely to cling to children’s skin, which makes them more likely to be ingested when children put their hands in their mouths or touch food without washing their hands. They are more likely to cling to children’s clothes and shoes, which makes them more likely to be tracked into the house where they contribute to continuing exposure through house dust (see discussion in Chapters 5 and 6 of this report). They are also more likely to be picked up by breezes and become atmospheric dust, making them more likely to be inhaled by children play- ing outside or be carried into children’s homes (particularly, as indicated above, in older homes that have higher air infiltration rates). An additional reason why the finer particles may present increased risk to waterfowl is that floods are more likely to carry the finer materials into the wetlands and lateral lakes in the lower basin. The coarser metal-enriched sediments tend to settle out of the flood waters near the river channel, forming the natural levees that border the river. Within the organism, the different lead-bearing compounds will have various tendencies to dissociate into ionic lead (Pb2+). For example, PbS is poorly soluble, but other lead species such as PbCO3 are substantially more 4However, there are a number of reasons why these opportunities may not be realized. The fine tailings and coarse tailings are often found in different environmental conditions, particu- larly with respect to the availability of oxygen. They are often deposited in different locations, and the density of the deposits of the fine tailings makes them less permeable, and therefore slows the infusion of oxygen. Under oxidizing conditions, fine tailings may be leached of metal content more quickly than coarse particles. Of course, dissolved metals also may reprecipitate in the environment through biotic or abiotic mechanisms as solid chemical spe- cies, with a wide range of potential solubility.

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56 SUPERFUND AND MINING MEGASITES soluble. After ingestion of lead-contaminated soils, the uptake of any soluble lead will also be modified by the presence of food in an individual’s stom- ach, with absorption of lead declining in the presence of food. Once in the bloodstream, lead is available to exert a toxic effect (see Chapter 5 for further discussion). All these factors that affect the toxicity of the wastes discharged into the basin can be affected by environmental factors. Jig tailings initially dumped into the river usually contained relatively insoluble metal com- pounds that exhibit limited toxicity. However, as these materials are ex- posed to air and water, the chemical nature of the compounds can change, increasing their bioavailability and their potential toxicity. In addition, the mixture of metals present may also change, so that the modifying effect of such mixtures on the toxicity of individual metals may also change (La Point et al. 1984). In some cases, the indirect effects of the contamination may be a major factor. For instance, it is not only the direct toxic effect of these contami- nants to fish that is of concern, but also their effect on the stream benthic organisms. These organisms are the primary source of food for the fish and fill a number of other food-web roles including herbivorous shredders, scrapers that consume attached algae and biofilm (“aufwuchs”), filterers and gatherers that consume detritus and suspended phytoplankton, and carnivorous engulfers that consume other invertebrates (Cummins and Klug 1979). They are often highly sensitive to dissolved metals and other con- taminants, and in some parts of the basin only a few species (that are metal tolerant) now exist (Stratus Consulting, Inc. 2000). Furthermore, as indicated above, the presence of contaminants can interact with other environmental factors in a way that either increases or decreases toxic effects. For instance, in addition to being a source of con- taminants, the high sediment loads in the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries have a variety of biologic and physical effects on aquatic sys- tems. These effects include the destruction of spawning areas, promotion of anoxic conditions, lowering the rate of recruitment into fish and inverte- brate populations, inhibition of respiration, and limitation of light (Hynes 1970). These types of changes are very important in assessing the risks that the contaminants pose and what actions need to be taken to support a return of healthy aquatic ecosystems. Finally, the risks that these contaminants pose depend on the species and segments of the population that are exposed to them (see Box 3-2). THE UPPER BASIN The upper basin, which includes the upper reaches of both forks of the Coeur d’Alene River as well as all the tributaries to these forks, is where

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THE COEUR D’ALENE SYSTEM 57 BOX 3-2 Who’s at Risk? Metals in the Coeur d’Alene River basin pose risks that vary for different seg- ments of the human population and species of wildlife. For humans, young children are much more susceptible to the effects of lead poisoning than adults because lead affects the neurological development that oc- curs during a child’s early years. Young children also may have higher exposure as a result of their tendency to play on lawns or on floors, and other surfaces that may be contaminated. For aquatic ecosystems, some varieties of fish and benthic organisms are more sensitive than others. For example, rainbow trout are particularly susceptible to dissolved metals, including zinc and cadmium (Davies and others 1976). There are numerous reports of the sensitivity of trout in the Coeur d’Alene River to dis- solved metals. Farag et al. (1998) demonstrated that trout and other biota in the Coeur d’Alene system contain elevated concentrations of metals, and, in another study, that the growth and survival of cutthroat trout were reduced when they were fed macroinvertebrates from the South Fork (Farag et al. 1999). A study on trout sensitivity to metals in Coeur d’Alene River waters indicated that trout would spend as little as 3% of the time in contaminated water when given a choice of movement and that the fish avoided zinc concentrations as low as 28 µg/L (Woodward et al. 1997). Studies also indicate that dietary exposure to zinc and cadmium affects the early developmental stages of invertebrates and fish (Farag et al. 1998). Sculpin are another fish species with high sensitivity to metals. Fish population assess- ments conducted in the Coeur d’Alene River basin documented that these species were absent from metal-contaminated stretches of the river where they otherwise would be expected to be found, and they were more responsive than trout to environmental contamination by metals (Maret and MacCoy 2002). Sculpin are bottom-dwelling organisms that primarily feed on aquatic invertebrates. Among the aspects of their life history that make them useful as indicators of metal con- tamination are a small home range, inability to move during episodic events of high metal concentrations, a close association with sediments, their propensity to lay and incubate eggs in their range, and their failure to migrate to uncontaminated reaches to spawn (Dillon and Mebane 2002; Maret and MacCoy 2002). Among waterfowl, tundra swans are particularly susceptible because of their migratory and eating habits. Most swans in the Coeur d’Alene River basin are either en route to their northern breeding grounds in the spring or heading south during wintering periods. They feed primarily on tubers and roots of aquatic plants that grow at shallow depths in lakes and wetlands in the lower basin. In the pro- cess of searching for and consuming these foods, they ingest significant amounts of sediment, putting them at particular risk from the lead these sediments contain. much of the early mining occurred. The major tributaries are Canyon Creek and Ninemile Creek where the first silver and lead mines in the region were located. During the mining era, at least 21 mines and mining complexes operated along Canyon Creek, and at least nine operated along Ninemile Creek (URS Greiner, Inc. and CH2M Hill 2001c, p. 2-4; URS Greiner, Inc. and CH2M Hill 2001d, p. 2-4).

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THE COEUR D’ALENE SYSTEM 97 some mines have continued to operate in the basin, and plans are currently in place for expanded activities. Other mines probably could be brought back into production under extremely favorable economic conditions (or as a result of government demands such as occurred during World War II). Even if this were to occur, however, it is unlikely that any future mining activities would have as much impact on the basin as the historical mining activities did, primarily because the mines are now prohibited from disposing of their mining wastes in such an environmentally destructive manner. One particularly remote possibility under the increased mining scenario is that metal prices would rise so high as to support the remining of the old tailings and other wastes containing low concentrations of metals. Such remining is occurring in old gold mining areas in the West (see NRC 1999) and is arguably reducing environmental risks at these sites. In the Coeur d’Alene River basin such remining activities conceivably could result in the removal of large amounts of contaminated materials from some of the stream channels as well as the tailings piles and other terrestrial deposits. This possibility, however, is diminished not only by the likely adverse eco- nomic conditions but also by the fact that the basin has been designated a Superfund site with all the liabilities associated with such a designation. A much more likely development pattern in the basin is for it to become a center for outdoor recreational activities and leisure home developments. Lake Coeur d’Alene already has experienced substantial development of this type, and the demand for these developments continually increases with rising incomes in the United States. Both the natural beauty and the historical significance of the Coeur d’Alene basin make it an attractive location for such developments to occur. Such recreational developments could significantly change socioeco- nomic conditions in the basin, bringing higher-income residents and eco- nomic stimulus for the basin’s merchants and labor force. If properly con- trolled, such developments need not generate significant environmental damage, and their residents may be highly sensitive to the quality of the environment. There would undoubtedly be some erosion associated with the new construction, and recreational demand could also result in the construction of access roads and even the clearing of large areas for snow sports. Both could result in increased runoff and erosion, with the concomi- tant increase in downstream floods and sedimentation. Although some valley residents fear that the potential for these recre- ational developments will be diminished by the designation of the valley as a Superfund site, the elimination of significant health risks as a result of the Superfund cleanup might make the valley more attractive to these potential residents. Support for this hypothesis is provided by the proposal announced this year for building a major recreational facility near Kellogg within the area that was designated a Superfund site in 1983 and that has since been largely cleaned up under the Superfund program (Kramer 2004).

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98 SUPERFUND AND MINING MEGASITES Another economic change that could occur in the more distant future is the relogging of the forests in the basin after they have regenerated. As discussed earlier in this chapter, the intensive management of the forests in the North Fork basin is already thought to be increasing erosion and runoff there. And, considering the massive amounts of metal-contaminated sedi- ments that can be remobilized during large floods (especially the scouring of highly contaminated and deeply buried riverbed sediments), water reten- tion and yield from the watershed is a significant issue. Ironically, the increased transport of relatively clean sediment from the North Fork is reducing the average concentration of lead in sediments below its confluence with the South Fork. Regional and Global Human-Induced Perturbations One possible perturbation that could occur at the regional level is an increase in acid rain resulting from electrical power generation, increased vehicle traffic, or other sources. However, it is unlikely that this would become a significant problem in the Coeur d’Alene River basin, and the neutralizing effects of the basin’s soils would largely prevent any serious effects. At a global level, the most likely perturbations affecting the basin will be those resulting from climate change. Most scientists agree on the likeli- hood of climate change occurring, which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity, and many argue that some of its effects can already be observed. Major characteristics of climate change are expected to be in- creased average global temperatures and an increase in the frequency and magnitude of storms (NAST 2000; Mote 2001; NRC 2001). It is very difficult to predict the impact of climate change in a particular region such as the Coeur d’Alene River basin. Some areas are likely to experience increased storms and precipitation, others a warmer dryer climate. Climate change models focusing on the Pacific Northwest generally predict warmer temperatures and increased winter precipitation by the mid-21st century (Climate Impacts Group 2004). The modelers predict that the following changes would occur (Hamlet and Lettenmaier 1999; Mote et al. 1999, 2003; Miles et al. 2000; Climate Impacts Group 2004; Palmer et al. 2004): • Increase the amount of winter precipitation falling as rain rather than snow. • Increase winter stream flow. • Increase winter flood risks in transient (rain/snow mix) basins. • Reduce the amounts of water stored as snow, particularly in mid- elevation transient (rain/snow mix) basins.

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THE COEUR D’ALENE SYSTEM 99 • Induce earlier snow melt and advance peak runoff earlier into the spring. • Decrease late spring and summer stream flows. Other studies have suggested that the increased winter flood flows will produce greater channel scour and sediment load in rivers (Hamlet et al. 2004) and that the early snow melt and dry summers may increase the number and size of forest fires, as well as lead to drought-stressed forests subject to disease and insect infestation (Service 2004). Drier summers could reduce the basin’s ability to support its current rich vegetation. One result could be increased wind erosion of contaminated sediments, increas- ing human health risks from their inhalation. It is difficult, often impossible, to predict what perturbations will occur and, if they do occur, what effects they might have on the Coeur d’Alene River basin. Nevertheless, it is prudent to keep such possibilities in mind in the process of evaluating and designing remedies that are expected to pro- tect human health and the environment in the basin for the future. REFERENCES Abbott, A.M. 2000. Land Management and Flood Effects on the Distribution and Abundance of Cutthroat Trout in the Coeur d‘Alene River Basin, Idaho. M.S. Thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID. 86 pp. Balistrieri, L.S., A.A. Bookstrom, S.E. Box, and M. Ikramuddin. 1998. Drainage From Adits and Tailings Piles in the Coeur d’Alene Mining District, Idaho: Sampling, Analytical Methods, and Results. USGS Open-File Report 98-127. Menlo Park, CA: U.S. Depart- ment of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 19 pp. Balistrieri, L.S., S.E. Box, A.A. Bookstrom, R.L. Hooper, and J.B. Mahoney. 2002a. Impacts of historical mining in the Coeur d’Alene River Basin. Pp. 1-34 in Pathways of Metal Transfer from Mineralized Sources to Bioreceptors: A Synthesis of the Mineral Re- sources Program’s Past Environmental Studies in the Western United States and Future Research Directions, L.S. Balistrieri, L.L. Stillings, R.P. Ashley, and L.P. Gough, eds. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2141. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey [online]. Available: http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/bulletin/b2191/ [ac- cessed Dec. 1, 2004]. Balistrieri, L.S., S.E. Box, and A.A. Bookstrom. 2002b. A geoenvironmental model for poly- metallic vein deposits: A case study in the Coeur d’Alene mining district and compari- sons with drainage from mineralized deposits in the Colorado Mineral Belt and Hum- boldt Basin, Nevada. Pp. 143-160 in Progress on Geoenvironmental Models for Selected Mineral Deposit Types, R.R. Seal, and N.K. Foley, eds. U.S. Geological Survey Open- File Report 02-195. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey [online]. Available: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-195/ [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. Barton, G.J. 2002. Dissolved Cadmium, Zinc, and Lead Loads from Ground-Water Seepage Into the South Fork Coeur d’Alene River System, Northern Idaho, 1999. Water-Re- sources Investigations Report 01-4274. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 130 pp [online]. Available: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS39228 [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. Baxter, G.T., and M.D. Stone. 1995. Fishes of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Wyoming Game and Fish Department. 290 pp.

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100 SUPERFUND AND MINING MEGASITES Beckwith, M.A., C. Berenbrock, and R.L. Backsen. 1996. Magnitude of Floods in Northern Idaho, February 1996. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-222-96. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 2 pp. Bennett, E.H. 1994. A History of the Bunker Hill Superfund Site, Kellogg, Idaho. Prepared for the Pacific Northwest Metals Conference, April 9, 1994, Spokane, WA. 31 pp. Berenbrock, C. 2002. Estimating the Magnitude of Peak Flows at Selected Recurrence Inter- vals for Streams in Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-4170. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 52 pp [online]. Available: http:// purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS41703 [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. Bookstrom, A.A., S.E. Box., B.L. Jackson, T.R. Brandt, P.D. Derkey, and S.R. Munts. 1999. Digital Map of Surficial Geology, Wetlands, and Deepwater Habitats, Coeur d’Alene Valley, Idaho. U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-548. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey [online]. Available: http://wrgis.wr. usgs.gov/open-file/of99-548/ [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. Bookstrom, A.A., S.E. Box, J.K. Campbell, K.I. Foster, and B.L. Jackson. 2001. Lead-Rich Sediments, Coeur d’Alene River Valley, Idaho: Area, Volume, Tonnage, and Lead Con- tent. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File report 01-140. Menlo Park, CA: U.S. Depart- ment of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey [online]. Available: http://geopubs.wr.usgs. gov/open-file/of01-140/ [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. Bookstrom, A.A., S.E. Box, R.S. Fousek, J.C. Wallis, H.Z. Kayser, and B.L. Jackson. 2004a. Baseline and Historical Depositional Rates and Lead Concentrations, Floodplain Sedi- ments: Lower Coeur d’Alene River, Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1211. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Spokane, WA [online]. Available: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1211/ [accessed June 23, 2005]. Bookstrom, A.A., S.E. Box, and R. Fousek. 2004b. Baseline Deposition Rates, Lead-Rich Sediment, Coeur d’Alene (CdA) River Floodplain, Idaho. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 36(4):24 [online]. Available: http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2004RM/ finalprogram/abstract_72984.htm [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. Bornschein, R.L., P. Succop, K.N. Dietrich, C.S. Clark, S. Que Hee, and P.B. Hammond. 1985. The influence of social and environmental factors on dust lead, hand lead, and blood lead levels in young children. Environ. Res. 38(1):108-118. Borque, T. 2001. Engineering Remediation Actions Under Superfund on the Smelterville Flats, Shoshone County, Idaho (poster abstract). The Annual International Conference on Con- taminated Soils, Sediments and Water, October 22, 2001, University of Massachusetts [online]. Available: http://www.umasssoils.com/posters2001/ [accessed March 20, 2005]. Box, S.E. 2004. Metal Enriched Sediment in the Coeur d’Alene River Basin. Presentation at the Third Meeting on Superfund Site Assessment and Remediation in the Coeur d’Alene River Basin, June, 17-18, 2004, Coeur d’Alene, ID. Box, S.E., and J.C. Wallis. 2002. Surficial Geology Along the Spokane River, Washington and Its Relationship to the Metal Content of Sediments (Idaho-Washington Stateline to La- tah Creek Confluence). Open File Report 02-126. Spokane, WA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey [online]. Available: http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open- file/of02-126/ [accessed March 21, 2005]. Box, S.E., A.A. Bookstrom, L.S. Balistrieri, and M. Ikramuddin. 1997. Sources and processes of dissolved metal loading, Coeur d’Alene River, Idaho [abstract]. Inland Northwest Water Resources Conference, April 1997, Spokane, WA. Box, S.E., A.A. Bookstrom, and W.N. Kelley. 1999. Surficial Geology of the Valley of the South Fork of the Coeur d’Alene River, Idaho, Draft Version, U.S. Geological Survey, Spokane, WA. October 4, 1999. (Document ID 1110378 in Bunker Hill Basin-Wide Remedial Administrative Record, Data CD8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, September 2002.)

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THE COEUR D’ALENE SYSTEM 101 Box, S.E., J.C. Wallis, P.H. Briggs, and Z.A. Brown. 2005. Stream-Sediment Geochemistry in Mining-Impacted Streams: Prichard, Eagle, and Beaver Creeks, Northern Coeur d’Alene Mining District, Northern Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigation Report SIR 2004-5284 [online]. Available: http//pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2004/5284/ [accessed June 30, 2005]. Box, S.E., A.A. Bookstrom, and M. Ikramuddin. In press. Stream-Sediment Geochemistry in Mining-Impacted Streams: Sediment Mobilized by Floods in the Coeur d’Alene-Spokane River Drainage, Idaho and Washington. USGS Scientific Investigation Report SIR 2005- 5011. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. CBFWA (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority). 2001. Coeur d’Alene Subbasin Sum- mary (Including Coeur d’Alene Lake and All Tributaries). Prepared for the Northwest Power Planning Council. March 16, 2001 [online]. Available: http://www.cbfwa.org/ files/province/mtncol/subsum/031601CoeurdAlene.pdf [accessed Dec. 3, 2004]. CH2M-Hill. 2004. Dissolved Metal Loading from Groundwater to the South Fork of the Coeur d’Alene River, Bunker Hill Superfund Site, Idaho, Draft Final Report, June, 2004. Work Assignment No. 015-TA-TA-10X9. CH2M Hill Project No. 152210.ET.23. Pre- pared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by CH2M Hill, Spokane, WA. CH2M-Hill, and URS Corp. 2001. Final Ecological Risk Assessment: Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. URS DCN: 4162500.06200.05.a2. CH2M Hill DCN: WKP0041. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Se- attle, WA, by CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA, and URS Corp., White Shield, Inc., Seattle, WA. May 18, 2001. Clark, G.M. 2003. Occurrence and Transport of Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc in the Spokane River Basin, Idaho and Washington, Water Years 1999-2001. Water-Resources Investi- gations Report 02-4183. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey [online]. Available: http://id.water.usgs.gov/PDF/wri024183/index.html [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. Clark, G.M., and P.F. Woods. 2001. Transport of Suspended and Bedload Sediment at Eight Stations in the Coeur d’Alene River Basin, Idaho. U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-472. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey [online]. Available: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS46003 [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. Climate Impacts Group. 2004. Overview of Climate Change Impacts in the U.S. Pacific North- west. Background paper prepared for the West Coast Governors’ Climate Change Initia- tive, by Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. July 29, 2004. 13 pp [online]. Available: http://www.cses.washington.edu/db/pdf/cigoverview353.pdf [accessed Dec. 17, 2004]. Coeur d’Alene Mines Corporation. 2004. Properties, Silver Valley, Idaho [online]. Available: http://www.coeur.com/property_silvervalley.html [accessed Dec. 7, 2004]. Cummins, K.W., and M.J. Klug. 1979. Feeding ecology of stream invertebrates. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 10:147-172 [online]. Available: http://www.usu.edu/buglab/aqent5550/Read ings/AnnReview%20Ecology%20Cummins%20and%20Klug%201979%20Feeding.pdf [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. Dames and Moore. 1991. Bunker Hill RI/FS Report, Task 3, Revised Final Hydrogeologic Assessment, Vol. 1. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, by Dames and Moore, Denver, CO. June 11, 1991. Davies, P.H., J.P. Goetl Jr., J.R. Sinley, and N.F. Smith. 1976. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead to rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, in hard and soft water. Water Res. 10(3):199- 206. Dawson, K. 1998. Clarification of CIA Seeps Memo. Memorandum to Don Heinle, CH2M- Hill, from Karen Dawson, SEA. July 20, 1998. Di Toro, D.M. 2001. Sediment Flux Modeling. New York: Wiley.

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102 SUPERFUND AND MINING MEGASITES Dillon, F.S., and C.A. Mebane. 2002. Development of Site-Specific Water Quality Criteria for the South Fork Coeur d’Alene River, Idaho: Application of Site-Specific Water Quality Criteria Developed in the Headwater Reaches to Downstream Waters. Prepared for the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, Boise, ID, by WindWard Environmental, Seattle, WA. December 13, 2002. 95 pp. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. First Five-Year Review of the Non- Populated Area Operable Unit, Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex, Sho- shone Country, Idaho [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/r10earth/offices/oec/ First%205-Year%20Review%20Non-Pop.pdf [accessed Nov. 29, 2004]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2001. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Proposes to Reissue a Wastewater Discharge Permit to Coeur Silver Valley, Inc, and Coeur and Galena Mines and Mills, Wallace, ID, and the State of Idaho Proposes to Certify the Permit. Fact Sheet for Revised Draft Permit. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10 [online]. Available: http://yosemite.epa.gov/R10/water.nsf/0/94fadb4 dc7bd125588256a1d004adb40?OpenDocument [accessed March 16, 2005]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2002. The Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgi- cal Complex: Operable Unit 3, Record of Decision. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. September 2002 [online]. Available: http://yosemite.epa.gov/…/cbc 45a44fa1ede3988256ce9005623b1/$FILE/ATTBRN4D/Part%201%20Declaration.pdf [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2003. Review of Metals Action Plan; An EPA Science Advisory Board Report. EPA-SAB-EC-LTR-03-001. Science Advisory Board, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC [online]. Available: http:// www.epa.gov/sab/pdf/ecl03001.pdf [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2004a. Framework for Metals Risk Assessment. EPA/630/P-04/068a. Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. July 2004 [online]. Available: http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/raf/recordisplay. cfm?deid=56752 [accessed Dec. 1, 2004]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2004b. EPA Responses to NAS Questions (dif- ferent dates). EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2004c. Basin Bulletin, A Quarterly Review of Cleanup in the Coeur d’Alene River Basin. Issue No. 5, Spring 2004. Farag, A.M., D.F. Woodward, J.N. Goldstein, W. Brumbaugh, and J.S. Meyer. 1998. Con- centrations of metals associated with mining waste in sediments, biofilm, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish from the Coeur d’Alene River basin, Idaho. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 34(2):119–127. Farag, A.M., D.F. Woodward, W. Brumbaugh, J.N. Goldstein, E. McConnell, C. Hogstrand, and F. Barrows. 1999. Dietary effects of metals-contaminated invertebrates from the Coeur d’Alene River, Idaho, on cutthroat trout. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 128(4):578-592. Gillerman, V.S., and E.H. Bennett. 2004. Annual mining review 2003: State activities—Idaho. Min. Eng. 56(5):64–68. Grosbois, C.A., A.J. Horowitz, J.J. Smith, and K.A. Elrick. 2001. The effect of mining and related activities on the sediment-trace element geochemistry of Lake Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, U.S.A. Part III. Downstream effects: The Spokane River basin. Hydrol. Process. 15(5):855–875. Hamlet, A.F., and D.P. Lettenmaier. 1999. Effects of climate change on hydrology and water resources in the Columbia River Basin. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 35(6):1597–1623. Hamlet, A.F., P.W. Mote, and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2004. Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Natural Streamflows and Water Resources Management in the Columbia River Basin. Presentation to Climate Impacts Group Workshop; Climate Impacts on Salmon Management and Recovery in the Columbia River Basin, September 21, 2004, Portland, OR [online]. Available: http://www.hydro.washington.edu/Lettenmaier/Presen tations/2004/hamlet_salmon_workshop_sept_2004.ppt [accessed Dec. 17, 2004].

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THE COEUR D’ALENE SYSTEM 105 NRC (National Research Council). 2001. Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 29 pp. NRC (National Research Council). 2003. Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sedi- ments: Processes, Tools, and Applications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 420 pp. NRCS (Natural Resources Conservation Service). 2003. ID606 Soil Survey of Kootenai County Area, Idaho. Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agri- culture [online]. Available: http://www.or.nrcs.usda.gov/pnw_soil/idaho/id606.html [ac- cessed Dec. 3, 2004]. Palmer, R.N., E. Clancy, N.T. VanRheenen, and M.W. Wiley. 2004. The Impacts of Climate Change on the Tualatin River Basin Water Supply: An Investigation into Projected Hy- drologic and Management Impacts. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineer- ing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. 91 pp. Pyne, S.J. 2001. Year of the Fires: The Story of the Great Fires of 1910. New York, NY: Viking. 322 pp. Ransome, F.L., and F.C. Calkins. 1908. The Geology and Ore Deposits of the Coeur d’Alene District, Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 62. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 203 pp. Rouse, J.V. 1977. Geohydrologic Conditions in the Vicinity of Bunker Hill Company Waste- Disposal Facilities: Kellogg, Shoshone County Idaho—1976. EPA-330/2-77-006. EPA National Enforcement Investigation Center, Denver CO. March 1977. Rust, W.C. 2004. Response to the Statement in the Basin Bulletin’s Frequently Asked Ques- tion Section. Letter to Sheila M. Eckman, Team Leader, Coeur d’Alene Basin Team, U.S. EPA Region 10, Seattle, WA, from W.C. Rust, Consulting Metallurgist, Wallace, ID. May 23, 2004. Service, R.F. 2004. As the west goes dry. Science 303(5661):1124-1127. Sheldrake, S., and M. Stifelman. 2003. A case study of lead contamination cleanup effective- ness at Bunker Hill. Sci. Total Environ. 303(1):105-123. Sterling Mining Company. 2004. Sterling Mining Commences Surface Exploration on Sun- shine Silver Mine. News Release, September 16, 2004 [online]. Available: http://www. sterlingmining.com/printables/release91604.html [accessed Dec. 7, 2004]. Stratus Consulting, Inc. 2000. Report of Injury Assessment and Injury Determination: Coeur d’Alene Basin Natural Resource Damage Assessment. Prepared for U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Coeur d’Alene Tribe, by Stratus Consulting Inc., Boulder, CO. September 2000. TerraGraphics. 1990. Risk Assessment Data Evaluation Report (RADER) for the Populated Areas of the Bunker Hill Superfund Site. Prepared by TerraGraphics Environmental Engineering, Inc., Moscow, ID, for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA. October 18, 1990. TerraGraphics. 1996. Draft Groundwater Loading Study, Vol. 1. Prepared for the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality, Boise, ID, by TerraGraphics Environmental Engineering, Inc., Moscow, ID. March 1996. TerraGraphics. 2000. Final 1999 Five Year Review Report Bunker Hill Site. Prepared for Idaho Department of Health and Welfare Division of Environmental Quality, Boise, ID, by TerraGraphics Environmental Engineering, Inc., Moscow, ID. April 2000. TerraGraphics. 2001. Draft 2000 Trend Analysis Of Site-Wide Monitoring Program Bunker Hill Superfund Site, Prepared for the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality, Boise, ID by TerraGraphics Environmental Engineering, Inc., Moscow, ID. June 2001 [online]. Available: http://www.tgenviro.com/WaterQuality/ SWMON-TrendAnalysis_Draft2.pdf [accessed March 31, 2005]. TerraGraphics. 2005. Bunker Hill Water Quality Data-Current Well Data (1997-2003), Query by Map. TerraGraphics Environmental Engineering, Inc. [online]. Available: http:// www.tgenviro.com/WaterQuality/map/index.html [accessed March 30, 2005].

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106 SUPERFUND AND MINING MEGASITES URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001a. Final (Revision 2) Remedial Investigation Report, Remedial Investigation Report for the Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Vol. 1. Part 7. Summary. URSG DCN 4162500.6659.05a. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. September 2001. URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001b. Final (Revision 2) Remedial Investigation Report, Remedial Investigation Report for the Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investiga- tion/Feasibility Study, Vol. 1. Part 1. Setting and Methodology. URSG DCN 4162500.6659.05a. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. Septem- ber 2001. URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001c. Final (Revision 2) Remedial Investigation Report, Remedial Investigation Report for the Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Vol. 2. Part 2. CSM Unit 1, Upper Watersheds Canyon Creek. URSG DCN 4162500.6659.05a. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. September 2001. URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001d. Final (Revision 2) Remedial Investigation Report, Remedial Investigation Report for the Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Vol. 3. Part 2. CSM Unit 1, Upper Watersheds Ninemile Creek. URSG DCN 4162500.6659.05a. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. September 2001. URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001e. Final (Revision 2) Remedial Investigation Report, Remedial Investigation Report for the Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Vol. 10. URSG DCN 4162500.6659.05a. Prepared for U.S. Environ- mental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. September 2001. URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001f. Final (Revision 2) Remedial Investigation Report, Remedial Investigation Report for the Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Vol. 4. Part 3. CSM Unit 2, Midgradient Watersheds, South Fork Coeur d’Alene River. URSG DCN 4162500.6659.05a. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. September 2001. URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001g. Final (Revision 2) Remedial Investigation Report, Remedial Investigation Report for the Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Vol. 3. Part 2. CSM Unit 1, Upper Watersheds Pine Creek. URSG DCN 4162500.6659.05a. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. September 2001. URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001h. Final (Revision 2) Remedial Investigation Report, Remedial Investigation Report for the Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Vol. 4. Part 3. CSM Unit 2, Midgradient Watersheds, North Fork Coeur d’Alene River. URSG DCN 4162500.6659.05a. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. September 2001. URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001i. Probabilistic Analysis of Post-Remediation Metal Loading Technical Memorandum (Revision 1). URSG DCN 4162500.06778.05.a. Pre- pared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, By URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. September 20, 2001.

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THE COEUR D’ALENE SYSTEM 107 URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001j. Final (Revision 2) Remedial Investigation Report, Remedial Investigation Report for the Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Vol. 4. Part 4. CSM Unit 3, Lower Coeur d’Alene River. URSG DCN 4162500.6659.05a. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. September 2001. URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001k. Final (Revision 2) Remedial Investigation Report, Remedial Investigation Report for the Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Vol. 4. Part 5. CSM Unit 4, Coeur d’Alene Lake. URSG DCN 4162500. 6659.05a. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. September 2001. URS Greiner, Inc., and CH2M Hill. 2001l. Final (Revision 2) Remedial Investigation Report, Remedial Investigation Report for the Coeur d’Alene Basin Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Vol. 4. Part 6. CSM Unit 5, Spokane River. URSG DCN 4162500. 6659.05a. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, and CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA. September 2001. URS Greiner/CH2M Hill/Syracuse Research Corporation. 1999. Draft Final Coeur d’Alene Basin RI/FS Expedited Screening Level Risk Assessment for Common Use Areas, Coeur d’Alene River Basin, Idaho. URSG DCN 4162500.4658.04.0. Prepared for U.S. Envi- ronmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA, by URS Greiner, Inc., Seattle, WA, CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA, and Syracuse Research Corporation, North Syracuse, NY. October 18, 1999. USACE (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers). 2001. Revised Flood Insurance Study for the Coeur d’Alene River at Cataldo, Idaho. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, Seattle, WA. April 10, 2001. 13 pp. U.S. Census 2004. Data Set: 2000. American FactFinder, U.S. Census Bureau [online]. Avail- able: http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en [accessed Nov. 1, 2004]. USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2004. Monthly Streamflow Statistics for Idaho. USGS 12413500 Couer d’Alene River near Cataldo, ID. NWISWeb Data for Idaho, U.S. Geo- logical Survey [online]. Available: http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/id/nwis/monthly [ac- cessed Dec. 6, 2004]. USMRA (U.S. Mine Rescue Association). 2004. Sunshine Mining Company, Sunshine Mine Kellogg, Shoshone County, Idaho, May 2, 1972-91 Killed [online]. Available: http:// www.usmra.com/saxsewell/sunshine.htm [accessed Dec. 7, 2004]. Vannote, R.L., G.W. Minshall, J.R. Cummins, J.R. Sedell, and C.E. Cushing. 1980. The river continuum concept. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37:130-137. White, B.G. 1998. Diverse tectonism in the Coeur d’Alene Mining District, Idaho. Pp. 254- 265 in Belt Symposium III 1993, R.B. Berg, ed. Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Special Publication 112. Butte, MT: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology. Winston, D. 2000. Belt Supergroup stratigraphy, sedimentology, and structure in the vicinity of the Coeur d’Alene Mining District. Pp. 85-94 in Geologic Field Trips, Western Mon- tana and Adjacent Areas. S.M. Roberts, and D. Winston, eds. Prepared for Rocky Moun- tain Section Meeting, Geological Society of America, Missoula, MT, April 15-20, 2000, by University of Montana, Missoula, MT. Woods, P.F. 2004. Interaction of Lake Productivity with Trace-Element Contamination: Coeur d’Alene, Idaho. Presentation at the Third Meeting on Superfund Site Assessment and Remediation in the Coeur d’Alene River Basin, June 17, 2004, Coeur d’Alene, ID. Woodward, D.F., J.A. Hansen, H. Bergman, E. Little, and A.J. DeLonay. 1995. Brown trout avoidance of metals in water characteristic of the Clark Fork River, Montana. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52(9):2031-2037. Woodward, D.F., J.N. Goldstein, A.M. Farag, and W.G. Brumbaugh. 1997. Cutthroat trout avoidance of metals and conditions characteristic of a mining waste site: Coeur d’Alene River, Idaho. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 126(4):699-706.