Spacecraft Access and Special Regions,

 

63

   

 Summary,

 

63

   

 References,

 

64

5

 

EXPANDING OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE LIMITS OF LIFE ON EARTH

 

69

   

 Modern Views of Microbial Diversity,

 

69

   

 Modern Technology and Microbial Ecology,

 

70

   

 Organisms at the Limits of Life,

 

72

   

 Life in Extreme Environments,

 

73

   

 Probability of Growth on Mars,

 

84

   

 Summary,

 

85

   

 References,

 

86

6

 

ADVANCES IN TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIFE DETECTION AND BIOBURDEN REDUCTION

 

91

   

 Examples of Methods for Assessing Total Viable Cell Count,

 

91

   

 Examples of Methods for Estimating Biodiversity,

 

94

   

 Methods for Reducing Bioburden,

 

99

   

 Summary,

 

102

   

 References,

 

103

7

 

ASSESSING NONLIVING CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN

 

105

   

 Types of Contaminants,

 

106

   

 Determination of Acceptable Levels of Contamination,

 

108

   

 Summary,

 

109

   

 References,

 

109

8

 

A PATH FORWARD FOR PLANETARY PROTECTION IN THE 21st CENTURY

 

111

   

 Expanding the Purpose of Planetary Protection: Safeguarding of Indigenous Life as Well as Protection of Mission Science?,

 

112

   

 Programmatic Support,

 

112

   

 Needed Research and Reconnaissance,

 

115

   

 Transition to a New Approach,

 

117

   

 Interim Requirements,

 

118

   

 References,

 

123

9

 

TRANSITION PROCESS AND TIME LINE

 

124

   

 Approach,

 

124

   

 Implementation Time Line,

 

126

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

   

A  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff

 

131

   

B  Recommendations from Two Previous NRC Reports on Forward Contamination

 

135

   

C  Summary of Procedures Currently Used to Assess Bioburden in Spacecraft Assembly Clean Rooms and on Spacecraft

 

138

   

D  History of Recommended Values for Probability of Growth

 

140

   

E  Approaches to Bioburden Reduction for Lander Missions to Mars

 

141

   

F  Ambiguities in Geomorphic Interpretation: Martian Gullies

 

144

   

G  Spacecraft Propellant and By-Products as Potential Contaminants

 

148

   

H  Acronyms and Abbreviations

 

152



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