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Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security Appendix I National Immunization Calendar of the Russian Federation Age Infections Newborns (0–12 hours after birth) Viral Hepatitis B (1st vaccination) Newborns (3–7 days) Tuberculosis (vaccination) 1 month Viral Hepatitis B (2nd vaccination) 3 months Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio (1st vaccination) 4.5 months Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio (2nd vaccination) 6 months Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio (3rd vaccination) Viral Hepatitis B (3rd vaccination) 12 months Measles, Rubella, Mumps (vaccination) 18 months Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio (1st revaccination) 20 months Polio (2nd revaccination 6 years Measles, Rubella, Mumps (revaccination) 7 years Diptheria, Tetanus (2nd revaccination) Tuberculosis (1st revaccination) 13 years Rubella (vaccination for girls) Viral Hepatitis B (vaccination) 14 years Diptheria, Tetanus (3rd revaccination) Tuberculosis (2nd revaccination) Adults Diptheria, Tetanus (revaccination every 10 years after the last revaccination)
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Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security Comments: National Calendar Immunizations can be provided by domestically and internationally produced vaccines that are registered and have obtained permission for use by approved order. For newborns whose mothers are HbsAg carriers or hepatitis B patients at the third trimester of pregnancy immunization against viral hepatitis B is carried out by the scheme “0-1-2-12 months.” Vaccination against viral hepatitis B at the age of 13 is for those who were not immunized earlier. Vaccination against rubella is carried out at the age of 13 for girls who were not immunized earlier or received only one vaccination. Revaccination against tuberculosis is for children who are not infected with tuberculosis. Revaccination against tuberculosis at the age of 14 is carried out for children who are not infected with tuberculosis and didn’t receive immunization at the age of 7. Vaccines used in accordance with the National Immunization Calendar can be injected simultaneously with various syringes in various places on the body. Two Key Challenges in National Calendar Implementation: Lack of hepatitis B vaccines in practice. At the first stage of the immunization program in the Russian Federation alone, demand could reach $50 million and Russian Federation Health authorities (both federal and local) are capable of providing not more than $20 million. This is the reason for restricting vaccinations against hepatitis B to risk groups of the population (such as for newborns whose mothers are HbsAg carriers, infants from orphanages, children with family members who are HbsAg carriers, adolescents between the ages of 11 and 17). All others must be vaccinated at their own expense, or at the expense of local budgets, insurance companies, enterprises, etc. The absence of locally-produced vaccines against rubella, as well as combined MMR preparations. Newer vaccines, such as those for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Herpes zoster have existed for years, but are not incorporated into RF immunization programs. Thus children born every year will not be adequately protected against vaccine-preventable diseases. SOURCE: Ministry of Health and Social Development, provided fall 2004.
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