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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science 4 Resources for Veterinary Research Veterinary research takes place in many venues and is supported by varied agencies, foundations, companies, and donors. Much of the research in veterinary science takes place in academic institutions, such as schools and colleges of veterinary medicine, agriculture, medicine, and biology. Research on diseases of food-producing animals, including poultry, occurs also in the US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service (ARS). Other entities include private industries, especially those committed to animal health and nutrition, and the medical pharmaceutical industry. Support for research comes from several federal agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and USDA; state governments; private foundations; public and privately held companies; and academic institutions. Some federal agencies support research through internal research programs and extramural research grants to investigators in academic institutions and other research organizations. USDA is especially noteworthy because it has a large internal research program in ARS and provides extramural research support via the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension System (CSREES). To a lesser extent, NIH, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Department of Defense (DOD), and other federal agencies also have both internal and external research programs in veterinary science. This chapter reviews the research capacity—such as infrastructure, expertise, human resources, education, and financial resources—that has been built for veterinary science at universities, zoological parks, government agencies, and some other institutions.
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science OVERARCHING RESOURCES The USDA CSREES maintains the Current Research Information System (CRIS), which compiles information on all funding sources used in agriculture, including those for such broad fields as animal systems and animal health and protection. USDA research agencies, state agricultural experiment stations (SAESs), state land-grant colleges and universities, state schools of forestry, cooperating schools and colleges of veterinary medicine, and USDA grant recipients at other institutions contribute information to CRIS. In 2003, research funding for animal systems (RPA 301-315) was close to $1 billion: the largest contributors of funding were the states and USDA (Table 4-1). However, the greatest TABLE 4-1 Source of Funds for Animal Systems Research in FY 1998-2003 as reported by Current Research Information System for 15 Fieldsa Source Funds (thousands) Fiscal Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 USDAb $104,760 $117,121 $122,219 $133,855 $144,408 $152,445 Other USDAc 10,682 11,004 12,970 18,856 22,878 23,713 CSREES ADMd 77,336 74,978 79,088 83,637 87,178 91,870 State funds 289,771 302,520 304,970 315,566 296,144 299,943 Other nonfederale 160,103 151,063 167,922 180,900 187,261 197,655 Other federalf 110,999 151,320 156,458 181,552 219,499 232,644 Total $753,651 $808,007 $843,627 $914,366 $957,368 $998,270 aCRIS reporting categories RPA 301-315 (reproduction, nutrition, genetics, animal genome, animal physiology, environmental stress, animal production and management, improved animal products, animal disease, external parasites and pests, internal parasites, toxicology, and animal welfare). bUSDA: regular USDA appropriations used for inhouse research by USDA research agencies and centers (excludes CSREES programs). (Form AD-418 field 131) cOther USDA: expenditure of funds received by SAESs and other cooperating institutions from contracts, grants, or cooperative agreement with one of the USDA research agencies other than CSREES. Identification of awarding agency is not collected. (Form AD-419 field number 219) dCSREES ADM: expenditure of formula and grant funds administered by CSREES and distributed to SAESs and other cooperating institutions (OCIs). Programs included are National Research Initiative, Hatch, McIntire-Stennis, Evans-Allen, Animal Health, Special Grants, Competitive Grants, Small Business Innovation Research Grants, and other CSREES grant programs. (Form AD-419 field 31) eOther nonfederal: expenditures by USDA agencies, SAESs, and OCIs of funds received from sources outside federal government, such as industry grants and sale of products (self-generated). fOther federal: expenditures by USDA agencies, SAESs and OCIs of funds received from federal sources outside USDA through contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements directly with other federal agencies. Sponsoring agencies may include National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, DOD, Agency for International Development, NIH, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Tennessee Valley Authority. (Form AD-418 field number 332 / Form AD-419 field number 332 minus field 219) SOURCE: USDA-CSREES.
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science TABLE 4-2 Funding of Research in FY 1999-2003 for Animal Systems, Food Safety, and Zoonoses as Reported by Current Research Information System Code and Research Subject 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 301 Reproductive performance $86,055 $85,758 $87,737 $90,751 $94,219 302 Nutrient use 80,981 88,822 97,706 98,526 94,129 303 Genetic improvement 49,031 49,082 51,930 55,018 60,459 304 Animal genome 16,088 26,268 26,417 37,081 46,778 305 Animal physiology 118,314 118,220 131,177 139,370 143,077 306 Environmental stress 18,460 19,615 18,943 17,879 20,042 368,929 387,765 413,910 438,625 458,704 311 Animal disease 302,338 313,703 348,745 369,125 379,650 312, 313 Parasites 33,037 34,362 34,283 36,657 36,594 314 Toxicology 24,836 23,926 25,886 26,348 31,472 315 Animal welfare 12,371 13,067 13,921 14,812 16,799 372,582 385,058 422,835 446,942 464,515 711 Food-product safety 16,228 13,689 15,769 19,321 22,630 712 Preventing food contamination 90,907 107,383 122,639 134,015 145,095 721 Insects and pests 19,774 20,615 22,783 25,648 27,740 722 Zoonotic diseases and parasites 7,090 8,220 9,705 10,550 14,350 723 Hazards to human health 17,178 18,743 23,269 29,709 37.186 151,177 168,659 194,165 219,243 247,001 SOURCE: USDA CSRESS CRIS. increase in funding (109%) from 1998 to 2003 was in the other federal category, and this indicates the growing importance of animal health research as it affects public health, bioterrorism mitigation, such basic science fields as ecology, laboratory animal medicine, and other nonagricultural fields of research. The $1 billion of funding in animal systems includes fields other than animal health and protection. Closer analysis suggests that direct funding for diseases, their agents, and their effects (RPA 311-315) is at a much lower level of $464 million and includes cross-cutting areas of zoonoses. Food safety accounts for an additional $247 million (Table 4-2). However, any of those three funding levels are lower than what is needed to solve animal health and protection problems. SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES OF VETERINARY MEDICINE There are 28 schools and colleges of veterinary medicine (CVMs) in the United States. Almost all are parts of major land-grant universities. The first CVM was founded in 1877, the youngest was founded in 1998 and admitted its first class in 2003. Because the youngest has been operating for less than 2 years, it was omitted from many of the resource analyses in the following sections. The mission of all every CVM includes teaching the art and science of veterinary medicine to professional students: providing postgraduate education
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science for graduate students, interns, residents, and practicing veterinarians; and advancing veterinary research. The CVMs operate teaching hospitals to provide clinical education for their professional students and referral resources for the practicing veterinary community. Many also operate field patient-care units to serve farms and ranches. Research is an important component of CVMs and is included as one of the points of evaluation in the accreditation process (AVMA, 2004b). The CVMs conduct much of the academically based veterinary research in the United States. Facilities and Infrastructure Facilities and infrastructure related to research in CVMs consist of buildings for classrooms, research laboratories, offices, and the like: barns and pastures; non-CVM support laboratories, such as laboratory animal facilities and central research service laboratories; libraries; diagnostic laboratories; and a variety of CVM and campus-based information-technology resources, such as super computers and electronic information management and exchange. Some CVMs have access to other, specialized research-support infrastructure, such as unique databases, computerized patient-record systems, and banks of specialized research materials (for example, tissue banks). Libraries constitute an important resource for veterinary research. Libraries range from large collections, such as the National Agricultural Library and the National Library of Medicine, to small collections in individual departments. Every university, many schools and colleges, many departments, and essentially all other research venues, such as research institutes and industry, have libraries. Collections can number in the millions and often extend back many decades or even several centuries. Those collections set new research into proper historical context and help to avoid duplication of work. In addition to collections of books and periodicals, all research libraries nowadays have electronic search capabilities and large collections of electronic data and publications. Librarians who are well trained and experienced in both conventional and electronic literature searches can develop extremely useful searches not only of the traditional peer-reviewed scientific literature, but also of Web sites and other on-line information sources that are invaluable in many research projects. Libraries are sometimes overlooked when funds for research resources and infrastructure are allocated. Estimating the size and adequacy of the facility infrastructure available to CVMs for research is difficult because some resources are not devoted solely to veterinary research. CVMs engage in multiple activities in addition to research, including teaching of professional students, clinical patient care, and diagnostic services. Perhaps because of the difficulty in defining resources dedicated to veterinary research, there is no centralized source of information on the size of the infrastructure of CVMs. Moreover, much of the research infrastructure listed above may be shared with other, nonveterinary research activities. For example,
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science libraries, animal housing, research laboratories and centralized facilities for such activities as electron microscopy, molecular sequencing, electronic data management, and statistical analyses are often shared with faculty outside the CVMs. There seem to be no data on the amount of research space available in CVMs. The only relevant data the committee could locate are in a survey conducted by the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). CVMs were asked to identify their needs for space and equipment to train an additional 241 veterinary students and 658 new graduate students (AAVMC, 2004). The results of the survey are summarized in Table 4-3. Separating infrastructure devoted to professional-student instruction from that for research is difficult. Although some facilities, such as classrooms, are used mostly for professional-student instruction, they also are often used for graduate-student instruction, research symposiums, and seminars. The same holds for teaching laboratories. CVMs reported that about 400 new faculty persons and about 2.25 million square feet of new and renovated research space would be needed for education and training of additional veterinary and graduate students. Laboratory equipment is another major category of research infrastructure, and obtaining data on this category is even more problematic. The best figure obtained was from the AAVMC survey of CVMs (AAVMC, 2004), which reported the need for about $37 million in one-time funds for equipment. The proportion of the proposed new equipment funds allocated for research is not known, and the numbers do not show the total amount, condition, or value of research equipment now available in CVMs. Every CVM provides some level of patient care as part of its clinical teaching program, and some CVMs have large patient populations, including access to large numbers of farm animals and horses through a variety of outreach programs (Table 4-4). Collectively, CVMs have over 10 million animal patients or patient visits a year (Table 4-4). However, not all patients are suitable for research programs, and owner consent is required. Clinical records can be useful resources if they are archived properly and kept in a uniform format that allows comparison and analysis. However, teaching TABLE 4-3 Infrastructure Needed for Colleges of Veterinary Medicine to Support 241 Additional Veterinary Students and 658 New Graduate Students Category New (gross square feet) Renovated (gross square feet) Classrooms 165,197 79,392 Teaching laboratories 188,714 106,932 Research laboratories 656,662 309,085 Faculty offices 147,216 44,086 BSL-3 laboratories 146,454 12,456 BSL-3 animal housing 336,743 58,700 Totals 1,640,986 610,651 SOURCE: AAVMC member survey, 2004.
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science TABLE 4-4 Total Patient Contacts by Faculty Members in All CVMs in 2002 Hospital Visits (Small Animal) or Animals Examined (Food Animals and Horses)a Animals Mean Median Range Total, All CVMs Small animals 12,700 12,000 4,500-27,700 354,500 Cattle 14,000 11,600 2,300-62,000 439,500 Swine 12,600 276 3-175,300 276,300 Horses 3,400 2,000 7-16,220 88,300 Poultry 342,000 353 2-8,152,000 8,890,000 aCVMs that did not examine animals of a given category were excluded in all cases. SOURCE: AAVMC, 2004. hospitals commonly maintain paper or electronic records in formats that are not easily interchangeable or manipulated. With the exception of the Veterinary Medical Database (www.vet.purdue.edu/depts/prog/vmdb.html), there are no national databases and no centralized records for patients or data on patients—such as radiographs, clinical laboratory data, or necropsy or biopsy data—as far as the committee is aware. A number of repositories or collections of material are sometimes available for research. For example, the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Department of Veterinary Pathology, housed at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC, maintains a large collection of lesions of domestic and some wild animals. The Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals is a collection of lower-vertebrate and invertebrate tumors at the George Washington University Medical Center in Washington, DC. Those collections can be considered as national databases because the centers accept material from the entire country and from around the world, but they do not represent the incidence or prevalence of diseases in domestic animals in the United States, because they rely on voluntary submissions. There is a recent effort to make all the clinical records from a large private practice’s database available to the research community (Wiese, 2003). That is a commendable effort, but it is still in its early stages, and insufficient time has elapsed to see whether successful collaborations can be sustained and expanded. Nonetheless, the collaborative effort illustrates the potential power of data-sharing among CVMs and large private practices. Many changes need to occur before veterinary researchers can take full advantage of the relatively large numbers of patients seen by CVM faculty members, and even more effort will be needed to involve the private-practice sector in research. Adding public and private diagnostic laboratories would further enhance the research value of clinical data. Some clinical research is conducted. Prospective and retrospective studies are carried out. Patients are entered into a variety of intrainstitutional or multicenter research protocols. Successful programs in which patients are screened for targeted diseases and entered into appropriate research programs have been main-
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science tained. Chemotherapy for malignant disease in small animals has been advanced greatly through multicenter trials (Vail et al., 1995). The multisite coordinated study of the so-called vaccine-site fibrosarcomas is another example of a successful clinically based research program (Morrison and Starr, 2001). Industry uses the unique expertise of CVM faculty and their access to patients to further the development of new and improved vaccines, pharmaceuticals, diets, and diagnostic tests. All those research and development projects could be enhanced and facilitated if there were more comprehensive national databases. Expertise and Human Resources A wide variety of both clinical and basic-science expertise is represented among about 2,665 full-time equivalent (FTE) faculty in the nation’s CVMs. The major research credential for veterinary researchers is the doctoral degree. In contrast with human-medicine researchers, who often prepare for research careers with non-degree-granting research fellowships, veterinary researchers are likely to have obtained advanced graduate degrees. Members of the clinical departments almost always have DVMs (or the equivalent). Most members have specialty certification, and many have master’s degrees. Veterinarians in basic-science departments are very likely to have PhDs and may or may not have specialty certification,1 depending on the subject-matter responsibilities of the department. In addition, many members of CVM faculties do not have DVMs, but almost all such persons have PhDs or the equivalent. The committee could not obtain quantitative data on the number of nonveterinary PhD scientists in the nation’s CVM faculties. The most recent data available are from the AAVMC Comparative Data Report for the academic year 1995-1996. The report shows that the 27 CVMs in existence at that time had a total of 2,303 faculty members (assistant professors and above), of whom 479 (21%), including 10 administrators, had PhDs without DVMs. On the basis of that information and the experience of many committee members with faculties of CVMs, the committee estimated that scientists with PhD degrees but without DVM degrees now constitute 20-35% of most CVM faculties, that is, about 530-930 FTEs nationwide. The majority of those scientists work in basic-science departments, and many engage in research. Indeed, nonveterinary PhD scientists form the heart of many basic-science research programs in many CVMs. About 25% of the full-time faculty of the nation’s schools and colleges of medicine have PhDs, or other health doctorates 1 The American Veterinary Medical Association lists 20 recognized veterinary specialty colleges that certify clinical specialization, but many include diplomates who engage in research. Examples of specialty colleges that have many diplomates engaged in research are the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, the American Board of Veterinary Toxicology, the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, and the American College of Veterinary Microbiologists.
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science such as in dentistry or veterinary medicine—without MDs (AAMC, 2001; AAVMC 2004.) Among the 2,665 FTE faculty in the nation’s CVMs, about 130 are administrators. The faculty receive some assistance, either with teaching or clinical patient care, from interns (about 177), nonclinical residents (about 70), and clinical residents (about 600), but interns and residents require supervision and assistance from faculty. Graduate students and postdoctoral researchers also contribute to the research programs and require supervision, assistance, and mentoring. The committee attempted to estimate how much time, on the average, faculty have for research, as opposed to formal teaching, patient care, student advising, committee work, and other professional commitments that make up academic life. Even when one includes as “research time” such important activities as informal teaching of graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in laboratories, journal clubs, seminars, research discussions and the like, it is unlikely that the estimated 2,665 FTE faculty have more than 50% of their time, on average, to devote to research. That suggests that the entire country has perhaps about 1,300 FTE faculty in schools and colleges of veterinary medicine available to conduct research in veterinary science. Given the heavy teaching and patient-care loads of many faculty (the veterinary student:faculty ratio is about 3.6:1 compared with the medical student:faculty ratio of about 0.63:1), the committee believes that, on the average, veterinary faculty have considerably less than 50% of their time available for research. Postdoctoral fellows also contribute substantially to research in CVMs. They bring their scientific experience and ideas and provide laboratory support for faculty, who have competing demands. Most postdoctoral fellows are supported by individual investigators’ research grants (Singer, 2004). Postdoctoral fellows as a human resource in CVMs cannot be quantified, because data are not available. Education A primary mission of all CVMs is education. In addition to educating students to become doctors of veterinary medicine, CVMs educate interns and residents, graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, and often undergraduate students. Some CVMs have large degree-granting undergraduate programs that are independent of the professional programs and have hundreds or thousands of enrollees. Continuing professional education for veterinarians and public outreach via extension or client education are provided by all CVMs. CVMs also serve as a general resource for the community for a broad variety of topics related to animals. Education of the scientific community via presentations at scientific meetings and publications in refereed literature is a fundamental responsibility of veterinary researchers. In 2003, 28 CVMs in the United States reported an enrollment of 9,587 students (2,270 men and 7,317 women) in the professional veterinary medical-
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science education programs leading to the DVM or VMD degree (AAVMC, 2003a; Appendix F). Of those, 2,308 were enrolled in the fourth year and thus expected to graduate in spring 2003, which is comparable with the numbers of graduates in the past several years. From 1995 to 2004, the number of professional students enrolled in CVMs increased by 733 and the number of full-time equivalent faculty increased by 448. Student/faculty ratio has remained steady at about 3.5 since 2001 (Appendix F). In the 2003 AAVMC report, CVMs reported graduating 1,882 students with bachelor of science (BSc) degrees,2 315 with master of science (MSc) degrees, and 284 doctor of philosophy (PhD) degrees. The committee is not aware of any sources of the numbers of students enrolled in degree-granting programs other than the professional and graduate curricula. Figures 4-1 and 4-2 show the data on graduate enrollment in CVMs in 1993 to 2000 and graduate degrees awarded in 1993 to 2003. (Data on enrollment are not available beyond 2000.) The number of US veterinarians and nonveterinarians enrolled in MS and PhD programs declined from 1993-1994 to 1994-1995 for unknown reasons. After that, enrollment in graduate programs remained steady, with a slight upward trend in non-DVMs and a slight downward trend in DVMs enrolled in MS and PhD programs. The enrollment numbers for foreign students remained more or less constant (Figure. 4-2). Foreign students constitute 31-35% of PhD students enrolled in CVMs. With the exception of 1996-1997, the number of PhD degrees awarded to US and foreign students increased, albeit somewhat irregularly, from 159 in 1993-1994 to a high of 318 in 2001-2002, followed by a decline to 284 in 2002-2003. The number of MS graduates followed a similar pattern (Figure 4-2). The gradual rise in the number of PhDs awarded coupled with decreases in DVMs seeking PhDs and the increase in non-DVMs enrolled in PhD programs suggests that fewer DVMs are earning PhDs now than a decade ago (Freeman, 2005; NRC, 2004b). Because of the length of time required and the attendant costs, most veterinarians do not continue their research education with postdoctoral experience. In contrast, researchers who are nonveterinarians commonly spend 2 years or more as postdoctoral fellows. Typically, veterinarians can expect to spend 3-4 years in a general undergraduate curriculum, 4 years in a school or college of veterinary medicine, and 4-5 years to obtain a PhD. The time for postgraduate training may also include preparation for a specialty certification. Those who do not obtain DVMs can go directly from undergraduate to graduate programs and may then pursue postdoctoral training. Thus, the time required for a veterinarian to obtain a DVM and a PhD is comparable with the time required for a nonveterinarian to obtain a PhD plus postdoctoral training. However, the cost to the person may differ substantially because the high tuition fees of veterinary school are rarely 2 Some CVMs routinely offer qualified students enrolled in the professional curricula the opportunity to obtain a BSc as part of their professional educational program so that veterinary students who are also earning BSc degrees may be counted twice.
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science FIGURE 4-1 Number of US and foreign graduate students enrolled in colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States, 1993-2000. Veterinarians (DVMs) in MS and PhD programs include those with or without concurrent enrollment in residency programs. SOURCE: Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges.
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science FIGURE 4-2 Number of MS and PhD degrees awarded to US and foreign students by colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States, 1993–2003. SOURCE: Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. offset by scholarships or training stipends. Most veterinarians and nonveterinarians obtain at least partial financial support for graduate and postdoctoral training. Veterinarians often find themselves facing substantial debt at the end of graduate school. Many opt to enter their research careers directly instead of pursuing postdoctoral training, which allows a scientist to mature and become an independent investigator. A postdoctoral researcher has an opportunity to get research experience as a semiautonomous investigator, obtain a research grant relatively independently, and perhaps most important, establish a network of contacts and collaborators that often lasts throughout one’s career. In fact, many believe that the major debt owed by veterinarians at the end of the professional curriculum is a substantial deterrent to their even considering graduate education (Freeman, 2005). The mean educational debt of 2004 graduates reporting debt was $81,052, and 76.9% of new graduates had incurred debt of $40,000 or more. Some 91% of the mean debt of 2004 graduating veterinarians was incurred while they were enrolled in CVMs (Shepherd, 2004). In 2004, 1,814 (81.5%) of 2,225 new graduates of 26 of the 27 CVMs responded to an American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) survey about their employment and career choices. Among the 1,391 respondents who answered the question, 358 (25.7%) were entering advanced-study programs (Shep-
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science Educational Resources Training in CDC is centered in EIS fellowships and graduate stipends that support veterinarians. EIS offers a 2-year postgraduate intensive program of training for health professionals in epidemiology and public health for 60-80 physicians, veterinarians, and doctoral-degree professionals in related fields. Veterinarians applying to the program must have a master of public health or equivalent degree or have demonstrated public-health experience or course work. A review of EIS alumni records from a the period 1951 through 2002 revealed that veterinarians made up 195 of 2,629 EIS officers, only 7% (Pappaioanou et al. 2003) (Figure 4-11 and Table 4-17). The mean percentage of veterinarians in EIS classes each year was 6.7% (range, 0-29.7%). The type of veterinarians accepted into EIS has changed over 51 years in several ways: The first veterinary EIS officer in a minority group was accepted in 1971, and the proportion in minority groups increased to 15% during 2000-2002. The proportion of veterinarians having one or more graduate degrees increased from 15% in 1951-1959 to 88% during 1990-1999. Assignments of students after completion of the course has shifted from 64% assigned to state health departments in 1950-1959 (with 27% to regional rabies or general field stations and 9% to headquarters positions) to 62% assigned to headquarters positions in 1990-1999 (38% to state health departments). Veterinarians entering directly from veterinary school decreased from 64% during 1951-1959 to 3% during 1990-1999. In the 1990s, 18 (26%) of veterinarians entering the EIS program came from FIGURE 4-11 Veterinarians and nonveterinarians participating in Epidemic Intelligence Service program, 1951–2004. SOURCE: Pappaioanou et al. 2003.
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science TABLE 4-17 Veterinarians in Epidemic Intelligence Service,: 1951–2004. Decade 1951–59 1960–69 1970–79 1980–89 1990–99 2000–01 Number of veterinarians 33 34 13 33 69 29 CDC: Infectious disease 2 5 9 11 30 14 CDC: Environment — 1 — 7 6 5 CDC: Other 1 8 2 3 7 — Regional field post 9 3 — — — — State health department 21 7 2 12 26 10 SOURCE: Pappaioanou et al. 2003. a post-DVM-graduate degree program, 13 (19%) from academic positions, 25 (36%) from positions with the federal government, five (7%) from state or local government, four (6%) from clinical practice, and one (1%) from a nongovernment organization. To increase trained epidemiologists, APHIS signed an agreement with the EIS program at CDC in 1984 that dedicated two positions each year for veterinarians who would return to APHIS for employment. Similar programs were arranged for the Air Force and Army in 1994; and in 2001 USDA signed a similar agreement with FSIS. The number of veterinarians in CDC’s Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has grown since 2001. In August 2002, there were 75 veterinarians, of whom 42 (56%) were graduates of the EIS program. Eleven veterinarians held program-management positions, one was a division director, four were associate directors of divisions or offices, and four were branch chiefs (Pappaioanou, et al. 2003 p. 389, col. 1, par. 5). Of the 118 veterinarians that entered the EIS in the period 1977-2000, 84 are employed by federal, state, or local government agencies (Pappaioanou et al. 2003). Of the 69 veterinarians that entered federal employment, most work with CDC (30), USDA (16), and DOD (10); the remainder work in FDA, NIH, the DHHS Office of the Secretary, and the Environmental Protection Agency. State agencies employed 22 veterinarians, and three are in local agricultural or health departments. Sixteen post-EIS veterinarians are employed in nongovernment positions: academic programs seven, industry three, and nonprofit organizations six (Pappaioanou et al. 2003). Under the CDC program of emerging-infectious-disease laboratory fellowships, college graduates are recruited for 1-year assignments and postdoctoral scientists for 2-year assignments in public-health laboratories. The intramural program is effective and responsive to national needs. CDC has an established competitive-grants program that is open to veterinary scientists in the United States; it emphasizes zoonotic disease, food safety, occupational health, parasitic disease, global health, and laboratory animal medicine. In the professional curriculum, core courses in veterinary public health, epidemiology, and preventive medicine vary widely among veterinary schools in the United
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science States. Veterinary schools with specific courses indicate a median of 60 hours in these disciplines with contact time ranging from 30 to 150 hours; advanced training was available in the subjects at 79% of 27 schools in 2004 (Riddle et al., 2004). There is a consensus that high-quality postgraduate training is the key to increasing the supply of veterinarians and veterinary scientists in the biomedical-sciences workforce (NRC 2004a) and that the absence of commitment by CVMs, which do not prepare veterinary students adequately for careers in other than private clinical practice, should be corrected by changes in recruitment of applicants and in curricula (NRC 2004a). Financial Resources for Research CDC has direct appropriations from the federal budget directed to the mission of regulatory public health, but research on risk-analysis systems, on models of disease, and in other applied fields is critical to its mission. Financial resources for collaborative programs directed by CDC come from several sources. The Laboratory Response Network is a classified system of laboratories with diagnostic capabilities that are dedicated to identification and confirmation of specialized agents useful to bioterrorists. At least 75% of category A infectious agents are zoonotic so strategies to control and prevent disease must include the expanded databases on animal disease that are available from the National Animal Health Laboratory Network and other veterinary diagnostic systems. Two surveillance projects are dedicated to food safety: FoodNet, a network of CDC, USDA, FDA, and nine state institutions; and PulseNet, an international network of public-health laboratories for typing and electronic database comparisons of foodborne bacteria (King 2003). Veterinary institutions’ access to and participation in collaborative surveillance projects is critical, and field research is essential for currency in these programs. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DOD uses animals in research, development, testing, and evaluation programs critical to military operations in defense of our national interests (Box 4-1). Most research programs are directed to health protection of forces operating in various hazardous environments around the world. Development of vaccines, drugs, and therapies for protection of service members and their families has high priority. Other high-priority activities are improved medical care of battlefield casualties and defense against chemical and biological warfare. At the end of the cold war, Congress directed DOD to oversee medical research benefiting the civilian population. As a result, considerable research is directed toward breast, prostaic, and ovarian cancer and other important human diseases. However, most of that research is done through an extramural program of DOD. Animal research programs not directly related to human health include the study of hazard sensors, of learning and memory, and of improved use of working animals, including dogs
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science BOX 4-1 End Points of DOD Directed Animal Research Clinical Investigations Development and testing of HIV vaccines. Better understanding of the development, diagnosis, and treatment of colon carcinomas. Identification of induced antibody responses to vaccine development. Treatment and prevention of hemorrhagic shock. Treatment of acute lung injury. Treatment of advanced prostaic cancer. Treatment and prevention of neuropsychiatric disorders. Determination of active mechanisms affecting altered fluid handling in alcohol exposure. Skin transplantation. Medical Development and evaluation of malaria vaccines. Antigen detection during vaccine development. Development of meningococcal and anthrax vaccines. Mechanisms of dermal tissue damage during lesion development. Methods for inducing controlled hypothermia. Evaluation of acute effects of laser exposure. Mechanisms of occupational and chronic fatigue. Quantification of munitions compound toxicity on wildlife. Development of lymphoma. Blast overpressure exposures. Development of active topical skin protectants against chemical-warfare agents. Determination of molecular mechanisms, detection, and treatment of breast, prostaic, and ovarian cancers and neurofibromatosis. Nonmedical Updating of national and international laser safety standards. Identification of environmental and human health risks. Developing methods and technologies for toxicity testing. Developing preventive measures for environmental toxins. Developing biomonitoring systems. Evaluating toxic hazards of occupational chemical exposure. Training. Graduate medical training. Training of surgical residents in critical skills. Advanced trauma life-support and medical-emergency training. Veterinary personnel medical-emergency training. Training for research and animal care personnel to improve handling techniques and protocol procedure performance. SOURCE: DOD 2001
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science and marine mammals. Veterinarians are essential to all components of this work in both principal-investigator and support roles. Infrastructure According to the DOD Animal Use Profiles, the US Army accounts for about 45% of DOD intramural animal use, the Navy 30%, the Air Force 5%, and other DOD 20%. Total animal use by DOD declined by about 40% from 1994 to 1996 and has since remained steady (DOD, 2001). All intramural DOD laboratories engaging in animal research are accredited by the American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care. Telephone interviews with veterinary officers in all branches of the service revealed a general satisfaction with the animal research infrastructure, given the current scope of biomedical research conducted in the military. Expertise Most veterinarians involved in research in DOD are board-certified in laboratory animal medicine or pathology or have the PhD degrees in physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, or microbiology, reflecting their research leadership and support roles in the various DOD programs. The US Army employs 418 veterinarians (R.G. Webb, Veterinary Corps Branch, personal communication, March 31, 2005), more than any other uniformed service. Of them, 29 are diplomates in laboratory animal medicine, 29 are diplomates in veterinary pathology, and 19 are DVM-PhDs. Human Resources AVMA’s Veterinary Market Statistics (AVMA 2004c) show 474 veterinarians employed in the uniformed services as of December 2004. We were unable to determine the number of veterinarians involved in investigator or support roles in research, nor to determine the number of nonveterinarians contributing to animal research programs. Financial Resources Financial resources for medical research and related nonmedical research are relatively unchanged in recent years and have been directed mostly toward chemical and biological defense and naturally occurring infectious disease. Thus, animal use will continue to be important in DOD. Research for the improvement of human health with animal models suggests a continued need for veterinarian involvement, although veterinary research for the sake of animals will probably not be a major focus in DOD.
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION “The mission of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is, in part, to protect the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices. The FDA is also responsible for advancing the public health by helping to speed innovations that make medicines more effective, safer, and more affordable; and helping the public get the accurate, science-based information they need to use medicines to improve their health” (FDA, 2004). Organizational Structure of FDA FDA is organized into eight main offices and centers—the Office of the Commissioner, Office of Regulatory Affairs, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), and National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR). CVM is the most relevant to this study. Some other centers also conduct veterinary research, but it is not their main focus. For example, many research programs NCTR use animal models to assess the toxicity and carcinogenic risk associated with specific products, such as drugs, cosmetics, biologics, food, and veterinary products. NCTR, in conjunction with CVM, is also studying antimicrobial resistance in relation to food-producing and non-food-producing animals. However, tearing apart research in those centers that is peculiar to veterinary science would be impossible. Therefore, this discussion focuses on the CVM. CVM is a consumer-protection organization whose core functions include animal-drug review, compliance-related actions, postapproval monitoring, and animal-feed safety. The staff are organized into five offices: the Office of the Director, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation, Office of Surveillance and Compliance, Office of Management, and Office of Research. The Office of Research conducts basic and applied research in broad fields of analytical chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, immunology, microbiology, animal nutrition, and residue chemistry to support regulatory decision-making by the CVM (FDA, 2004). Infrastructure The Office of Research is housed in a state-of-the-art research complex consisting of offices, laboratories, animal facilities, and animal pastures in Laurel, MD. The facilities include radioactive laboratory, mass-spectrometry laboratory, analytical-instrument rooms, and animal-research buildings that can accommodate beef cattle, lactating dairy cattle, calves, swine, sheep, dogs, poultry, and a variety of aquatic species (FDA, 2001).
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science TABLE 4-18 Annual Budget of Office of Research in the Center of Veterinary Medicine of the Food and Drug Administration, FY 2001–FY 2005 Fiscal Year Budget for Premarket Research Budget for Postmarket Research Total 2001 $2,816,201 $5,466,743 $8,282,944 2002 3,102,544 6,022,585 9,125,129 2003 2,977,380 5,779,620 8,757,000 2004 2,666,620 5,176,380 7,843,000 2005 2,728,500 5,296,500 8,025,000 Educational Resources The CVM initiated its Student Summer Internship Program in 1997. The program provides training with a stipend to undergraduate, graduate, and professional students with the goal of stimulating the students’ interests in pursuing careers important to the center. About 70 interns have participated in the program since its initiation. Financial Resources for Research Because the Center of Veterinary Medicine’s role includes research and other regulatory activities, the committee discusses only the budget of its Office of Research, which bears direct relevance to veterinary research. In support of the premarket or drug-review function of FDA, the Office of Research conducts studies in standardization of test methods, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and antibiotic resistance. The office develops analytical methods and evaluates screening tests for detection of drug residues in imported and domestic food products. It also conducts postapproval monitoring of retail meats for drug-resistant foodborne pathogens under the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System and molecular typing of those pathogens as part of the national PulseNet program. The budget of the Office of Research for FY 2001-FY 2005 is shown in Table 4-18. In addition to in-house research, the Center of Veterinary Medicine funds a small number of extramural grants and cooperative agreements; this funding has been declining in the last 5 years (Table 4-19). NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NSF, an independent agency of the government, was established in 1951. Its mission is “to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense.” Unlike CDC, FDA, and USDA, NSF does not conduct laboratory research, but it initiates and supports scientific and engineering research through grants and contracts. NSF is structured as seven disciplinary directorates: Biological Sciences; Computer, Information Science and Engineering; Education and Human Re-
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science TABLE 4-19 Extramural Grants and Cooperative Agreements Funded by Center of Veterinary Medicine, FY 2000–FY2005 Fiscal Year Number of Grants and Cooperative Agreements 2000 10 2001 8 2002 8 2003 4 2004 3 sources; Engineering; Geosciences; Mathematics and Physical Sciences; and Social, Behavior and Economic Sciences. Although the Directorate for Biological Sciences may be the most relevant to veterinary research, other directorates may also provide funding for veterinary research. For example, the Directorate for Engineering supports research in biomedical engineering. The Directorate for Education funds the Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) program, which aims to develop models of graduate education and training that emphasize collaborative research among multiple disciplines (Box 4-2). Veterinary researchers can also seek funding from other crosscutting programs that span the NSF directorates (Zamer, 2005). BOX 4-2 An Opportunity for Development of Scientific Expertise Needed in Veterinary Science Research “The Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) program [was] initiated in 1997 and [comprised about] 125 award sites [in 2004]. The IGERT program has been developed to meet the challenges of educating U.S. Ph.D. scientists, engineers, and educators with the interdisciplinary backgrounds, deep knowledge in chosen disciplines, and technical, professional, and personal skills to become in their own careers the leaders and creative agents for change. The program is intended to catalyze a cultural change in graduate education, for students, faculty, and institutions, by establishing innovative new models for graduate education and training in a fertile environment for collaborative research that transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries. It is also intended to facilitate greater diversity in student participation and preparation, and to contribute to the development of a diverse, globally-engaged science and engineering workforce. “IGERT is an NSF-wide endeavor involving the Directorates for Biological Sciences (BIO), Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE), Education and Human Resources (EHR), Engineering (ENG), Geosciences (GEO), Mathematical and Physical Sciences (MPS), Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences (SBE), the Office of Polar Programs (OPP), and the Office of International Science and Engineering (INT). SOURCE: NSF, 2004.
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science TABLE 4-20 Awards by Each Agency under joint NIH-NSF Program in Ecology of Infectious Diseases, FY 2000–2004 Awardsa FY 2000 FY 2002 FY 2003 FY 2004 Awards by FICb 3 2 3 2 1 0 0 0 Awards by NIEHSc 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 Awards by NIAIDd 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Awards by NSFe 5 3 7 3 7 1 6 4 Total 12 11 8 6 aNumbers in right column under each fiscal year numbers of awards that involve veterinarians. bFogarty International Center, NIH. cNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH. dNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH. eNSF. SOURCE: J. Rosenthal, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health and NSF 2004. In FY 2000, NSF and NIH announced the multiyear interagency program on ecology of infectious diseases. Because many emerging diseases are zoonoses or vector-borne diseases and many are linked to environmental changes, the agencies recognized that a concerted effort among experts in different disciplines was needed to understand the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. The mission of the program is to develop predictive models for the dynamics of infectious diseases. The program has funded 37 interdisciplinary research projects in FY 2000-2004, many of which involve veterinarians (Table 4-20). It has brought together researchers in different disciplines (for example, veterinarians, ecologists, and virologists) and illustrates the benefits of interdisciplinary studies and interagency coordination. Although NSF supports research on animals in various programs, it does not support research with disease-related goals, nor research on animal models for studying diseases or testing of drugs. Some veterinary researchers are supported by NSF awards, but no NSF program is targeted to veterinary science (Zamer, 2005). In FY 2002-2003, 16 of the 28 CVMs reported collective expenditures of about $3.5 million on 48 research projects supported by NSF. Most of the CVMs expending NSF funds had one or two projects supported by NSF, and one reported that it had 14 NSF-funded projects. Amounts of NSF funds expended at individual CVMs ranged from below $5,000 to over $770,000. Because NSF does not track the number and amount of grants awarded for veterinary research, the committee cannot assess the trends of NSF funding for veterinary research (S. Scheiner, The National Science Foundation, personal communication on July 12, 2004).
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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science PRIVATE-SECTOR RESEARCH RESOURCES The private sector conducts considerable research in veterinary science, but the resources, specific activities, and outcomes are not easily determined. Private businesses do not release much of the information that is available on the other research venues discussed. Nevertheless, the animal health and human pharmaceutical and biologics industries, companies that manufacture feeds and pet foods, private animal diagnostic laboratories, contract animal research laboratories, laboratory animal suppliers, and other private enterprises are major participants. The Animal Health Institute (AHI), an organization that represents 16 manufacturers of animal health products, reported that its members spent $516 million in 2003 and about $511 million in 2002 on R&D for products registered or intended for registration in the United States. Large portions of those funds ($439 million in 2003) were directed toward development of new products and the remainder to further studies of existing products. About $65 and $72 million were directed to studies outside the companies’ internal R&D budgets in 2002 and 2003, respectively (Animal Health Institute, 2004). It is not known what proportion of the reported expenditures was directed to CVMs or other academic entities. Other companies are active in animal health research but are not members of AHI. The human-pharmaceutical industry spends billions on research, but the amount that is related to research in veterinary science is not known. Some products originally intended for application in human beings become useful for animals instead. In addition, many of the drugs used regularly in companion-animal veterinary practice are directly from human-drug formularies. Private veterinary diagnostic laboratories are potential sources of research data because they receive many tissue and clinical laboratory samples from veterinary patients, especially companion animals. Research on animal nutrition is conducted by companies that produce pet foods, nutritional supplements, and other animal feeds. Indeed, considerable research on nutrition of companion animals is conducted by pet-food companies. Suppliers of laboratory animals conduct research on the genetics, nutrition, and welfare of laboratory animals. Private foundations support research laboratories that conduct animal research. Some contract research laboratories also conduct animal research. However, the committee was unable to quantify any of the resources devoted to those activities because of lack of data.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: