ANIMAL HEALTH AT THE CROSSROADS

PREVENTING, DETECTING, AND DIAGNOSING ANIMAL DISEASES

Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases ANIMAL HEALTH AT THE CROSSROADS PREVENTING, DETECTING, AND DIAGNOSING ANIMAL DISEASES Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the summary were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report was supported by the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09259-0 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-533384 (PDF) Library of Congress Control Number 2005932662 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases COMMITTEE ON ASSESSING THE NATION’S FRAMEWORK FOR ADDRESSING ANIMAL DISEASES LONNIE J. KING, Chair, Michigan State University, East Lansing MARGARET A. HAMBURG, Vice Chair, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Washington, D.C. SHARON ANDERSON (Emeritus), North Dakota State University, Fargo ALFONZA ATKINSON (deceased), Tuskegee University, Alabama CORRIE BROWN, University of Georgia, Athens TIMOTHY J. HERRMAN, Texas A&M University, College Station SHARON K. HIETALA, University of California, Davis HELEN H. JENSEN, Iowa State University, Ames CAROL A. KEISER, C-BAR Cattle Company, Inc., Champaign, Illinois SCOTT R. LILLIBRIDGE, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston TERRY F. MCELWAIN, Washington State University, Pullman N. OLE NIELSEN (Emeritus), University of Guelph, Spruce Grove, Alberta, Canada ROBERT A. NORTON, Auburn University, Alabama MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis M. PATRICIA QUINLISK, Iowa Department of Public Health, Des Moines LINDA J. SAIF, The Ohio State University, Wooster MARK C. THURMOND, University of California, Davis KEVIN D. WALKER, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation in Agriculture, Coronado, Costa Rica National Research Council Staff ROBIN SCHOEN, Study Director (since December 2004) ELISABETH A. REESE, Study Director (July 2004 to December 2004) TINA I. ROUSE, Study Director (through June 2004) PEGGY TSAI, Research Associate (since November 2004) TANJA PILZAK, Research Assistant (through July 2004) DONNA WILKINSON, Research Intern

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES MAY BERENBAUM, Chair, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign SANDRA BARTHOLMEY, University of Illinois, Chicago ROGER N. BEACHY, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, Missouri H.H. CHENG, University of Minnesota, St. Paul W.R. GOMES, University of California, Oakland ARTURO GOMEZ-POMPA, University of California, Riverside PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN, Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts JEAN HALLORAN, Consumer Policy Institute/Consumers Union, Yonkers, New York HANS R. HERREN, Millennium Institute, Arlington, Virginia DANIEL P. LOUCKS, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York WHITNEY MACMILLAN (Emeritus), Cargill, Incorporated, Minneapolis, Minnesota BRIAN W. MCBRIDE, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada TERRY MEDLEY, E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware N. OLE NIELSEN (Emeritus), Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, Canada ROBERT PAARLBERG, Wellesley College, Watertown, Massachusetts ALICE N. PELL, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York BOBBY PHILLS, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee PEDRO A. SANCHEZ, The Earth Institute at Columbia University, Palisades, New York SONYA SALAMON, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign B.L. TURNER II, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts TILAHUN D. YILMA, University of California, Davis JAW-KAI WANG, University of Hawaii, Manoa National Research Council Staff CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Director (through October 2004) ROBIN SCHOEN, Director (since November 2004) KAREN IMHOF, Administrative Assistant DONNA LEE JAMEISON, Senior Program Assistant AUSTIN LEWIS, Program Officer PEGGY TSAI, Research Associate

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases Acknowledgments This report represents the integrated efforts of many individuals. The committee thanks all those who shared their insight and knowledge to bring the document to fruition. We also thank all those who provided information at our public meetings and who participated in our public sessions. During the course of its deliberations, the committee sought assistance from many people who gave generously of their time to provide advice and information that the committee considered in its deliberations. Special thanks are due the following: Bruce Akey, New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets David Asher, United States Food and Drug Administration John C. Bailar III, University of Chicago Norman Crouch, Association of State Public Health Laboratories Andrew Cupit, Embassy of Australia Ron DeHaven, United States Department of Agriculture Richard Dierks, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Leland Ellis, United States Department of Homeland Security Brian Evans, Canadian Food Inspection Agency Nathan Flesness, International Species Information System Glen Garris, United States Department of Agriculture Lawrence Heider, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases Peter J. Johnson, United States Department of Agriculture Elizabeth Krushinskie, Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation Karen E. Lawson, United States Department of Agriculture Andrew Maccabe, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Curt Mann, White House Homeland Security Council Maureen McCarthy, United States Department of Homeland Security Thomas McKenna, United States Department of Agriculture Lawrence E. Miller, United States Department of Agriculture/ Veterinary Services Andrea Morgan, United States Department of Agriculture/ Veterinary Services Mo Salman, Colorado State University Scott Severin, Department of Defense Veterinary Service Activity Nga Tran, Exponent, Inc. Food & Chemicals Practice Leon Weaver, Bridgewater Dairy LLC Gary Weber, National Cattlemen’s Beef Association Elizabeth Williams, University of Wyoming Terry Wilson, United States Department of Agriculture The committee is also grateful to members of the National Research Council staff who worked diligently to maintain progress and quality in its work, and to Paula Whitacre, for editing the report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Alex Ardans, University of California, California Animal Health and Food Safety Lab Nancy L. Ascher, University of California, San Francisco Peter Eyre, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University E. Paul J. Gibbs, University of Florida George M. Gray, Harvard School of Public Health Donald A. Henderson, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases Bob Hillman, Texas Animal Health Commission Dennis F. Kohn, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Gary Jay Kushner, Hogan & Hartson L.L.P F.A. (Ted) Leighton, University of Saskatchewan James D. McKean, Iowa Pork Industry Center Harley Moon, Iowa State University Suzanne Kennedy Stoskopf, Pylon Research Laboratories Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Linda Cork, Stanford University, and Mary Jane Osborn, University of Connecticut Health Center. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. This report is dedicated to the memory of Alfonza Atkinson, a member of the Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases.

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases Preface The committee was charged to assess the country’s framework to support animal health in the context of our rapidly changing world and the contemporary challenges faced by those involved in animal health and diseases. In this report, the first of an intended three-part series, the committee members were asked to focus on the prevention, detection, and diagnosis of animal diseases and the dynamics of these systems as part of the overall animal health framework. It has also set the groundwork for two other studies and subsequent reports that will follow to assess the surveillance and response systems within the framework. The world of animals—domestic, wildlife, and food-producing—and their health has increased in complexity and importance over the last century. In addition, the challenges and opportunities for animal health that have become especially apparent over the last several decades are unprecedented. Our animal health system is inextricably interwoven into both our national and global economy, as well as numerous societal issues including the public’s health. Animal agriculture, in particular, finds itself in the midst of fundamental change and transforming forces. The scope, scale, and potential implications of the global food-animal system and its associated infrastructure to monitor and support animal health and food safety work is without precedent. In their examination of the animal health framework, with special reference to prevention, detection, and diagnosis, the committee members were struck with the new interdependence of animal health concerns and needs with issues such as public health and medicine, economics, global trade, and national and international security. Virtually all aspects of the current animal health frame-

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases work are impacted by a related set of new challenges, relationships, and interactions that have emerged outside of traditional agricultural communities. Because of its striking interdependence and connectiveness, animal health finds itself truly at a crossroads. This fact was made further evident as the committee examined contemporary threats and challenges, reviewed the framework from the retrospective analyses of recent disease events, and studied the gap between the current framework systems and what is needed for success. While the committee considered companion animals and wildlife as part of the animal health framework, this report emphasizes food-animals based on the nature and enormous challenges unique to this sector and the urgent need to address them. The committee purposely had a significant human health component, which added greatly to its understanding and appreciation of the convergence of human and animal health and the strong linkage between animal and public health. The contemporary issues of emerging infectious diseases, new zoonoses, bio- and agroterrorism, antimicrobial resistant pathogens, and global health threats reaffirm the importance of the convergence and the consideration of these influences on the future of animal health and its associated framework. The committee examined other reports and publications, listened to invited speakers, engaged in lengthy discussions, and brought together diverse perspectives and a variety of experts. Through this process and deliberations, a strong consensus developed from the current crossroads that the United States must pursue a very different path; the future of animal health and the prevention, detection, and diagnosis systems will have to be very different from the past. The animal health framework in the United States is ripe for a transformation characterized by improvements in capacity and skills, new strategic partnerships, integration of its work processes and systems, the understanding and adoption of new technologies, and a broader global perspective. The U.S. animal population and its associated animal health framework represent an exceptional national asset that impacts the lives of people everyday. Yet, the very people whose lives are improved and who benefit from their relationship with animals and their products are progressively less aware, fail to perceive the relevancy, and consequently are seemingly less supportive of the animal health enterprise. This fact will add a significant burden to the needed transformation effort. The National Academies convened this committee to assess and address the national animal health framework at a very special time in the history of animal health. The committee’s findings and recommendations support the compelling need for significant changes to create a new future. The decisions made today will define this future, not decisions made

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases tomorrow. The title of the report uses the analogy of a crossroads. This analogy suggests that multiple options and pathways exist to the future; however, the committee and its recommendations support the notion that an entirely new pathway needs to be created that will significantly change both the planners and implementers of the framework, and, most importantly, the ultimate destination. Lonnie King, Chair Margaret Hamburg, Vice Chair Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases Contents     SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   16      The Committee’s Statement of Task,   16      Background,   21      Organization of the Report,   28 2   STATE AND QUALITY OF THE CURRENT SYSTEM   30      Introduction,   30      Components of the Animal Health Framework,   30      Technological Tools for Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases,   44      Scientific Preparedness for Diagnosing Animal Diseases: Laboratory Capacity and Capability,   47      Animal Health Research,   54      International Issues,   59      Addressing Future Animal Disease Risks,   63      Education and Training,   65      Awareness of the Economic, Social, and Human Health Effects of Animal Diseases,   74 3   ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT FRAMEWORK: CASE STUDIES   76      Introduction,   76      Foreign Animal Diseases: Exotic Newcastle Disease and Foot-and-Mouth Disease,   77

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases      Recently Emergent Diseases in North America: Monkeypox and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy,   88      Previously Unknown Agents,   96      Endemic Diseases: Avian Influenza, Chronic Wasting Disease, and West Nile Virus,   102      Novel and Bioengineered Pathogens,   114      Intentionally Introduced Pathogens and Diseases of Toxicological Origin,   116      Summary,   117 4   GAPS IN THE ANIMAL HEALTH FRAMEWORK   118      Introduction,   118      Coordination of Framework Components,   119      Technological Tools for Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases,   121      Scientific Preparedness for Diagnosing Animal Diseases: Laboratory Capacity and Capability,   122      Animal Health Research,   124      International Issues,   126      Addressing Future Animal Disease Risks,   127      Education and Training,   128      Improving Public Awareness of the Economic, Social, and Human Health Effects of Animal Diseases,   130      Summary,   131 5   RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STRENGTHENING THE ANIMAL HEALTH FRAMEWORK   133      Introduction,   133      Coordination of Framework Components,   134      Technological Tools for Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases,   135      Scientific Preparedness for Diagnosing Animal Diseases: Laboratory Capacity and Capability,   137      Animal Health Research,   140      International Issues,   143      Addressing Future Animal Disease Risks,   146      Education and Training,   147      Improving Public Awareness of the Economic, Social, and Human Health Effects of Animal Diseases,   149      Summary,   150     REFERENCES   153

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases     APPENDIXES   167     A  Acronyms and Abbreviations,   169     B  Glossary of Terms,   173     C  Existing Federal System for Addressing Animal Diseases, White Paper by Nga L. Tran,   179     D  Animal Diseases and Their Vectors,   255     E  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members,   258

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases Tables, Figures, and Boxes Tables 2-1   Employment of U.S. Veterinarians Who Are AVMA Members,   34 2-2   DHS Border and Transportation Security (BTS), Bureau of Custom and Border Protection (CBP), and Other Components Addressing Animal Diseases,   61 2-3   First-Year Employment, 2004 Veterinary Graduates in Various Fields,   68 2-4   Active, Board-Certified Diplomates,   71 3-1   Timeline of 2002-2003 Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) Outbreak,   82 3-2   Timeline of Key Influenza Events,   104 4-1   Primary Federal Jurisdictions for Specific Animal Diseases,   120 Figures S-1   Interactions of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs),   5 1-1   Interactions of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs),   24 2-1   Key Federal Agencies Addressing Animal Diseases,   36 Boxes S-1   Impacts from Recent Disease Events,   3 1-1   Study Overview and Statement of Task for Phase One,   17

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Animal Health at the Crossroads: Preventing, Detecting, and Diagnosing Animal Diseases 1-2   Animal Diseases Addressed in This Report,   19 1-3   General Terminology Used in This Report,   20 2-1   Components of the Animal Health Framework,   31 2-2   Examples of Evolving Technologies That Enhance Prevention, Detection, and Diagnosis,   46 2-3   Definitions of Level 3 Biocontainment Facilities in the Animal Health Framework,   59 3-1   Animal Diseases Addressed in This Chapter,   78 3-2   Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic in Great Britain in 2001,   86 3-3   Recent Emergence of Monkeypox in the United States,   89 3-4   Single Case of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Washington State,   92 3-5   The 2003 SARS Outbreak,   98 5-1   Examples of Preparedness, Prevention, and Detection Plan of Action,   136 5-2   Government/Industry/University Research Partnership,   141